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DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION

AND

RELATIV INDEX

by Melvil Dewey A M LL D

EDITION 14

REVISED AND ENLARGED

VOLUME I: TABLES

FOREST PRESS INC

LAKE PLACID CLUB ESSEX COUNTY N Y

19 4 2

Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index

Copyryt by

Melvil Dewey
1876, 1885, igii, 1913, 1915. 1919
Library Bureau
1888, 1891. 1894. 1899
Lake Placid Club Education Foundation
1922, 1927, 1932, 1942

Modifying D C numbers

Confuzion and annoyance to thousands of uzers cauzd by printing unauthorized
variations force the publishers to insist strictly on f ul copyryt protection. Every library
and individual uzer has, however, entire freedom to make such variations as he thinks
he needs, under the simpl restrictions found necesary to protect the ryts of others.
See p. 35 2 -38', Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions.

Note on spelling of Ed 14

In response to the exprest sentiment of many D C users, the Decimal Classifica-
tion Committee voted 16 May 1941 to adopt conventional spelling for the index of Ed 14.
In deference to the lifelong convictions of the author, however, his statements regard-
ing simpler spelling are reprinted in this edition without alteration. Statements
regarding D C usage wil be understood, therefore, as applying to Tables and prefatory
matter, but not to Index of Ed 14 ^

EXPLANATION

This Clasification divides knowlej into 9 main clases numberd 1 to 9.
Cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to belong to no one of these
clases ar markt o (naught) and form a 10th clas. Each clas is similarly
separated into 9 divisions, jeneral works belonging to no division having
o in place of division number. Divisions ar similarly divided into 9 sec-
tions. This process is repeated as often as necesary. Thus 512 means
clas 5 (Pure syence), division 1 (Mathematics), section 2 (Aljebra), and
every aljebra is numberd 512.

Books on shelvs and cards in a clast catalog ar arranjed in simpl numeric
order, all clas numbers being regarded as decimals. These Tables sho
order of subjects. Thus 5 1 2 Aljebra follows 5 1 1 Arithmetic and precedes
513 Jeometry. Since each subject has a definit number, all books on any
subject stand together.

Summaries 1st summary shows the 10 clases. 2d shows the 9 divisions
of each clas, and is useful as a i-paje birdseye view of whole skeme. Then
folio 10 pajes, 1 for each clas, giving the 9 sections of each of its 9 divisions,
and showing scope of the clas on a singl paje.

Tables These 3 summaries ar followd by ful Clasification Tables,
which present in numeric order all clases, divisions, sections and sub-
sections. Sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and cachwords
ar often aded to simpl heds to giv fuller and clearer idea of scope of each
number. Therefore all references to numbers shud be lookt up in ful
Tables, never in Summaries, which ar in effect a contents table of the
ful Clasification.

Index After the Tables an alfabetic Index of all heds givn in Tables
refers by clas number of each to its exact place in Tables. This Index
includes also sinonims and many other entries likely to help a reader
find his subject eazily. Even a uzer who knows just where to turn to his
subject in Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be put on trak of valuabl
allyd matter which he wud otherwize overlook.

Ful explanations Ilustrations and suggestions for numerus applications
of this sistem, and ful explanations of its nemonic and other important
features ar givn in the Introduction on following pajes.

Supplementary tables Following the Relativ Index are 4 Supplementary
tables giving lists of (1) subjects, with clas number of each, which may be
subdivided geografically ; (2) form divisions, which may be applied thruout
the main Tables as needed; (3) languages, with their clas numbers, which
may be further subdivided by adding figures given in Supplementary
table 4; and literatures, with their clas numbers, which may be sub-
divided by adding numbers for literary forms as given under English
literature ; (4) philologic divisions, with figures to be added in subdividing
any language in Supplementary table 3.

(x)

CONTENTS

Page

EXPLANATION i

FOREWORD TO EDITION 14 7-8

INTRODUCTION 9-48

Description . 9-23

Orijin and growth ........ 9-10

Extent of use ........ 10-11

What is the sistem ? . . . . . . .11

Notation . . . . . . . .12

Best known decimal form . . . . . .12

Relativ Subject Index ....... 12-14

What Relativ Index includes . . . . . .14

Explanation of tables ....... 14-15

Coordination . . . . . . . .16

New subjects ........ 16

Choice and arranjement of heds . . . . .16

Sequence of ally d subjects . . . . . .16

Cachtitles ......... 16-17

Form distinctions . . . . . . . 1 7

Minute clasing ........ 17-18

Tentativ tables ........ 18-19

Nemonics ......... 19-20

Decimalism ......... 20-21

Relativ location ........ 21-23

Sizes on shelvs ........ 23

Catalogs .......... 23-24

Name catalog ........ 23

Shelflist ......... 23

Clast catalog ........ 23-24

Dictionary catalog . . . . . . . .24

Shelvs .......... 24

Shelflist ......... 24

Accession book ........ 24-25

Pamflets ..... .... 25

Sale duplicates . . . . . . . .25

Charjing sistem . . . . . . . .25

Subject references ........ 25-26

Arabic numerals . . . . . . . .26

Endowment of special departments ..... 26-27

Summary . . . ... . . -27

(ft)

4 DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Page

Sugjestions to uzers ........ 27-33

Numeration ......... 27

Plan of Tables 27

Index ........ 47-28

Familiarity with Clarification ...... 28

How to find subject of book ...... 28-29

Assyning clas numbers ....... 29-3 1

Number of figures uzed in clas number . . . -31

Bilding numbers ........ 31-32

Book numbers ........ 32-33

Variations practicabl ........ 33-40

Cautions . . . . . . . . . .34

Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions . . 35-38

Fiction . . . . . . 35

Juvenils 35-36

Biografy . ' 36

Paralel libraries ....... 36-37

Combining languaj and literature . ... . 37

Reference library . . . . . . 37

Contractions for specialists . . . . . -38

Alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions . . . 38-39

Broken order ........ 39

Pro and con division of topics ...... 39-40

Bibliografic modifications . . . ... . 40-43

Accretion syn +•••••••• 41

Cupling syn - ........ 41

Relation syn : ........ 41-42

Form syn (o) ........ 42

Universality syn °o ....... 42

Place syn (3M9) 42

Languaj syn = ........ 42

Time syn " " ........ 42

Jeneral points of view syn 00 . . . . . .42

A to Z 42

Sequence of syns ........ 43

Other uses ......... 43-45

Bookstores . . . . . . . . 43

Offis files ......... 43-44

Scrapbooks ......... 44

Index rerums ........ 44-45

Topical indexes ........ 45

Separates ......... 45-46

Aknowlejments ........ 46-48

Future of D C 48

CONTENTS 5

Page

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS AND RULES 4 q-6 3
Reazons .......... 49-56

Disgrace of present usaj . . . . . -51

Criminal waste of money . . . . . .51

skool time . . . . . .51

English as world languaj ....... 52-53

Disregard of pedants rules ....... 53-54

Consistency ......... 54

Conciseness ......... 54-55

Can it be dun? ......... 55—56

Rules .......... 56-63

N E A 12 words ........ 57

Simplifyd Speling Board 30 words . . . . -57

alfabetic rules .... 57-59

18 rules ..... 59 60

Aded rules uzed in D C ....... 60-61

U S Jeografic Board rules ...... 62

Filolojists 10 joint rules ....... 62-63

Sugjestions ......... 63

[NDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND SIMPLER SPELING 65-67

6 DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

TABLES AND INDEX

Volume i : Tables

First summary: the 10 main classes .
Second " the 100 main divisions

Third " the iooo sections

Tables of subsections of General works

Philosophy .

Religion

Social sciences

Philology .

Pure science .

Useful arts .

Fine arts

Literature .

History

Volume 2 : Relativ Index

Page

Explanatory note to the Relativ Index 1133-36

Abbreviations used in Index and Supplementary Tables . 1136-38

Relativ Index 1 139-1876

Table of topics divided geographically 1876-79

uniform subdivisions 1880-87

languages and literatures 1888-90

philologic divisions 1891-92

' Universal Decimal Classification ', Systematic Botany . 1893-1927

1 page

1 1

10 pages
«

39
70

25
122

1 1
in
270
164

48
184

FOREWORD TO EDITION 14

Dorkas Fellows died on October 10, 1938. She had been largely
^sponsible for the memorial edition of the D C which was published in
1932. Her incapacity for service during her later years and her death,
following that of Dr Melvil Dewey on December 26, 1931, brought to
a close some of the policies and practices which had guided the revision
of this monumental work.

The Lake Placid Club Education Foundation has always considered
the D C an instrument of service to libraries, and to all persons interested
in the organization and use of knowledge. It has not been a money
making enterprise, tho it has, fortunately, received enough income to
enable the work of revision to go on. In 1937 the Foundation desired
to place the control of the work on a continuing basis involving not only
its own membership but the Library profession. Accordingly, plans were
devised for the creation of a new Committee to be in charge of the
D C. That Committee, as then appointed, consisted of the following
persons:

Milton James Ferguson, Chairman

Arthur E Bestor .

Godfrey Dewey

T Harvey Ferris

Harriet D MacPherson

Ruth D McCollough

Margaret Mann

Deo B Colburn, Secretary

The professional members of the above Committee were nominees of
the American Library Association; the others represent the Lake Placid
Club Education Foundation. The Committee has remained without
change except for the resignation of Miss Mann.

One of the early duties devolving upon the Committee was the selection
of an editorial staff. Myron Warren Getchell has been continued in his
former position as associate editor. Constantin J Mazney, formerly on
the staff of the University of Michigan Library, was selected as editor.
The staff has necessarily been kept at a minimum but has had the
co-operation of librarians and especially of members of the staff of the
Library of Congress.

(7)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

The ideal the Committee has in mind is to produce a work which shall
be of the utmost value to the Library profession, and to other classifiers
of knowledge. The fourteenth edition cannot be called the final edition
of the D C ; a final edition will never be possible until men quit thinking
and knowledge ceases to expand. It is the hope of the Committee, how-
ever, that this revision will prove to be acceptable to the profession,
both through the extensions which have been incorporated and also
through the reductions of sections which seemed to be needlessly elaborate.
Certain supplementary tables which have lost their original importance
or uses have been omitted in an effort to give the work greater cohesion.

Simpler or simplified spelling, a device which had the enthusiastic
support of Dr Melvil Dewey, has been discarded in the Index, which had
to be completely reset. Many plates have not been changed and could
not be changed at this time without involving an expense beyond the
power of the Committee to meet. In such tables the simplified spelling
continues. Opinions rather widely expressed by librarians would seem to
lead us to believe that standard spelling will facilitate the use of this
publication. If such impression is in error, the Committee would be
grateful for advice to the contrary.

The Committee looks forward to the publication at some future date
of a so-called Library Standard Edition of the Decimal Classification.
Much work must be done prior to its issuance. When it is published,
it is contemplated that the entire .work must be reset. At that time
uniform spelling will, no doubt, be used thruout. The Library Standard
Edition does not appear to be a possibility within the next several years.

It may not be appropriate to attempt a list of the expansions which
this new edition of the D C presents, but the following notations will
assist the enquirer: 301.15; 312; 325; 330-339 expanded to 38 pages;
355-359. 12 pages; 364-365, 10 pages; 659.1, 4 pages; 700-770, 147 pages;
931 and 951; and important expansions from 975 to 979. All in all we
believe that Edition 14 of this work will prove itself to be a worthy and
dependable successor of its predecessors.

The Committee considers this work a co-operative effort, published
mainly for the benefit of the Library profession. It is grateful to the
librarians who have helped make it what it is and earnestly solicits their
continued interest and assistance. The hospitality of the Library of
Congress, which houses the Decimal Classification Editorial Office, is
gratefully acknowledged.

Milton James Ferguson,

Chairman

March 11, 1942

INTRODUCTION

'[Simpler spelings ar strongly recommended for jencral adoption by both American
and English filolojic associations, including nearly all prominent skolars in English
now living.

The speling of this introduction has many more chanjes than we recommend for
jeneral use at once. For convenient reference we hav included in ' Simpler speling rea-
zons and rules' (p. 49-63) the famus 12 words adopted in 1898 by the National Edu-
cation Association for all its official printing and correspondence, and adopted later by
hundreds of periodicals, colejes and normal skools; also the 30 words, as a better tipical
list with which to begin simpler speling; also the S S B rules, from which one shud select
those which most appeal to him; also the 10 joint rules of American and English filol-
ojists, and selections from rules of U S Geographic Board. From these one may choose
chanjes he is willing to make, knowing how arapl authority is behind them. We recom-
mend that each one convinst of the importance begin with a few of these chanjes, ading
others from time to time as he and hi 3 correspondents becum familiar with the new forms.
That it ' looks queer ' is admittedly the only argument left to objectors. This introduc-
tion is speld to show how it wil look if practicaly all these recommendations ar uzed.
Sum with specialy strong vizual prejudis wil hav attention distracted from the matter
to the speling, but if with an open mind they wil try to concentrate on the meaning, they
wil be surprized to find how quikly the new forms wil cease to annoy. Then if they con-
tinue reading them they wil soon be surprized to find that the old absurd common spel-
ing wil annoy. There ar comparatively few simpler spelings in Tables or Index but we
decided to show in Introduction how extreme chanjes wud look]

Orijin and growth The plan of this Clasification and Index was
developt erly in 1873, the result of long study of library economy as found
in hundreds of books and pamflets, and in over 50 personal visits to
libraries. This study convinst me that usefulness of libraries myt be greatly
increast without aded expense. Only a fraction of the servis posibl cud
be got from them without clasification, catalogs, indexes and other aids,
to tel librarians and readers what they containd on any givn subject;
yet, by methods then uzed, this cud be dun satisfactorily only at a cost
so great as to be prohibitiv to all but a few welthy libraries. With rare
exceptions, libraries wer growing rapidly. Catalogs, made at great cost,
soon became antiquated. Methods uzed involvd frequent rearranjement,
renumbering and remarking of books, and of necesity remaking of catalogs
and indexes, as the only escape from a confuzion that seriusly cripld
usefvilness. In this costly repetition, work of previus librarians was larjly
lost. The great need was a sistem which wud enable each to stand on
the sholders of his predecessors, and fully utilize their labors ; which wud
make work dun today permanent, insted of sumthing to be superseded
in so few years as not to be worth doing in the best way; which wud
supply the best applyances, insted of leaving yung librarians not only to
lern how to work, but to make all their own tools.

Practical use for 54 years proves that this sistem wil accomplish this
result; for with its aid catalogs, shelflists, indexes and references, essential
to this increast usefulness, can be made faster and cheaper than by any
method not having its essential features, and, when dun, they ar better
and vastly more permanent. Practical utility and economy ar its keynotes
and no theoretic refinement has been allowd to modify the skeme, if it
wud detract from usefulness or ad to cost.

» See note on spelling of Ed 14 on back of title-page

(9)

IO

DECIMAL CLASIPICATION

It was chiefly necesary to find a method that wud clas, arranje and
index books and pamflets on shelvs, cards of a catalog, clippings and notes
in scrapbooks and index rerums, references to all these items, and indeed
any literary material in any form, as redily as an ordinary index gyds to
proper paje of a bound book. This difficult problem was solvd by uzing
no reference marks except the simplest simbols known to the human
mind, arabic numerals with their uzual arithmetic values, and by aiding
their unequald simplicity by many practical nemonic [mnemonic] devices.

Tho the importance of clasification was recognized, the filosofic sistems
proposed wer so difficult fully to understand or apply that not i person in
iooo cud uze them practicaly. Decimal Clasification simplicity and even
more its Relativ Index hav made this work io-fold eazier. In recent years,
U6e of the sistem has spred rapidly in all civilized cuntries, meeting suc-
cess in thousands of different applications. In its simpl form a skoolboy can
quikly master it and keep for instant reference not only his books but every
note, clipping or pamflet. Almost every profession and occupation has
lernd its wonderful laborsaving powers. It is in daily use by miriads of
business and professional men who wud never even attempt to understand
or uze the old sistems.

By mere adition of figures, without chanjing this shorter form, this
very simpl sistem is redily made to record the utmost refinements of
specialists, and the Relativ Index, as simpl as a, b, c, sends the novis
to the exact place where the expert has clasifyd the matter sought. Thus
942 is history of England, and 942.99055 is history of County Pembroke
in Wales, under Elizabeth, 5th of the Tudors. A colon between 2 numbers
to mean 1 in relation to ', and other combining simbols for time, languaj
etc. make of the sistem a compact shorthand for each fact. (See p . 40 3 -
43 1 .) But this brevity is les important than the eaz with which matter
so markt can be arranjed (giving figures and decimal point their common
arithmetic value), stored as compactly as wisht and found again in the
least posibl time.

The sistem has been found equaly valuabl for cataloging, indexing,
analyzing and summarizing, and for clasifying, numbering and arranjing
books and pamflets on shelvs. For notes on other uses, see p. 43 2 ~45 8 .

The 1st edition, publisht in 1876, 12 pajes of tables containing 1000
sections, was criticized as altogether too elaborate for even a larj library.
As fast, however, as the Relativ Index with its remarkabl powers became
known, the rapidly increasing uzers askt for further subdivisions, til
Tables hav grown from 2600 entries in Index of 1876 to 43,000 in this
edition 12, becauz it has been found so eazy to gain the admitted great
advantajes of close clasification, and yet, by means of this Index, avoid the
old difficulties.

Extent of use The rejister of libraries which hav actualy adopted it,
tho growing rapidly, is incomplete. Libraries often uze the sistem for
many years before we lern the fact. We rejister all byers of the Clasifica-
tion, so far as known, but do not assume that a library has adopted the

EXTENT OP USE

II

sistem becauz it has ordcrd the book. ALA Bulletin, Sep. 1926, p. 167,
estimates a use by about 14,000 libraries. There is also an immense
use (for which not even approximate statistics can be furnisht) by
individuals, with their private, business and professional colections of
books, pamflets etc., and in their correspondence and notes files. The
sistem has been adopted, not only thruout U S, but in other parts of
North America, in South America, in many European cuntries, and, stil
more distant, in Asia, Hawaii, Philippines, Java, Australia and Africa,
and the Tables ar known to hav been translated, either wholy or in part,
into French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian, Russian,
Hungarian, Bohemian, Chinese and Japanese.
The table below shows the growth of the 1 2 editions.

Number of pajes

Edition

Date

Preface, etc.

Tables

Index, etc.

Total

Increase

Copies printed

I

1876

12

12

18

42

IOOO

2

1885

66

162

86

314

272

500

3

1888

4

227

185

416

I02

500

4

1891

41

234

191

466

50

IOOO

5

1894

235

11

467

I

2000

6

1899

a

260

210

5"

44

7600

'•' T

191 1

48

420

324

792

281

2000

8

1913

u

462

340

850

58

2000

9

1915

u

465

342

856

6

3000

10

1919

it

517

374

940 1

84

4000

11

1922

61

551

376

988

48

5000

12

1927

67

683

491

1243

255

8000 s

What is the sistem? A Subject Clasification with a Relativ Index'
so numberd or letterd that reference is compact, accurate and quik, is
the essential feature ; anything beyond this is merely applying this plan
with varius helps and accessories. Any subject clasification with a relativ
index in which the entry indexes a book in the ordinary way, and also
indexes shelvs, cards, clippings or any other literary material, is a form
of this sistem.

1 Thru mistaken numbering printed as 936.

2 Tho the author is interested only in the usefulness of the sistem, not in questions of
priority of its invention, extended investigation by others fails to show that this most
important feature of the sistem — the Relativ Index, on which all else hinjes — had
ever before been uzed as here to index by a singl reference most diverse material. Relativ
location had been uzed, but not in the present combination with the subject index,
which givs it most of its value. The Clasification Tables, while adopting sugjestions
from many sources, ar orijinal in their sistem of arranjement and notation, and in many
minor features. The decimal form and many nemonic features hav not been found in
erlier use, tho since their invention in 1873 these as wel as the Subject Index and other
features hav been very frequently copid, often with, but oftener without, aknowlej-
ment of their source. But we ar glad to find this sistem, which has cost so much labor,
doing good servis even for those who neglect to mention where they found so valuabl
a laborsaving literary tool.

' 1340 aditional copies printed in 1930; edition 13, 8000 copies — Editor

12

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Notation We devized and experimented with several notations by
means of numbers, letters, and combined numbers and letters, with
bases of 26, 35, 50, 100 and 150, yet none seemd good enuf to warrant
publishing details, except that here printed, based on simpl arabic numerals
with their uzual decimal powers. International adoption of this sistem is
larjly becauz no one ever complains that any clasification is too simpl,
while there is constant complaint of complexity. Decimal simplicity
has so commended itself that many think of it as the only form, tho
obviusly it wud be just as much a ' relativ index sistem ' if the clasifica-
tion wer wholy markt by letters or other simbols.

The Subject Index is the simplest application of a, b, c, the simbols next
in simplicity to 1, 2, 3. This use of the simplest 2 sets of simbols known,
with their common meanings, has givn our notation its worldwide reputa-
tion as the simplest yet devized.

Best known decimal form Decimal form means simply that heds ar
groupt and numberd with common arithmetic figures uzed decimaly. • This,
the only decimal form thus far carefuly elaborated and publisht, is com-
monly spoken of as if it wer the only posibl form of our orijinal plan; tho
obviusly an infinit variety of ' relativ index sistems ' in decimal form
cud be made by filling the outline with different heds, or with the same
heds in different order.

To make out new heds involvs labor and cost vastly beyond the dreams
of any person who has not tryd exactly this work. Time actualy spent on
tables here printed, by varius committees and individuals, totals hundreds
of years and has cost an immense sum. Uniform and urjent advice
of the experienst is to adopt a poorer skeme alredy made rather than
undertake so herculean a labor. When dun, the maker may posibly be
better suited with it, but few if any others wil be. It is wizer for anyone
whose time is of value, to uze it in sumthing more practicaly useful to him-
self and his library than in trying to construct a 'satisfactory' skeme
of clasification. No one yet ever wholy suited himself or anyone else,
and probably no one ever wil. By adopting this alredy workt out he
saves much time and money, and gains the immense advantaj of uzing a
sistem in common with thousands of others, so that he may utilize their
labors and investigations and share with them economies of cooperation.

Relativ Subject Index This alfabetic Index, the most important
feature of the sistem, consists of hedings gathcrd from a great variety of
sources, as uzcrs of the sistem hav found them desirabl in 54 years expe-
rience. After all these efforts, many new heds ar aded in each new edition.

The Index gyds in both numbering and finding books. In assyning
numbers, the most specific hed that wil contain the book having been
determind, reference to that hed in Index givs proper clas number. Con-
versely, in finding books on any givn subject, reference to Index givs
number under which they ar found on shelvs, in shelflist, or in clast catalog.
When any new subject cums up, interline it and its sinonims in Index (

RELATIV SUBJECT INDEX

13

with clas number decided on, so clasifyer may be uniform with himself
in future work.

The Index givs similar or sinonimus words, and the same words in dif-
ferent connections, so any intelijent person wil surely get the ryt number.
A reader wishing to know sumthing of the tarif looks under T, and, at a
glance, finds 337 as its number. This gyds him to shelvs, to all books and
pamflets, to shelf catalog, to clast subject catalog on cards, to clast record
of loans, and, in short, in simpl numeric order, thruout the whole library
to anything bearing on his subject. If he turns to Tables, he sees that it
means clas 3, Sociolojy; division 3, Economics; section 7, Protection and
free trade; but the number alone is enuf to clas the book or find it, for
either clasifyer or reader. If he had lookt under P for protection, or F for
free trade, or D for duties, or C for customs, or under any other leading
word relating to his subject, he wud hav been referd to 337, or sum
one of its subdivisions.

Had he lookt for 'railroad' he wud hav found after it 22 separate
entries, each preceded by a word or fraze indicating the faze of the sub-
ject in the skeme. A book on railroads may treat of the desirability of
government ownership, control etc. and then is clearly a question of social
syence; or it may be a practical handbook for an employee, explaining busi-
ness methods of railroading, running trains, handling freight, etc. when
it is as clearly one of the useful arts. The clasifyer knows to which of these
heds his book belongs, and the reader knows in which of its fazes he wishes
to examin the subject. Moreover, 3 and 6 beginning the numbers clearly
indicate caracter of each clas. But even if significance of these figures
is entirely disregarded, no confuzion results, for, on consulting the
numbers in catalog, in skeme, or on shelvs the difference is clearly seen.
In other cases, it is more useful to keep books on the same subject together,
tho treated from different standpoints. A glance at the Index tels either

All topics in blakface typ in Index ar further divided in Tables, where
one may see the subheds. This saves reprinting all these subdivisions,
which wud increase Index bulk many-fold; e. g. if one having a book on
1 prison labor ' looks in the Index for 1 Convict labor ' or ' Prison contracts ',
he finds at once its special number 331.51; but if, on the other hand he thinks
to look only for jeneral subject 'Labor', he finds in blakface typ the
entry ' Labor, political economy, 33 1 ', and turning to Tables he finds under
331 the subdivision ' 331.51, Convict labor ', the exact topic in hand.

The greatest objection to a clast catalog has always been the difficulty
in knowing just where to clas a book and just where to look for it when
again wanted. Different librarians, or the same librarian at different
times, clast the same or similar books in widely different places. Where
one man did all the work for many years, there was a degree of uniformity;
but even then there was danjer of looking at the same book at different

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

times from different viewpoints, thus cauzing confuzion. When the daily
pres is ful of one faze of a subject, tendency is strong to clas all books on
this subject from current viewpoint; and next year, if a different side of
this same subject is before the public, there is same tendency to clas books
from new viewpoint, thereby separating similar books and bringing
together books on different fazes. But fortunately, practical usefulness does
not require that the ideas of this or that one be followd, but only that books
of same caracter be always put in same place, and that there be sum means
of knowing redily what that place is. The Relativ Index, with its each-
words, was desynd and is found in use to meet both these requirements,
for it insures that books on same faze of any subject cuming before the
clasifyers shal be assynd to same place, and that any reader seeking these
books shal be referd instantly to that place. If this is dun, all requirements
of a good clasification ar fild. If it is not dun, the sistem is a failure; for
the only real test of any skeme is its helpfulness to its uzers.

Sum prominent opponents of clast catalogs admit that the Rejativ Sub-
ject Index, in deciding where to clas a book at first and where to look for
it ever afterwards, has removed their strongest objections. Certainly it
wud be imposibl to make an Index more compact or eazier of reference.

This Index allows a great part of the work of clasifying to be dun in
advance by experts in larj central libraries with ampl resources, thus
securing, at a mere fraction of uzual cost, better and more uniform results
than wud be posibl to the ordinary clasifyer and reducing labor to
much narrower limits than ever before.

To these thousands of subjects hav been carefuly assynd their individual
numbers, many of them after long consideration and consultation with
specialists. No one person is lerned enuf to clas wizely books on all sub-
jects and syences; but botanists can assyn all botanic subjects to the ryt
number, mathematicians all mathematical topics, and thus the Index
wil in time becum as accurate as the best skolarship of the day can make it.
Even if the decision reacht is not always wizest, all practical purposes ar
servd, becauz, as each clasifyer copies the number from same Index, all
books on that subject ar together; and, as each reader gets his number
from this same Index, he goes directly to the book he seeks.

What Relativ Index includes The Index, containing 43,000 entries
and constantly being enlarjd by ading new subjects, aims to include all
topics exprest or implyd in Tables, together with every corresponding
sinonim likely to be sought, but does not include most names of cuntries,
towns, animals, plants etc. except when mentiond in Tables; e. g. it can
not enumerate all species of trilobites, but when clasifyer has found from
proper reference books that Remopleurides is a trilobite, the Index sends
him to 565.393, and he can clas his monograf on that subject.

Tables The essential complement of the Subject Index is the Tables
of Clasification, so mapt out as to show in 4 ways — i. e. by size of typ,

TABLES

face of typ, indention, and number of figures prefixt — each subject's
rank in the Clasifi cation.

The field of knowlej is divided into 9 main clases, numberd 1 to 9, and
cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to belong to none of these
clases ar markt o (naught) and form a 10th clas; e. g. clas 1 is library of
Filosofy; clas 5, library of Syence; clas 9, History, etc. These special clases
or libraries ar then considerd independently, and each is separated again
into 9 special divisions of the main subject, numberd 1 to 9, as wer the
clases, jeneral works belonging'to no division having o for their division
number. Thus 59 is division 9 (Zoolojy) of clas 5 (Syence). A 3d division
is then made by separating each of these divisions into 10 sections, numberd
in same way with o and the 9 dijits; and this decimal subdivision is
repeated, til it secures as many subsections as may be needed in any topic.
Thus 513 is section 3 (Jeometry) of division 1 (Mathematics) of clas 5
(Pure syence). This number, giving clas, division, section and sub-
section, if any, is cald the clas number, and is applyd to every book and
pamflet belonging to the library. All jeometries ar thus numberd 513,
all mineralojies 549, and so thruout the library all books on any givn sub-
ject bear the number of that subject in this skeme.

Where o occurs before the decimal point in a clas number, it has its normal
zero value. Thus a book numberd 510 is clas 5, division r, but no section;
i. e. treats of division 51 (Mathematics) in jeneral, and is limited to no
1 section, as is jeometry, markt 513. 500 indicates a treatis on syence in
jeneral, limited to no division, o occurring in the 1st place wud in the
same way show that the book was limited to no clas ; e. g. a jeneral cyclo-
pedia which treats of all 9 clases.

With the same ' jeneral ' sense, o is often uzed to indicate chanje in
caracter of subdivision, meaning in this case ' basis of subdivision chanjes
at this point ', i. e. figure (or figures) following o apply to what precedes
in jeneral, e. g. 505 indicates syence in jeneral treated in the form of a
periodical. In history, clasification is by cuntries (i. e. jeografic) and as
minute jeografic divisions ar needed for travels, gyd books, and varius
other uses, the figures 1-9 ar jeneraly uzed for jeografic subdivisions and
again for further jeografic subdivisions, as far as needed, and o followd
by another figure for time division, i. e. the figures before the o indicate
the locality as a whole, while figures after the o indicate the special time
at which the history of the locality is being considerd; e. g. 942.06, con-
sisting of 942 {jeografic division) and 06 {time division), means history of
England in jeneral in time of the Stuarts, while 942.6 and 942.67 mean
respectivly history of eastern England and history of Essex co., to which
the same time division may be aded, giving 942.606 and 942.6706 as the
history of those localities under the Stuarts. As any subdivision may,
by ading figures 1-9, be givn 9 further subdivisions, any desired degree
of minuteness may be secured in clasing special subjects.

First subdivision under many rubrics is used for General and theoretic
questions to provide for such specific topics as ar common to all or most
of the principal subdivisions of a relativly broad subject.

i6

DECn.AL CLASIFICATION

Coordination Theoreticly division of every subject into just 9 parts

is absurd. Practicaly it is desirabl to clas as minutely as posibl, without
use of aded figures; and decimals, on which our skeme hinjes, allow 9 divi-
sions as redily as fewer. This has proved wholy satisfactory in practis,
tho apparently destroying proper coordination in sum places.

Where more than 9 divisions ar needed the difficulty is commonly obviated
by grouping on singl numbers the subjects most closely allyd, or by assyning
1-8 specificly to most important subjects and grouping minor subjects
on 9 as ' Other.' Since any of these groups may be further subdivided
for specific topics as needed, provision is thus made for an unlimited
number of subjects.

As in every skeme, many minor subjects ar under jeneral heds to which
they do not strictly belong. In sum cases, these heds ar printed in distinctiv
typ; e. g. 829 Anglo-Saxon, under English literature. The rule has been
to assyn these subjects to the most nearly allyd heds, or where it was
tho't they wud be most useful. The only altcrnativ was to omit them
altogether. If any such omission occurs, it wil be supplyd as soon as dis-
coverd, for we intend to provide in the Tables a place for every known
topic.

New subjects A new topic is always closely related to sum existing
hed. If there is no blank number availabl it is combined with the hed
nearest allyd, and, when important enuf, distinct provision for the new
cumr is made by ading another decimal. The sistem is thus capabl of
unlimited expansion, and can never break down for lak of room for growth.

Choice and arranjement of heds Dctaild explanation of selection and
arranjcment of the many thousand heds wud be tedius; but everywhere
filosofic theory and accuracy hav yielded to practical usefulness. The
imposibility of making a satisfactory clasification of all knowlej as pre-
servd in books, has been appreciated from the first, and theoretic harmony
and exactness hav been repeatedly sacrificed to practical requirements.

Sequence of allyd subjects Wherever practicabl, heds hav been so
arranjed that each subject is preceded and followd by most nearly allyd
subjects, and thus aded convenience is secured both in clast catalogs and
on shelvs; e. g. Bilding (690) follows Mekanic trades (680) at end of
Useful arts, and Arkitecture follows at beginning of Fine arts.

Students of Biolojy (570) find fossil life or Paleontolojy (560) before,
and vejetabl life or Botany (580) after, this followd in turn by animal
life or Zoolojy (590), ending with Mammals (599); while Useful arts (600)
begin with human Anatomy (611) under Medicin, thus giving a regular
growth from fossil plant thru vejetabl and animal kingdoms to living man.

Cachtitles In naming hedings, strict accuracy has often been sacrificed
to brevity, for short familiar titles ar more important than that terms
chosen shud express fully and exactly caracter of all books clast under
them. Many subjects, apparently omitted, wil be found in the Index,

FORM DISTINCTIONS

17

assynd, with allyd subjects, to a hed which bears the name of the most
important only. Reference to the Index wil decide at once most doutful
points.

Form distinctions The clasification is mainly by subject or content
regardless of form (see p. 29 s ) but an aded form distinction for jeneral
treatises is found practicaly useful.

Thus, in Syence there ar many compends, dictionaries, essays, peri-
odicals and socyeties, treating of Syence in jeneral, and so having o for
the division figure, but treating it under different forms, and therefore
divided into sections according to this form: 501 for filosofy or theories
of Syence, 502 for compends, 503 for dictionaries, etc. This treatment is
as nearly as practicabl, uniform in all clases. Creasy's ' 1 5 decisiv battles '
is 904, the 1st figure being 9, becauz the book is clearly history; the 2d
figure o, becauz limited to no division of clas 9 ; and the 3d figure 4, becauz
the book is a colection of essays.

The 10 main clases ar regularly divided by form, e. g. 809, history of
literature in jeneral. For divisions, sections or subsections having ennj
jeneral material to make such division advizabl, form numbers, preceded by

0, may be uzed (e. g. 820.9, history of English literature; 821.09, history of
English poetry) , except when o and the following number hav been other-
wize assynd, e. g. 821.04 English liric poetry, not essays on English poetry;
942.05 England in time of the Tudors, not a periodical on English history.
A history of English literature is 820.9, not 809, becauz every book belongs
to the most specific hed that wil contain it; so 809 is limited to histories of
literature in jeneral. Books treating of many clases, such as jeneral cyclo-
pedias or periodicals, go in clas o and ar then divided by form into cyclo-
pedias, periodicals, socyeties or newspapers.

Do not confuze form number 07, meaning ' methods of study or teach-
ing', with number for same subject under 375, which is for its value as a
means of education, or for its curiculum place.

These form distinctions ar introduced at the beginning of the clas
becauz the number of jeneral works is larj, and these 1st numerals wud
otherwize be unuzed.

Form divisions always hav the same set of numbers, preceded by o,

1. e. 1 filosofy, theories etc.;2 compends, outlines: 3 dictionaries, cyclo-
pedias; 4 essays, lectures, letters etc.; 5 periodicals, magazines etc.; 6
socyeties, associations, transactions, reports etc.; 7 education, study, teach-
ing, training etc. ; 8 poligrafy, colections etc. ; 9 history. Thus a periodical
on a subject has the subject number followd by 05 ; e. g. a periodical on
public helth, 614.05.

But if the number alredy ends in o, o is not repeated before form-divi-
sion figures; e. g. a zoolojic magazine is 590.5, not 590.05.

Minute clasing On first publication in 1 8 7 6 , a common criticizm was that
1000 heds cud never be successfuly uzed, however desirabl so close clasi-
fication myt be. As soon, however, as actual experience proved it as

1 8

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

eazy to uze iooo heds in the new sistem as 100 in the old, the obviusly
great practical value of close clasing led one uzer after another to urj
strongly publication of more subdivisions. Minute as ar many now givn
there ar none that sum hav not askt for and almost none that others hav
not declared needless. Subdivisions ar made in such a way that one may
uze all, or any part and ignore the rest without difficulty or confuzion,
thus allowing each to uze minute subdivisions where he wishes or needs
them, without being forst into refinements in subjects where he has few
books or litl interest. Since the degree to which any skeme shal be applyd
is optional with each clasifyer and close analisis is useful to everyone in
defining content or in clarifying differences between related subjects,
even elaborate skemes ar printed in ful if no essential objection has been
bro't against them by the best qualifyd critics. The ist 3 figures only may
be uzed when preferd, and the rest show the scope of the subject. On
many topics minute subsections ar printed simply for this purpose, and
for use in indexing periodicals and socyety transactions, and in keeping
notes. Note typ is uzed for topics clearly useful only to specialists or
as showing scope. Many others probably belonging in same category,
if doutful ar in regular typ of their grade.

The advantaj of close clasing is unquestiond, if the uzer knows just what
it is. With this plan it is not only practicabl, but comparativly eazy. If
there ar only 10 books on a givn topic, it is useful to hav them in groups
amung themselvs, for otherwize they wud hav only accidental order,
which is of servis to no one. A reader wishing a specific book shud go,
not to shelvs, but to catalog, where he can find its place quickest. If he
wishes a specific subject, he is sent instantly to its exact place by the
Subject Index. If he wishes to study the library's resources at the shelvs,
he wil be greatly helpt by minute clasing. A teacher showing his pupil the
material on any subject wud, if there wer only 20 books, surely put
together those covering same points, even if there wer only 2. Much more
shud librarians group closely their greater colections, that readers may
gain sumthing of the advantajes of an experienst gyd.

Thus every specialist has his own special library. If a student of syence
in jeneral, he is sent to clas 5; if his department is zoolojy, his library is
59; if his specialty is shels, he finds all works and references on that subject
in library 594. Whether a specialist needs it or not, every subject, being a
library by itself, shows resources and wants as no catalog can. A catalog
can not be made to take satisfactorily the place of handling books themselvs.
This advantaj weighs most in a colej or socyety library, where many go to
the shelvs; but even if only librarians ar admitted, close clasing is worth
its cost becauz of aded power givn.

Tentativ tables More and more minute subdivisions hav been specialy
cald for til the 1000 heds of 1873, with 2600 index entries in edition 1,

TENTATIV TABLES

19

hav increast til they command 43,000 index entries, in edition 12. After
getting many suggestions, sumtimes hundreds, for aditions or further
subdivisions of sum subject, we draft a skeme and test it on a sampl
colection. To get larjer cooperation in perfecting it we sumtimes print
the new draft in Tables without including its new words in Index, so every
uzer wil see what is proposed and if interested may test it on his own work
and submit sugjestions for improvement. Then in the next edition, with
this great help, needed revisions can be made and all new words inserted
in Index.

As result of agreement between Institut International de Bibliographie
and ourselvs (see p. 40) we hav included in edition 12 many I I B expan-
sions, while sum other expansions recently prepared by us hav not yet,
for lak of time, been submitted to I I B and must therefore, strictly
speaking, be regarded as tentativ til accepted by that body, but as these
expansions wer developt with view to such acceptance we look for litl
chanje, and their larj number has made it impractical to designate them.

Nemonics [mnemonics] Heds hav sumtimes been arranjed to secure
nemonic aid in numbering and finding books without the Index; thus
China has always number 1. In Ancient history, it has the 1st section,
931; in Modern history, under Asia, it has 951. Similarly the Indian
number is 4; English, 2; German, 3; French, 4; Italian, 5; Spanish, 6;
Russian, 7; European, 4; Asian, 5; African, 6; North American, 7; South
American, 8; and so for all divisions by languages or cuntries. Italian 5,
for instance, is in 035, 055, 065, 450, 850, 945, and many others. This
nemonic principl is specialy prominent in Filolojy and Literature, and their
divisions, and in form distinctions uzed in the 1st 9 sections of each clas.
Filosofy, methods or theory, occurring as a hed, is always 1 ; dictionaries
and cyclopedias ar 3 ; essays, 4 ; periodicals, 5 ; associations, socyeties and
institutions, 6; education, 7; poligrafy or colections, 8; history, 9. In
numerus cases several minor heds ar groupt together as Other, uzualj
numberd 9.

While Italian is always 5, 5 is by no means always Italian. Grammar
is 5, Periodicals ar 5, Asia is 5, Oratory is 5, etc. Even wer it posibl, to
limit 5 to Italian wud waste numbering material, and results wud not
justify cost. The purpose is to giv practical aid, not to follow fanciful
theory. A clasifyer marking a French grammar, remembers that all
Filolojy begins with 4, and, as French is always 4 and grammar 5, he
knows the number must be 445. Italian (5), poetry (1), is plainly 851
with no danjer of being mistaken for ' poetry of grammar ' or 1 theory of
Asia,' becauz the numbers also hav those meanings. This feature is an
aid, not regular method; and in all doutful cases one refers at once to
Index or Tables. Sugjested difficulties ar uzualy creations of injenius
theorists and not outgrowth of practical experience.

Wherever practical, this nemonic principl is uzed in subdividing sec-
tions. 558, Jeolojy of South America, is subdivided by ading the sections

30

DECIMAL CI.ASIFI CATION

of g8o, History of South America. Jeolojy of Brazil then must be 558.1:
nemonicly, the 1st 5 is Syence; 2d 5, Jeolojy; 8, South America; and 1,
Brazil. Any library attendant or regular uzer of the skeme recognizes
558.1 at a glance as Jeolojy of Brazil. This nemonic feature occurs in several
hundred places, and is of great practical utility in numbering and finding
books without catalog or index, and in determining caracter of any book
simply from its call number. Extent of use is shown in 5 tables appended to
main Index, giving alfabetic lists of (1) subjects, with clas number of each,
which may be subdivided jeograficly; (2) form divisions, with figures to
be aded in making such division; (3) languajes, with their clas numbers,
which may be further subdivided filolojicly by ading figures givn in Index
table 4; (4) filolojic divisions, with figures to be aded in subdividing any
languaj in Index table 3; (5) literatures, with their clas numbers, which
may be further subdivided by ading form divisions from English literature.

As in close subdivision, wish for nemonic correspondence has never out-
weighd any claim of greater usefulness. In many cases choice between
numbers was hardly perceptibl : e. g. whether in filolojy order shud be
French, Spanish, Italian, or French, Italian, Spanish. In such cases
nemonic numbers wer givn preference, and 54 years use has proved this
wizest. Great gain, beside eaz of remembering, results from this uniform
use of same numbers with same meaning whenever similar division is
filolojy or history numbers, and in Tables, the note 4 Divided like 900 '
fully takes the place of reprinting all history subdivisions. This saving
justifys use of these numbers in sum cases, even where a sum what
different order myt seem more nearly fitted to the special case; e. g. in 342,
constitutional history of Canada (342.71) and Australia (342.94) next that
of England (342.42) wud be better than our order, which separates them
both from England and from each other. Stil by following the uzual
' procrustean ' numbers, many topics can be subdivided minutely without
further study, by simply applying history or languaj subdivisions. A
singl ilustration of the astonishing power this principl givs wil suffice, tho
thousands myt be givn: 016 is ' Bibliografy of special subjects, divided
like main clasification ', therefore by aid of tables under 581,
016.581974742 rcdily translates itself to all uzers into ' Bibliografy of
flora of Albany co., N Y '. While these 12 figures myt never be uzed,
if a specialist wishes minute division, it is redy to his hand, conforms to
Index, and wil be clearly understood by anyone familiar with our plan.
A specialist wud in such cases probably adopt a contraction for his long
number, and uze in ful only the minute divisions. See p. 38 2 for such
contractions.

Decimalism Utility has not been sacrificed in order to force sub-
jects on the ' decimal procrustean bed '. Decimals hav been uzed as serv-
ants, not as masters. When subjects ar combined or separated into just

DECIMALISM

2 I

10 heds, it has been from no necesity of the skeme, but becauz it secmd
most useful, all things considerd. In many cases there wer orijinaly
only 3 to 7 heds insted of io; but uzualy, during years of testing before
publication, it proved advizabl to divide sum of these heds, as it took no
aded space or labor. On the other hand, there wer cases where more than
io heds seemd more natural; and, as any number up to ioo is provided
for by ading one decimal, this was dun in most cases. As only iooo sec-
tions wer first printed, it was often necesary to put 2 or more closely allyd
topics together under the same number, as must stil be dun whenever a
library limits number of figures uzed to 3 ; but during 54 years use subdivi-
sions hav multiplyd, til now nearly every topic has its own special number.
The skeme givs us for each topic, as it wer, a case of 9 pijeonholes, with
a larj space at the top; and we uze them as every practical business man
uzes such pijeonholes about his desk. If, as in 220, there ar les than 9
main topics, it is often convenient to uze the extra spaces for subdivisions.
Thus we keep separate, under Old Testament, historic, poetic, and profetic
books; and under New Testament, the Gospels, Epistls and Apocalips.
Spaces ar there, and it is convenient to uze them for jeneral works on those
groups — a reason that experience proves a good anser to the charj of
lak of coordination, tho indention and typ in Tables make that charj
baseless. Then in 280, having more than 9 topics, if we ar uzing only 3
figures we put Congregational in same space with Presbyterian, and
small denominations together in the last box, just as a business man puts
his papers in his pijeonholes. If he insisted on having a different case
made to order for each use, it wud cost over twice as much; he cud not
group them together or interchanje them, and they wud not fit offis shelvs.

There has been perverse misapprehension of this feature, and critics
of ten est stumbl over ' procrustean 10'. In fact, this is an element of use-
fulness. A railroad also has the fault that it is procrustean in its path and
in its times. It can not cum to yur door nor wait yur convenience, as
does the automobile; it can not go to the fields for its loads of produce;
it can not turn out for obstacls; but becauz it is procrustean it can do its
larj-scale work much better and quicker and cheaper. The paralel cud
be fairly extended to many other cases, but any tho'tful mind wil
recognize that the economy and eaz of working the Decimal sistem ar
larjly dependent on its being procrustean. To this we owe much of the
great simplicity of the Relativ Index, many nemonic correspondences,
and the useful o to indicate form and period divisions. Our intersecting
lines of space and time in History, etc., of languaj and form in Filolojy
and Literature, and scores of similar advantajes, depend wholy on ' pro-
crustean 10 ', or else on sum other number equaly procrustean, but lacking
the advantajes of exact correspondence to our arithmetic.

Relativ location Economy and simplicity cald not only for the Sub-
ject Index, but also for sum plan of consolidating the 2 sets of marks

a a

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

previusly uzed; one teling what subject a book treated, the other where
the book was shelvd. By relativ location and decimal clas numbers we
make our simpl arabic numerals tel of each book and pamflet, both what
it is, and where it is.

In fixt relation, to find book, pamflet, clipping or note is like finding a
man when yu know his town, street, hous and room.

In relativ location it is like finding a soldier if yu know his army, divi-
sion, rejiment and cumpany. If John Smith is 3d man in 2d row of Cum-
pany B, rejiment 69, 4th division, whether the rejiment is in camp, on
parade or on march, his place is not determind by the bit of ground on
which he stands, but by his relation to the rest of the army. If soldiers
ar dcd and in the cemetery they ar as eazily found by fixt as by relativ
location. But if the army is alive and militant, as every library or private
working colection o't to be, its resources shud be findabl whether in
camp, on march or in action.

In arranjing books on shelvs, the formerly common absolute or fixt loca-
tion by shelf and book number is wholy abandond, relativ location by clas
and book number being our chief feature. Accumpanying clas number is
the book number, which prevents confuzion of different books on the same
subject. 1 In finding books, numbers markt on baks ar followd, the upper
being the clas and the lower the book number. Clas is found in its numeric
order amung clases, just as shelf is found in fixt sistems. Shelvs ar not
numberd, as increasing different departments, opening new rooms, and any
arranjing of clases to bring books most circulated nearest delivery desk,
wil at different times bring different clas numbers on any givn shelf. New
books, as recievd, ar numberd and put in place, in same way that new
titles ar aded to card catalog.

Thus all books on any givn subject stand together, and no aditions or
chanjes ever separate them. Not only ar found together all books on
subject sought, but most nearly allyd subjects precede and follow,
they in turn being preceded and followd by other allyd subjects as far as
in same order in shelflist, and ful titles, imprints, aded subject entries,
references, notes etc. in clast catalog.

Parts of sets, and books on same or allyd subjects, ar never separated
as they ar sure to be, sooner or later, in a library arranjed on fixt
plan, unless it be frequently rearranjed and recatalogd, a procedure too
expensiv even for very wclthy libraries. Relativ sistem clas and book
numbers remain unchanjed thru all chanjes of shelving, bildings or order
of clases.

Amung hundreds of points raizd by librarians as to its practical workings
and usefulness, the only one in which it was not shown to be equal or superior
to erlier sistems was that in this relativ location a book which this ye ar

1 For suggestions regarding best forms of book numbers see p. 32 s ~33'.

CATALOGS

stands, e. g. at the end of a certain shelf, may not be on that shelf at all
another year, becauz of uneven growth of parts of the library. This slyt
objection, however, inheres in any sistem where books ar arranjed by sub-
jects, rather than by shelvs, windows, doors, and similar non-intelectual
distinctions.

Sizes on shelvs Most libraries hav abandond close distinction of sizes.
It is true that this distinction saves a litl space, but at far too great a
cost; for every distinction of sizes makes a paralel clasification. If books
ar groupt in 5 sizes, one must look in 5 places before he can be sure of having
seen them all.

It is better to shelv octavos and all smaller books together in 1 series,
and arranje in paralel libraries only quartos and folios, which ar too larj
to stand on regular shelvs, showing series in which any oversize book is
put by a size letter prefixt to the book or clas number; e. g. 749 qA or
q749 A shows that book A on Artistic furniture is too larj for regular
shelvs, and so is placed in q or quarto series. Or uze a wood or pasteboard
dummy to show location of a book not in its regular place. But, however
solvd, size problems ar no more trublsum with Decimal than with any
other clasification.

Catalogs

Any sistem of catalogs may be uzed with this skeme, but the 2 essentials
of even the simplest sistem ar name or author catalog and shelflist. The
chief uses of this sistem for catalogs ar for shelflists and for clast catalogs
on cards.

Name catalog In this, arranjed strictly by names of authors and of
persons or places writn about, the clas number holds a subordinate place,
yet is constantly useful. If printed, it appears in a singl colum as in the
Relativ Index, and where there is no subject catalog one can rapidly pik
out books on any topic by glancing down colum for clas number wanted.

Shelflist Here clas number is again hyly important, as it makes this
list the most useful form of brief subject catalog, giving author's name
and brief title of every book on specific subject bearing that clas
number.

Clast catalog In the clast card catalog the clasification is mapt out
abuv the cards by projecting gyds, making reference almost instantaneus.
Subjects ar arranjed in 1, 2, 3 order of their decimal subject numbers
exactly as in clas tables, and cards of each subject ar then subarranjed
alfabeticly by authors (or, in sum cases, e. g. biografy or local history,
by subjects) or cronolojicly, or by book numbers.

The printed subject catalog on this plan is also most compact and satis-
factory in use. Under each clas number ar givn the library's resources
on that subject, the heding giv ing, for convenience, name as wel as number
of subject; e. g. '513 Jeometry'. Jeneral notes ar printed in finer typ under

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

jeneral heds, and a relativ index at the end shows just where to open the
book to find any topic. As clas numbers ar put in place of paje numbers,
this index servs for any catalog, list or library arranjed on this plan.

Dictionary catalog The dictionary catalog is as eazily uzed with this
sistem as with any other, and is at present on the crest of its wave of
popularity. Its failure to meet skolars' requirements has often been pointed
out. While far the best for an index, it stil leavs much need of a good clast
catalog. But difficulties both of making and of uzing a clast catalog
wer formerly so great that there was a conviction amung many librarians
that notwithstanding its great advantajes, the idea must be abandond
as impracticabl, tho other eminent authorities ably argued that the
poorest clast catalog was better than one unclast, and that any use of such
a catalog was in itself a lesson in bibliografy. Now that the serius difficulties
of making a good clast catalog hav been so larjly removed by the simpl
arabic numerals and Relativ Index of this decimal plan, the merits of clast
over the more common dictionary sistems ar dubly prominent.

The Subject Index of this sistem is a skeleton dictionary catalog, cover-
ing everything not fully coverd by the ' name catalog '. Insted of giving
book titles under each hed, the number refers to all those titles simply and
directly. The index may be made on any of the varius dictionary plans,
with all the advantajes it may possess. To us, simplest seemd best. We
giv only short heds with brief indication in doutful cases of viewpoint
taken in assyning clas numbers.

We therefore unite advantajes of dictionary and clast catalogs, not by
mingling them and so losing much of simplicity of one and as much of
excelence of the other, but by realy uzing both, each with its own merits.
Only one set of titles is needed, for our clas numbers make this availabl
for both catalogs.

Shelvs The sistem on the shelvs is the simplest form of relativ location.
Many libraries hav adopted it for shelf arranjement. where catalogs recently
printed, or larj investment in another plan, made it too expensiv to chanje
anything else. For its great advantajes for shelvs see p. 2i 9 -23 1 , Relativ

location.

Shelflist By simply printing the shelflist at any time an admirabl
subject clas list is made for any topic on which there may be present interest ;
e. g. if a town contemplates a new water supply, interest is greatly stimu-
lated, and everything about waterworks is wanted. The librarian has only
to open his shelflist to 628.1 and 352.6 and print it. This great advantaj
is gaind with but slyt variation from the form found best in its regular
use as a shelflist for examination of shelvs to detect losses and misplace-
ments.

Accession book Where shelf mark colums ar uzed, tables of number of
books aded on each subject ar redily made. A glance shows caracter,

by subjects, of books aded during any givn period; for, wherever, this clas
number occurs, it tels not only where the book is shelvd but also whaU it is

Pamflets These clas numbers applyd to pamflets, whether catalogd or
uncatalogd, hav proved specialy satisfactory. Number is writn on
upper left corner, and pamflets ar shelvd in pamflet boxes, side by side
with books on same subject, or they may be kept in vertical files or
on special shelvs divided every 10 cm by perpendicular partitions, or, if
preferd, each pamflet may be put in exact place as if bound. Litl expense
is incurd, and yet entire pamflet resources of the library on any subject
can be produced almost instantly. The immense advantajes of this
clast arranjement, both in economy and usefulness, wil be appreciated by
every keeper of a pamflet colection. A name or author catalog is made
on slips if time allows. The pamflets themselvs ar the best subject catalog.
Placing all material under its clas number on regular shelvs, has the great
advantaj of enabling anyone examining a subject to see all resources in
i place, so far as posibl.

Sale duplicates The same arranjement is admirabl here. Duplicates
ar so constantly chanjing that a catalog can hardly be afforded, and a
subject arranjement on any other plan than this is difficult to maintain.
Stil, it is very important that there be sum means of knowing what duplicates
there ar on any givn subject. By simply penciling clas numbers on books
and arranjing these numericly, it is posibl to giv the information more
quikly, cheaply and satisfactorily than in any other way.

Charjing sistem Clas numbers may be uzed for charjing with the fol-
simply counting charjes and entering the number for each clas on a report
sheet. If filing is dun by call numbers, as either a primary or a secondary
consideration, whereabouts of any book lent or amount of use of any
subject is quikly found , file givs an up-to-date record of all books lent in
any subject; e. g. cards filed under 52 show for Astronomy or those under
822 for English drama just how many and what books ar out and who
hav them. Such a circulation table, always at hand, and with no extra
expense or labor, since it is a natural part of the sistem, is hyly prized by
all interested in caracter of jeneral use of the library, while it can by
trifling labor be converted into a permanent record by entering on a
report sheet. If a reader's card is uzed, caracter of the individual's reading
is here shown and never before has so much attention as now been givn to

Subject references For these it has peculiar advantajes. Many uzers
ar undertaking analises and cros references to an extent hitherto tho't
wholy or almost imposibl. These few figures tel as clearly as a long hed-
ing exactly what the reference is, while gain in eaz of use is even greater
than in time and space saved in recording. The clearness and directness

26

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

of the method aid wonderfuly in this work. References to transactions,
or chapters in essays, may be made in the most compact and uzabl form.

this plan and began torecatalog its library, it was found (as in hundreds of
cases since) entirely practicabl to chanje to the new sistem gradualy, as
means allowd, without interfering in any appreciabl degree with circulation.
Methods employd for thus chanjing without interrupting use must vary
according to different conditions. The essential feature is enuf distinction
between old and new call numbers to be eazily recognized by attendants.
If old call numbers consist wholy of figures, the initial letter of the Cutter
author numbers furnishes this reqaisit. All numbers of figures only ar
then recognized as old, and all numbers containing a letter as in the new
sistem.

Adaptability The sistem is so flexibl that it adapts itself to almost any
circumstances. It may be uzed with proportionate results in almost any
one of its applications without the others. It may be applyd to pamflets
alone, bringing order out of caos, and solving this vext and vexing prob-
lem; or it may be uzed for catalogs, leaving shelf arranjement as before;
or it may be applyd to shelvs, while the catalog is dictionary or any other
typ.

Arabic numerals Arabic numerals can be writn and found quicker
and with les danjer of confuzion or mistake than any other simbols. There-
fore roman numerals, capitals and small letters, and similar simbols found
in most clasification sistems ar entirely discarded, and by exciusiv use of
arabic numerals thruout shelvs, and indexes, catalogs and other records,
there is secured the greatest accuracy, economy and convenience. This
advantaj is specialy prominent in comparison with sistems where author's
name or the title must be writn, in calling for or charjing books and in
making references.

Endowment of special departments Another great advantaj is peculiar
adaptability to special endowments. One specialy interested in any sub-
ject can often be induced to endow that subject, thus providing for bying
each year all the best publications.

If John Doe is specialy interested in opera, the library says: 1 Giv us
\$1000 as endowment of 782, and we wil call it the ' Doe Library of Dramatic
Music '. There wil be found every book, pamflet, newspaper clipping, or
manuscript that the library has or can get on this subject. Gifts from
others wil be placed in the Doe Library, the donor's name being givn
on the bookplate, and for jenerations to cum every person interested in
opera wil be grateful for yur foundation '. In this way 782 is assynd to
John Doe, and his pride is stimulated in developing it. If another man
with larjer means and interest wil endow the whole subject of music 780,
there is no difficulty or impropryety in including 782, the Doe Dramatic
Music Library, as the 2d section of 780, the Roe Music Library.

SUGJESTIONS TO UZERS 27

This is one of the most promising fields for development, for almost
every library has amung its readers sum specialy interested, who if properly
approacht wud endow sum topic, even if a small one, and this relativ
location, with its definit number expressing just the ground coverd, may be
of great servis in working up these special endowments.

Summary To sum up its claims: It is by far most inexpensiv; eazily
understood, rememberd and uzed; practical rather than theoretic; brief
and familiar in nomenclature; susceptibl of partial and gracTual adoption
without confuzion; convenient for arranging pamflets, sale duplicates, and
notes, and for indexing, and in keeping statistics and cheks for books off
shelvs; a satisfactory adaptation of card catalog principl to shelvs. It
shelvs books compactly; uzes simpl and few simbols; can be expanded,
without limit and without confuzion or wasted labor, both in catalogs
and on shelvs or in catalogs alone ; cheks thuroly and conveniently against
mistakes; admits redily numerus cros references; is unchanjeabl in its
call numbers, and so givs them in all places where needed; in its Index
affords an anser to the greatest objection to clast catalogs, and was the
1st satisfactory union of the advantajes of clast and dictionary sistems.

Sugjestions to uzers

Hold book in ryt hand and turn with left, then both clas numbers
and index heds show most plainly on left marjins and reference is quicker
when eye follows left pajes only.

Numeration In thinking or speaking of clas numbers, to avoid confuz-
ion always divide at the decimal point, and name it; e. g. read 942.27
' nine forty-two, point twenty-seven ', never ' ninety-four two twenty-
seven '. If 'point' wer omitted, the ear myt redily interpret 270.2
(two seventy, two) as 272, while ' two seventy, point two ' can never be
misunderstood.

Plan of book

Tables First paje shows 10 clases into which all topics ar divided.
Next paje shows 9 divisions of each of these 10 clases, in a birdseye view
of the whole skeme on a singl paje. Then follows a sinoptic view
of 10 pajes, one for each clas, showing the 9 sections of each division of
each clas.

Following these sinopses is the complete clasification, which repeats
in proper order, clases, divisions and sections, with all subsections. For
convenience of uzers, who thus get fuller and clearer ideas of the field which
each number covers, sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and
varius each words ar often aded to main heds. Therefore all references to
numbers shud be lookt up in the ful tables of subsections, uzing summaries
only when a merely sinoptic view is wisht.

Index Next an alfabetic index of all heds refers by clas number to
exact place of each in Tables. This Index includes also, as far as found,

98

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

all sinonims or alternativ names for heds, and any other entries likely to
help a reader find his subject more redily. Even a uzer who knows just
where to turn to his subject in the Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be
put on the trak of valuabl allyd matter which he myt otherwize overlook.

Use of Tables and Index

Familiarity* with Clasification Get a jeneral knowlej of the skeme by
lerning the 10 main clascs [yu wil soon know the 100 divisions also without
special study], so that yu can tel to what subject a givn number belongs
from its ist figure, without referring to Tables. Specific knowlej of minute
divisions wil cum gradualy, but rapidly, from use. Assyn numbers by uzing
Tables alone, and then always verify yur result by the Index. Thus
yu wil more rapidly acquire knowlej of the Clasification and facility in
its use. To do this, decide first to which of the 10 clases the subject belongs ;
next, take that clas as if there wer no other, and decide to which of its
10 divisions the subject belongs; then, in the same way, select section and
subsection, thus running down yur topic in its groovs, which becum
10-fold narrower at each step. As a chek against error, even tho familiar
with the skeme, uze Index freely.

Subject of a book To find this out, consult :

1 Title, since it is jeneraly chosen to show what the book is about,
but as many titles ar vague or misleading, never clas from title alone
but always examin also

2 Contents table, which is best gyd to true subject. If there is no

3 Hedings of chapters, or marjinal topics

4 Preface Unless alredy certain, glance thru this to each author's
viewpoint and verify impressions gaind from title and contents

5 Reference books If preceding means fail, consult relyabl bibliografies,
clast and annotated catalogs, biografic dictionaries, histories of literature,
cyclopedias, reviews etc. for information about caracter of book.

6 Subject matter If 5 shorter methods abuv fail, examin subject
matter of book itself, and if stil in dout, to avoid mistakes, put aside on
an ' under consideration ' shelf til yu can examin more thuroly or consult

7 Specialists Experts ar uzualy glad to examin any new books in their
departments, enuf to clas them, i. e. to define their true subject and rela-
tions. Old ones they know where to put alredy.

Be specialy careful when dealing with flexibl terms, e. g. child welfare,
to make sure of the caracter of its application in that individual book.

After deciding what the book is about, find this subject in Tables,
either thru Index or by uzing Tables directly, which for beginners is a
longer process, seldom to be trusted without subsequent reference to
Index ; e. g. Pollock's Land laws myt naturaly be clast from Tables alone

ASSYNING CLAS NUMBERS

29

as ' 333, Land: ownership; ryts; rent ', which seems exactly to fit this book.
Index, however, shows 2 numbers, both referring to land laws, but
from different viewpoints; i.e. 347.2, legal, and 333, economic. The object
of tin's book, as seen in the preface, is to giv a popular presentation of
English statutes pertaining to landholding, not to discuss history and theory
of land laws from economist's viewpoint. It should be clast ' 347.2, Realty ',
which myt hav been overlookt but for Index.

Assyning clas numbers 1 Practical usefulness controls. Put each book
under the subject to the student of which it is most useful , unless local
reazons 1 attract ' it to a place stil more useful in yur library. See p. 30 3 .

2 Content or real subject of which a book treats, and not form or acci-
dental wording of title, determins its place. Following this rule, put a
filosofy of art with Art, not with Filosofy; a history of mathematics with
Mathematics, not with History; for filosofy or history is simply the form
which these books hav taken. Their true content or subject is Art or
Mathematics, and to the student of these subjects they ar most useful.

3 Always remember that the question is not ' where wil one probably
look for a certain book ', but ' under what subject is the book of greatest
value ' ; e. g. it is of litl consequence whether ' one wud be apt to look '
under 595.16 for Darwin's Formation of vegetable mould, but of much conse-
quence that one studying erth worms shud find that book in 595.16 Erth-
worms, since it is chiefly valuabl as a study of erth worms' habits. Anyone
wanting that special book shud look for it in catalog under Darwin.

4 Giv every book most specific number which wil contain it. This
varies in different libraries according to number of figures uzed, e. g.
specific number for ' compulsory vaccination ' is 614.4738 ; but in a library
uzing only 3 figures, 'most specific' number posibl is 614, which must
take everything on Public helth.

Sumtimes a library unwizely puts all books of a division together,
if but few; e. g. all mathematical works ar markt 510. It takes just as
many figures and in most cases just as much labor and if a man wants
the 1 calculus in the whole library he has to serch thru perhaps 100 volumes
in 510, when otherwize he wud instantly find it standing alone as 517.
See also p. 3 1 1 , Number of figures in clas number.

5 ' Predominant tendency ' or obvius purpose of a book uzualy decides
its number at once. Stil a book often treats of 2 or more subjects. In
such cases put it where it wil be most useful, and make aded entries for
all subordinate subjects. For a clast catalog giv the aded entry numbers
on both bookplate and main subject card as wel as on aded entry cards.

from time to time at convenience. It is necesary at first to determin
only predominant tendency of book in order to clas it; aded entries ar

30

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Supply these numbers indicating more closely caracter of book as
rapidly as posibl, and invite all specialists, in connection with their reading,
to call attention to every desirabl aded topic notist. The numbers take
litl room, ar eazily aded, and in most cases ar very valuabl.

6 If 2 subjects hav distinct paje limits, jeneraly clas under ist and make
analitic entry under 2d; but if 2d is decidedly more important or much
greater in bulk, clas under that, with analitic entry under ist. Always
put a book under ist subject, unless there is good reazon for entering it
under another.

7 Consider not only scope and tendency of each book, but also nature
and specialties of each library.

Any subject of which a library makes a specialty naturaly ' attracts '
allyd subjects. This influence is strongest in minute clasing. To admit
this variation, many subjects hav in this skeme 2 or more places, according
to these different sides; e. g. abockon' skoolhyjiene', whichamedical library
puts under 613, has also a place in 371.7, where education specialists require
it.

8 If a book treats of a majority of the sections of any division, giv it
division number, insted of most important section number with aded
entries. Unless sum one section is so prominently treated as to warrant
placing the book in it, clas a book covering 4 or more sections under divi-
sion number; e. g. clas a volume on lyt, heat and sound, under hed most
fully discust, with aded entries for the others; but if it treats also of
mekanics, hydrostatics and neumatics, clas as 530, or jeneral fizics, tho no
mention be made of electricity, magnetism or molecular fizics.

9 When a book deals with 2 consecutiv and closely allyd subjects, jen-
eraly clas with ist and regard this as including 2d, but if 2d is decidedly
predominant, clas with this and either disregard ist or make aded entry,
according to importance of that portion.

10 To secure uniformity, make for future reference ful notes of all
difficulties and decisions, for it is more important to put books on same
subject together than to put them in a more nearly absolutely correct
place. These notes shud be writn on broad marjins of the Clas Tables
or in an interleavd copy or on P slips arranjed by clas numbers like a
clast catalog. .

1 1 Keep colected works, libraries etc. together, and assyn, like individual
books, to most specific hed that wil contain them; or assyn to most promi-
nent of varius subjects treated, with aded entries for others; or, better,
separate and clas parts as independent works.

This last practis constantly grows in favor, and many librarians now
larjly disregard uniform bindings and 1 series ' lettering, and, unless con-
tents of volumes ar so connected that they can not be separated, clas
each under most specific hed that wil contain it.

ASSYNINO CLAS NUMBERS -51

12 Clas translations reviews, keys, analises, ansers and other books
about specific books with orijinal book, as being there most useful.

Number of figures uzed in clas number Decide this according to cir-
cumstances in each library. Small libraries often uze minute subsections
beyond 3 figures only in certain divisions like Travel, 913-919, where
closer jeografic division is specialy needed, and in 400 and 800, when a 4th
figure is needed to separate different languajes.

In very small colections 2 figures myt do til growth required further
division; but it is economy, and saves handling books again, to uze at least
3 figures at first, even in smallest colections. In larjer or rapidly growing
libraries all subdivisions may be uzed for same reazon, tho number of books
may not then seem to justify it. Whether there ar 1 or 1000 books on any
topic, they take no more shelf space if clast minutely, and work is dun
once for all. When larj accessions cum, even if a century later, this number
wil not hav to be alterd. A library having but 20 books on Education
myt think it unwize to uze the ful skeme, but the whole 20 wud go on
a singl shelf, and take no more room, and the Index wud refer more
exactly to what was wanted. Number of books yu hav on any subject
has in this sistem no special weight. In relativ location, any number of
consecutiv topics without a book wastes no space on shelvs or in catalogs.
Numbers ar merely skipt. This not only does no harm, but has great
negativ value, as looking for a number and finding it blank or skipt shows
that yu hav nothing on that subject — information 2d in value only to find-
ing sumthing, for one need no longer serch.

The practical objection to close clasing is that it givs a longer number,
when this is uzed to charj by in a lending library. In a reference library
ful subsections shud always be uzed. Where short numbers ar imperative
giv ful clas number on another part of the bookplate, not to be uzed in
charjing, but as a gyd to contents. Thus when a clasifyer has once examind
a book and found out just what it is about, he records it to benefit others.

Bilding numbers

Jeografic divisions In dividing by cuntries according to note ' Divided
like 930-999', found so often in Tables, ad only the number following initial
9, for this 9 means not locality but simply clas 9, History; e. g. 942, history
of England, analyzd is 9 history, 42 England (4 Europe, 2 England).
If jeolojy of England is wanted, ad to 55 (jeolojy number) 42 (number for
England) and yu hav 554.2. History of N Y state is 974.7, of which 747
is locality number; 353.9747, number for N Y state administration, is
N Y state, 747.

Languaj and literature In 890, where directed to ' divide like 490 ',
note that 890, Minor literatures, and 490, Minor languajes, correspond
exactly, so that only figures following 49 ar to be aded to 89 to bild a minor
literature number; e. g. Polish languaj is 491.85; ading 185 to 89, Minor

9

32 DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

literatures, givs 891.85 Polish literature. In brief, to form literature
from filolojy numbers substitute 8 for 1st figure, 4; e. g. Sanskrit languaj
491.2, Sanskrit literature 891.2. Under 490, the filolojic divisions (diction-
aries, grammar etc.), and under 890 the form divisions (poetry, drama
etc.) shud be uzed only when clas number represents a' specific languaj
or literature, e. g. 491.7 Russian, but not 497 North American, awaiting
further division by languaj.

If directed to ' divide like main clasification ', as in 016, number for
required subject is aded exactly as it stands in Tables; e. g. bibliografy of
Polish poetry, 016.891851.

Combining numbers in a way not printed in Tables must be dun with
great care, or confuzion results. Many uzers, fascinated with the posi-
bilities of the sistem, make combinations more injenius than useful; e. g.
'The horse's foot and how to shoe it ' was once markt 636.1682, i. e.
blaksmithing number, 682, aded to horse number, 636.1. Horseshoeing
is now in Tables as 682.1, while 636.168 means American ponies.

Often a clasifyer ads a figure to show sum distinction. It seems short
and desirabl, but later he may find he has shut himself off from uzing sum
other division greatly preferd. For his personal aditions, letters or other
simbols not numbers shud be uzed. Every aded simbol must be clearly
writn in Tables and Index. Never trust memory for decisions.

Book numbers

The call number of a book (number by which it is cald for) jeneraly
consists of both clas and book numbers. The same clas number applys to
all books on same subject ; the book number distinguishes each individual
work from all others in that clas, and is the same for all volumes or copies
of same work. When a specific volume is wanted the number for that
volume must be aded to clas and book numbers to complete the call number.
Most important methods of assyning book numbers ar:

Author numbers Invention of translation sistems by which a name is
represented by its initial, with remaining letters translated into numbers,
e. g. Freeman, F85, has led most libraries to arranje books under each
clas number alfabeticly by authors, or in local history by towns, or in
individual biografy and bibliografy by biografees and bibliografees. This
keeps together all works by same author or on same town or same biografee,
etc. and even in larj clases enables one to find any book redily without con-
sulting catalogs. One great advantaj is that same author has same book
number in every subject; i. e. figures ar ' significant ' like our clas numbers,
and translate themselvs into names. Great practical nemonic convenience
results from this form of book number. Most widely uzed of these trans-
lation sistems is C. A. Cutter's, known as ' Cutter numbers', publisht by
Library Bureau.

BOOK NUMBERS

33

Special author tables A 2d method, for authors having special
numbers, e. g. Shakspere, 822.33, or Milton, 821.47, is uniform use for
such authors, of book numbers A-N, with O-Z assynd on basis of their
individual works, as ilustrated under ' Special author tables', on pajes
following Relativ Index.

Time numbers A 3d arrangement of books under clas numbers is crono-
lojic by date of 1st publication. Its advantaj is in presenting historic
development of subject, the book writn erliest being on the left, the latest
work on the ryt, and then of any givn book it is evident that all those on
the left wer writn before it, all those on the ryt after it. In syence and useful
arts this has special value, while in literature author arranjement is better.
W. S. Biscoe's translation sistem of dates givs a more compact and satis-
factory mark for year than date writn in ful. (For ful explanations
and table see ' Biscoe time numbers ', on pajes following Relativ Index)

Accession order A 4th arranjement, simpler but otherwize les desirabl,
is in accession order; 1st book put in a clas being numberd 1, the 2d 2,
the 3d 3.

I

It is entirely practicabl to uze 2, 3 or all 4 of these methods at same
time in same library, one peculiarity of the sistem being the eaz with which
of the cronolojic numbering ar most markt in syence and useful arts ; the
alfabetic is best in clases where names of authors or subjects outrank
dates; and special author numbers in cases where clas number alredy
indicates author, so corresponding indication in book number wud be
useless duplication; while the old accession-order plan is good in special
colections which must be kept separate and ar no longer aded to, since
here the extreme simplicity of 1, 2, 3 order is secured with no sacrifice.
It is stil better, if this last method is uzed, to adopt A, B, C, insted of 1 ,
2, 3, as 26 insted of 9 books may be markt with 1 caracter, and chiefly
becauz it is hyly desirabl that each book number begin with a letter, which
can not be mistaken for end of clas number if writn on same line; e. g.
1st book under 513, if numberd 1, myt be so writn as to confuze with sub-
section 513.1, but 5 13 A cud not be misinterpreted. If figures ar uzed,
take care to write them as a fraction or with separating dash; e. g. 513
or 513-1. 1

Variations practicabl in adjusting to special local
requirements

Sum uzers assume that adopting Decimal Clasification and Relativ
Index carries with it other parts of the sistem uzed by the author at
Amherst, Wellesley or Columbia colejes or in New York State Library.
In fact, the plan in each differd sumwhat from all the others, and many of
the thousands of public and private libraries now uzing it hav adopted stil
other variations; for special constituency, circumstances and resources of
each library must be considerd in deciding what is best for it. This decision

34

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

shud be made by one familiar, not only with the library and its needs,
but also with all methods of any merit and with comparativ eaz and cost
of introducing them into any givn library.

Cautions Having decided to adopt this sistem in its decimal form as
workt out and printed, determin whether to adopt certain variations,
noted in 1-5 below as practicabl, and in sum cases useful and desirabl.
The inexperienst uzer is very likely to feel entirely competent, without
reading more than a singl paje of the Tables, regardless of its bearings on
hundreds of other places, and without so much as looking at the author's
explanations, to institute a series of 1 improvements '. Experience shows
that nothing cud be more disastrus. It seems a simpl matter to put
a topic a line hyer or lower, but in sum cases this may affect over 100
Index entries, and there is no posibl way to be sure of correcting them except
by examining each of 43,000 heds. Proposed chanjes, carefuly studid out
and submitted as improvements, ar frequently shown by our old records
to hav been adopted and uzed in the exact form proposed til unforeseen
considerations forst us to chanje to the form as printed. Even after years
of experience one is not safe in pronouncing on an apparent improvement
without consulting voluminus records of previus experiments.

Even sum who hav uzed the sistem longest hav been misled into adopt-
ing chanjes which on tryal they wer compeld to reject, going bak to
orijinal form at cost and confuzion of 2 chanjes. In so apparently simpl
a thing as introducing subdivisions on blank numbers, mistakes ar often
made; and when too late to correct them the makers regret their neglect
to consult the editor and secure advice and cooperation of those most
familiar with the manifold interrelations. Even wer the independent
divisions equaly good, they do not agree with those which wil later be
printed in Tables and Index, so that every copy of the printed skeme
wil hav to be corrected in manuscript before it is uzabl in that library.
The only safe rule is to make no chanjes or subdivisions without submitting
them to the editor, who wil gladly advize on such matters without charj,
not on ground of any superior wizdom, nor even becauz of larjer experi-
ence in this special work, but becauz in this way only can it be lernd if
corresponding subdivisions hav been alredy assynd sum what differently.

A uzer who adopts printed form avoids criticizm sure to be aimd at
any posibl skeme. The moment he makes 1 ' improvement ' he must
defend all his heds or alter them to suit each critic. . Much time is saved by
saying that the skeme is uzed as printed, and blunders ar the author's,
not the uzer's. A list of chanjes made by others without consultation was
writn for this caution, but is omitted lest it seem invidius. It ilustrates
how eazy it is for able men to make what no one questions after explanation
to hav been outryt blunders, in 1 improving and ading to ' the printed skeme.
We ar always grateful for sugjestions from anyone, and, having alredy
spent so much time in efforts to improve this sistem for the common good of
all uzers, invite cooperation of those interested in completing needed sub-
divisions and eliminating any errors that remain in either Tables or Index.

VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS

35

Sugjested variations

The following brief notes show the most important variations found
practicabl in the ' relativ index and location sistem,' oftcner cald the
Decimal Clasifi cation or ' Dewey sistem ', or oftenest simply 1 D C '.
For its essentials see p. 1 1 6 .

i Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions To protect other
uzers from confuzion, the publishers insist, as entitled to by copyryt,
that D C numbers shal not be printed with chanjed meanings or aditions,
without sum clear indication of the fact in the number itself. If reazons
which led to adoption of form printed ar not conclusiv to another, we
wish to remove any obstacls to his use of the sistem with such chanjes as
shal satisfy him. This can redily be dun by uzing a letter or sum other
caracter than the 10 dijits, to mark chanjes; e. g. if yu wish a different set
of subdivisions under any number, make it out to suit, and letter it a,
b, c, etc. It wil arranje in its exact place and exact order without difficulty,
and no other uzer of the sistem wil be confuzed by yur forms. In Index,
cancel r, 2, 3, etc. yu hav discarded, and write in a, b, c, etc. adopted.
Whenever yu uze our exact numbers, uze also our exact and universal
meanings for them as indext. For any aditions or chanjes of yur own,
uze letters or simbols of yur own which can not be mistaken for ours, uzing,
of course, our figures to the place where difference begins; e. g. if yu want a
new heding next to 551.34, Icebergs, it can not properly go as decimal 1.
Mark it 551.34a, and it arranjes as wisht. If yu wish to chanje a hed from
one place to another, cancel it where it stands, and leav that number blank
in Tables. Then insert the hed in its new place as abuv, as if it had never
been in our Tables. Unuzed decimals ar often alredy appropriated for
authorized subdivisions, tho they may not be printed til several editions
later.

This plan of introducing letters or other simbcls wherever each uzer
pleazes, wil giv all needed freedom to the personal equation and desire
for 1 orijinality ', and meet all real wants for peculiar clasification in
peculiar cases.

Fiction In sum cases it is uzualy best to modify clas numbers by
letters as abuv. In popular libraries half the circulation is often fiction.
It is a great saving to omit clas number entirely and uze merely book
number, it being understood that no clas number means 'fiction '. Sum
libraries go stil further and for fiction omit book number as wel as clas
number. Sum even omit book numbers in other clases.

Juvenils After fiction, great circulation makes juvenils a good place
to economize, if they ar kept separate, as is uzualy desirabl in popular
libraries. Books ar clast as if for adults (except that a short number
may be uzed) J being prefixt to show their special caracter. This givs J
alone as clas number for juvenil fiction ; J942 is a child's history of
England. These books ar arranjed in a paralel library by themselvs,
so J942 cums between J941, juvenil history of Scotland, and J043. juvenil
history of Germany.

36

DECIMAL CI.AS IH CATION

The separate J library can at any time be abandond by distributing J
books amung the regular clases, either ignoring J entirely, or preferably
by putting all J books by themselvs at end of each clas number. In
former case, if shorter numbers hav been uzed for juveniis than for
adults they shud be extended to correspond ; in latter case, numbers may
either be extended and the books shelvd at end of exact subdivision, or
the shorter numbers may be retaind and the books groupt at end of
entire section, e. g. all juvenil works on English history may be kept
under short number J942 and shelvd after all adult works on English
history, both 942 alone and 942 with subdivisions.

There ar thus 3 methods: 1, to hav a separate J library; 2, to hav
J books by themselvs at end of each clas number; 3, to hav J books in
alfabetic order amung other books on same subject. In this last case
J is useful only to call attention plainly to their juvenil caracter.

Unless shorter numbers ar uzed for juveniis than for adults the same
marking is uzed for all these plans, and one can be chanjed to another
by simply distributing books the other way and teling attendants.

Biografy For this larj clas, opinions differ as to best treatment. Beside
the plan printed in Tables the following methods ar widely uzed.

For individual biografy, i. e. that relating to a singl person (including
books containing biografies of not more than 4 persons)

1 Put all biografies in one alfabet of names of persons writn about,
uzing 92 for clas number, and indicating the subject or biografee by a
Cutter book number; e. g. life of Grant, 92 G76. This is most compact
for charjing, and is preferd in popular libraries of larj circulation. Insted
of 92 for clas number, B is often uzed, but is les desirabl, since it has no
lojical place in a numeric arranjement on shelvs and is sumtimes confuzed
with the author's initial in fiction.

2 Distribute biografy as far as posibl to subjects it ilustrates, leaving,
of course, under 920 the lives not bearing specialy on any subject; e. g. all
lives of musicians go under 780 and its subdivisions, life of Wagner being
782 . 2 insted of 927 . 82 as in Tables. When 9 is uzed to indicate history
of a special subject, 92 may be uzed for its biografy; e. g. 780.9 History
of music, 780.92 Biografy of musicians.

Collectiv biografy may be clast in a singl group under 920, or by subject
under 920-928, as in Tables, or distributed thruout the clasification,
according to 2d plan givn abuv for individual biografy, subarranjement
with any of these methods being alfabetic by author.

Paralel libraries This treatment of fiction, juveniis and biografy ilus-
trates the principl. Its other chief application is for languaj colections.
Sum libraries hav a constituency not reading English, and so need a
paralel library in Italian or Swedish, etc. This is most eazily made by
simply prefixing languaj initial to clas number. If arranjed in one scries
of subjects this initial is ignored, or all books in the special languajes
may be groupt under initial letters at end of each clas number. The

VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS

37

paralel library is made by simply putting together all books having same
languaj initial and then arranjing by clas numbers. Initials uzed ar F,
French, G, German, I, Italian, Sp, Spanish, Sw, Swedish, Dn, Danish, Du,
Dutch, N, Norwegian, W, Welsh, A, Arabic, etc. Where only i languaj is so
markt in a givn library, jeneraly only i letter shud be uzed, so as to avoid
an extra letter in charjing; e. g. S wilanser for either Spanish or Swedish if
uzed in only i sense. A prefixt letter may, however, hav been uzed with a
different meaning, e. g. R for Reference, necesitating more than i letter for
the languaj prefix, even if only I languaj is represented by the initial,
e. g. Ru for Russian. This plan has proved very satisfactory in actual use.

Combining languaj and literature Same principl can be applyd also
in combining each languaj with its literature, if it is preferd to abolish
clas Filolojy, and make it simply an appendix to Literature; e. g. uzing
82f for English filolojy and ading filolojy subdivisions, English diction-
aries wud becum 82f3, English grammars 82f5, etc. arranjed either just
before or just after English literature, 820, 821, etc. and reverse wud hold
true if a filolojist wisht to abolish Literature and make it an appendix
to Filolojy. For a better plan see p. 3Q 2 - 8 , Broken order.

Reference library To separate books most needed, the best plan is
to mark R before clas numbers, and arranje books together as an R library.
When books ar to go into jeneral colection again, draw a line thru this
letter.

In same way it frequently happens that a jeneral private library is givn
on condition that it be kept together; e. g. Phoenix library of Columbia
University. This has P prefixt to clas number, and thus is a paralel library
by itself. An initial is better than * or similar mark, for it helps memory
and is just as brief. Same plan applys if the library has an ' inferno '
for books not uzed without permits, or for distant rooms where books worth
keeping but seldom cald for can be arranjed in a paralel storaj library.

Stil another provision is made in 080, 8 being regular number for jeneral
colections (as in 508, 520.8 etc.), for those special libraries which can not
be separated becauz of binding or conditions of gift; but insted of the
3 figures in 080, a singl letter, as described abuv, indicates the special col-
ection, and it is eazy to lern location of the few special colections of any
one library.

Omission of initial o in the clas ' Jeneral works ' has been tryd; e. g.
51 insted of 051 for an American periodical, but is not advized, for the
eye gets so in the habit of reading as Syence any number beginning with
5, that there is a mental hich if, e. g. jeneral periodicals ar writn 51, etc.
insted of 051, etc. Another reazon is that Institut International de
Bibliographic (see p. 40 3 ) regards as neglijibl a final o and uzes the 1 and
2 figure numbers as we uze those same numbers fild out by o to 3 figures,
e. g. 1 for filosofy, like our 100, 22 for Bible, like our 220. Also in
clasification it sumtimes happens that the 1st 2 figures ar obvi'us at a

3«

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

glance, but time must be taken to determin the 3d. It is convenient to
write these 1st figures, but if a mathematical book receivs its 1st 2
figures (51), this unfinisht number is likely to be confuzed with the
2-figure number 51. This danjer may be larjly avoided by writing the
decimal point after a blank; e. g. 51 ., to show that a figure is omitted.

2 Contractions for specialists The sistcm is often uzed by specialists
for very minute work, where decimals run out to 6 or more places.
Theoreticly it is better to write all these figures, thus showing re lation to
the universe of knowlej, but there is no practical gain to justify the labor
if a great quantity of slips must be numberd. A specialist working on
' Swedish poetry of the aje of Gustavus ' can uze a singl letter insted of
the ful 839.715 and save 5 caracters in numbering each note; or a dash
may be writn for all but the last figure, thus ' — 5 '. A body of such notes
can be inserted together in their place in an index at 839.7 15, with a colord
card to mark the special groups, with litl danjer of confuzion. Stil a stickler
for theoretic completeness wil write a ful index number for each separate
slip.

3 Use of alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions While our plan is
decimal as distinguisht from ' dictionary ' we always alfabet wherever
that is more useful. Indeed, the main feature of our plan is its alfabetic
Relativ Index. Frequently in minute divisions it is economy to arranje
alfabeticly or by dates without uzing a translation sistem. This is specialy
true in index rerums and notes of specialists. After numbers hav been
uzed as far as that is the most useful form, then either the name chosen for
hed or the year can be inserted at the end; e. g. towns in a givn state,
individual birds or insects cuming under one number, names of men
writn about in biografy, etc. Sum may prefer to adopt this plan in places
where we hav chosen a grouping; e. g. in chemistry, to put all metals in one
alfabet under 546.3, insted of uzing numbers 546. 3-. 99. If this chanje is
wisht, a more complete one wil probably be better: put all elements,
metallic and nonmetallic, in 1 alfabet under 546. Such use of the alfabet
cauzes no confuzion with the Index, as it simply subdivides more closely,
unless, as in the case of 546.3, the alfabet replaces heds alredy printed.
In this case, cancel all subsections in the Tables by drawing a line obliquely
thru heds discarded, and mark in marjin 1 Alfabet by elements,' e. g.
540-3 Metals Alfabet by elements

•SI Alkali group

Then find each of these heds in Index and cancel all figures after 546.3,

e. g.

Potanium, inorganic chemistry, 546. J*
Rubidium, 546. 3J,

VARIATIONS FOR SPECIAL LOCAL REQUIREMENTS

39

This plan has special value in this place, as new elements ar discovcrd
from time to time, and can redily be inserted in alfabetic place. Stil
many chemists think it valuabl to hav similar metals groupt together for
convenience of study, and to cover books writn on the group as a whole,
and also think it important to hav a number for rejected elements, becauz
literature and references about them remain, and must be provided for.
New elements may be inserted, as explaind on p. 16 5 .

4 Broken order Another common and often desirabl variation for shelf
arrangement is to break sequence of numbers, to get most-uzed books
nearest delivery desk. Theory keeps numbers in strict sequence; but a
hyer rule everywhere is 'sacrifice any theory for a substantial gain'.
Practicaly there ar few libraries where it is not best to break order of
clases. Often divisions ar best arranjed out of numeric place; e. g. 520
Astronomy maybe wanted in a room accessibl at nyt; fiction, juvenils and
biografy ar always wanted near the delivery desk in a public library, and
in strict order ar as likely to cum at the most distant point. Numberless
local reazons may make a broken order desirabl. There need be no hesi-
tation in adopting it if enuf is gaind, but there shud be charts clearly
showing where each division starts; e. g. after 430 ' Preceding 830 '; after
520 1 In observatory it being necesary to specify room for books entirely
removed from general library arranjement. The summary of 100 division*
is furnisht by Library Bureau, on celluloid charts, to show location. Opposit
each division shud be markt its beginning on shelvs, and it is eazy
to vary the order as much as desirabl, tho of course the nearer the divisions
run in regular order, 000-999, the eazier it is for a stranjer to find his way
about. Variations in order of sections ar les wize and seldom necesary,
but if made, a wood or cardboard dummy in regular place shud hav
markt on its side the actual location of any section removed.

This broken-order plan is best for bringing together filolojy and litera-
ture of each languaj without altering numbers or prefixing any letter. Let
420 be shelvd just ahed of 820, 430 ahed of 830, and so for all languajes,
making the jencral note that all 400s ar shelvd just ahed of corresponding
800s, and remembering that after main languajes 4 or more figures ar
required to indicate languaj alone, so Portuguese filolojy goes between
868 and 869, Russian between 891.69 and 891.7, Bohemian between
891.85 and 891.86, etc.

5 Pro and con division of topics It is very useful in many cases to
separate books on a topic with strongly markt sides, so either set of views
and arguments may be seen by itself. This has been dun in sum cases
by subdivision, e. g. 337 Protection and free trade. In others it is equaly
useful, and can be indicated by an aded mark, e. g. 324.3 Woman suffraj.
The number may be uzed for jeneral works, giving facts etc. and advocates
and opponents may be separated by + and — for positiv and negativ, or
by p and c, the initials for pro and con, which tho short, ar too long for a

4 o

DECIMAL C LAS I FI CATION

circulating library to uze in charjing but may be disregarded for that pur-
pose if book numbers ar so assynd as to distinguish. In reference libraries,
on cards, etc. most wil prefer to write out pro and con, to mark the 2
groups. The order on shelvs is, of course, alfabetic, i. e. 324.3, 324.3c,
324. 3p; or if -}- and — ar uzed, the uzual order is followd: +, — .

These 5 notes sugjest the ranje of variations which may be made, and
ilustrate D C adaptability to widely different conditions. For book
numbers, which decide the order of material after it is groupt into its final
clases, see p. 32 5 ~33 7 .

Bibliografic modifications

After study of all other availabl sistems the Decimal Clasification was
adopted in 1895 by the newly organized Institut International de
Bibliographie (known as I I B) as best adapted for its projected universal
subject bibliografy to cover ultimately all subjects in all languajes in all
periods of the world's history.
Determining factors wer:

1 Decimal Clasification was of topics, independent of languaj or exact

sinonim by which exprest

2 Its notation was in itself the only international languaj, since it consisted

solely of arabic numerals, uzed all over the world

3 Its decimal principl allowd indefinit intercalation

Overdetaild as the Clasification alredy seemd to many librarians, lak
of subdivision was the Institute's 1st difficulty and it urjd us at once to
enlarj the Tables. State Library duties at that time made concentration
on this imposibl, but we promist cooperation and criticizm if I I B wud
draft required extensions. When its remarkably rapid work precluded
even adequate criticizm, it was authorized to publish its tables and assured
that the American revision wud vary from them as litl as practicabl.
At Geneva in 1924 the harmonizing of the American and European
editions was agreed on and to D C editor was delegated the very extensiv
work of checking the variant fonns and recommending which shud be
kept, a work which is now wel under way.

Obviusly, bibliografic and jeneral library use ar so different that in sum
cases what is clearly best for real needs of skolarly specialists, where any
simbols can be uzed on index cards, wud be quite impracticabl for a
public library, which must hav simbols that can be markt on the bak
of books, redily uzed by the unskild public in writing call slips, and rapidly
handld by low-priced runners and yung clerks. This difficulty can,
however, often be obviated by allowing alternativ forms.

I I B has devized and uzes injenius simbols, expressing many interrela-
tions and greatly increasing numbering capacity. 1 But these new simbols

1 For expressing these ideas in terms of pure decimal notation, refer to Supplementary Table 2 following
Relativ index

BlBLIOGKAFIC MODIFICATIONS

ar tho't by many too complex for ordinary shelf or catalog use, tho 25
years use by I I B with unskild clerks h:is proved that this objection is
more fear than result of fair tryal. They ar givn here broadly for personal
notes of specialists and other close clasifyers, to whom their vast practical
advantages wil strongly appeal, and as a key to notation on 1 1 B bibliografic
cards. Elaborate details and explanations ar in Classification dlcimale,
Brussels, 1905, of which a new edition is announst for 1927. Obviusly
these simbols allow subdivision of the same number in many different
ways without confuzion.

The most important of these devices ar j Relation syn and 6 Place syn
and their use in libraries where they hav been tryd has proved that it is
entirely practicabl, even for marking books.

The wide and ever-growing ranje of application of certain subjects
makes it imposibl to subdivide satisfactorily by assyning definit numbers,
but use of colon to show relation between 2 subjects provides an automatic
method which can be uzed with any subject for unlimited subdivision.
(For ilustration see note under 150 Sykolojy.)

Use of ( ) round a local number provides an automatic method of local
subdivision for any subject, as there may be need in an individual library,
while the simbol shows instantly the local nature of the subdivision.

1 Accretion syn + This simplest of simbols, equivalent to ' and '»
indicates exactly what it sugjests, that the articl so numberd treats of all
subject numbers connected by + ; e. g. 637 + 614.32 a work concerning
dairies and also on inspection of dairy products.

2 Cupling syn - This is uzed for cupling to a subject a series of sub-
divisions common to a group of subjects, as 400 Filolojy (e.g. 45-3 Italian
dictionary, 45-4 Italian sinonims, 45-5 Italian grammar; 46-3 Spanish
dictionary, 46-4 Spanish sinonims, 46-5 Spanish grammar), 800 Literature
(85-3 Italian fiction, 85-4 Italian essays, 85-5 Italian oratory; 86-3
Spanish fiction, 86-4 Spanish essays, 86-5 Spanish oratory), 546 Inorganic
chemistry (546.51-3 Oxids of led, 546.51-4 Sulfid of led, 546.51-5
Chlorid of led; 546.56-3 Oxids of copper, 546.56-4 Sulfid of copper,
546.56-5 Chlorid of copper; 546.57-3 Oxids of silver, 546.57-4 Sulfid
of silver, 546.57-5 Chlorid of silver). It shud, however, be uzed only
where such use is specificly mentiond in the Tables, as confuzion wud
otherwize result. This syn is so similar to that commonly uzed for ' to
and including ' that when it is uzed with Institut meaning it is
advizabl to uze word ' to ' for the other meaning.

3 Relation syn : This is most useful simbol of all, as it involvs no
chanje of number except omission of final o by those preferring shortest
form. It indicates merely that subjects so connected ar considerd in rela-
tion to each other, thus affording means of expressing almost limitless inter-
relations: e. g. ethics in relation to fine arts is 17:7 (or, better, in ful 170:
700). Vice versa, art in its ethical aspect is 7:17 (or 700:170); order of

42

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

numbers before and after colon depending on emfasis, or on subject with
which they ar to be arranjed.

4 Form syn (o) Form or jeneralities ar exprest by a parenthetic
number beginning with o. This is further subdivided as follows:

(o:) Form simbol; e.g. 335(0:843) means Socialism treated in form of a
French novel.

(00) Subdivisions peculiar to a subject; e. g. for history it means sources.
It is further subdivided and in sum cases modifyd by a hyfend figure;
e. g. 9(44) (001-3) means Catalog of official sources of French history,
(001) meaning official sources and -3 meaning catalogs, indexes, lists etc.

(01) -(oo) ar the same as our regular form numbers 01-09. Obviusly we
can not replace our long establisht simpl form numbers by sumthing
so much more complex that it is impracticabl for shelf use.

5 Universality syn 00 The mathematical syn of infinity is uzed with
place and time syns to mean ' Without limitation ' : with place syn
(see 6 below) it means 1 including all places ', e. g. 9 ( 00 ) History of all
cun tries; with time syn (see 8 below) it means ' covering all periods ',
e - g- 9 ( 00 ) " 00 " History of all cuntries at all times.

6 Place syn (3)— (9) These replace our regular cuntry subdivisions
found in 930-999, but do not conflict, as I I B merely leavs D C 930-999
vacant, and writes History of France 9(44) insted of 944. Other auxiliary
place numbers indicating jeneral rejion, direction, jeolojic place, prehistoric
time, etc. ar also provided in place curvs.

7 Languaj syn = This syn preceding languaj numbers as found
in 400 Filolojy, indicates subdivision by languaj; e. g. 523.5=9185 means
a work on meteors, in Polish, 91.85 being filolojy number for Polish
languaj in 400.

8 Time syn " " Numbers denoting time division ar writn in quotes.
I I B skeme givs an elaborate time-division sistem based on exact dates ;
e. g. " 1922. 12. 11 ", meaning year 1922, 12th month, nth day.

9 Jeneral points of view syn 00 Each of the following numbers for
point of view (except 005) has also a series of subdivisions:

001 Speculativ: idea, purpose, plan etc.

002 Realization : execution, construction etc.

003 Economic: industrial production, cost and sale prices, etc.

004 Servis and use: workings, administration

005 Equipment and apparatus

006 Bildings and establishments : details of organization and servis

007 Special personnel

10 A to Z Alfabetic arranjement by name of person, place or thing is
indicated according to circumstances by initial or whole name.

BIBLIOGRAFIC MODIFICATIONS

4.5

Sequence of these simbols in clas number may be varid by uzers to
produce any special arranjement wisht, but unless distinct notis of this
is givn, sequence is arbitrary in the following order:

( ) " » = : - A-Z
e. g. 9(44)" 1 7 " = 2 History of France in 18th century, writn in English

Other uses

Tho this sistem was devized 1st for library catalog and shelf arranje-
men t , 54 years hav developt many new applications. Nearly every adminis-
trativ department feels directly the great economy, and in every field
of literary activity this clasification has been found a great laborsaver,
whose practical usefulness has exceeded the most sanguin hopes of its erly
frends.

Bookstores The plan is a great convenience to both dealers and
customers, when applyd to miscelaneus stole. Very often a much wanted
book, specialy if not recently publisht, is reported ' not in stok ', when D C
arranjement by subject wud hav reveald its place at once. Specialists
often find on shelvs books they wud never hav orderd, but ar glad to
by after examination. Experience proves it profitabl for a dealer to
arranje his books so each person may find what he is interested in without
examining entire stok.

Offis files A great file of papers is like a library in miniature. Experi-
ence the world over proves that while alfabetic and numeric sistems ar
invaluabl for many purposes, complete usefulness demands close clasing
as material grows. The best plan is to combine simplicity of numeric and
utility of clast as in this Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index uzed
by most libraries. The simplest posibl printed index of 43,000 heds tels
instantly by what number to mark or to find any paper. Insurance is
markt 368. This means: clas 3, Sociolojy; division 6, Associations and
institutions; section 8, Insurance. Fire insurance is 1st subdivision, so
every paper about fire insurance is markt 368.1 and goes in the drawer in
numeric order, where it can instantly be found thru the printed Index.

54 years use in a score of cuntries has proved this numeric sistem, with
its Relativ Index, a marvelus laborsaver. Clasification is a necesity if
all material on any givn subject is to be redily found. The labor of making
one's own clasification is uzualy prohibitiv, if wel dun. By adopting the
skeme in jeneral use by libraries this labor is saved and numbers ar in
harmony with those of thousands of other catalogs and indexes in which
the same number has the same meaning; for, as pointed out at a recent
international congress, these numbers ar the only international languaj
of perfectly definit meaning amung all civilized nations; and also cheapest
and quickest in application.

A successful man is uzualy a clasifyer and chartmaker. This applys as
much to modern business as to syence or libraries. Hyer education differs

44

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

from elementary in studying not mere facts, but their relations to all other
facts. Alex. Bain wizely said ' to lern to clasify is in itself an education '.
The man of much business or affairs must study every problem in its mani-
fold relations; i. e. must clasify and make charts of his results. Without
these he is like a sailor in stranje waters, sooner or later shiprekt unless
he uzes charts to find safe channels as wel as to avoid roks and shoals.
A larj business or work unclasifyd or uncharted is not a worthy organiza-
tion but mere material from which a clever brain may construct one. It
differs in efficiency from the ideal as a mob of men differs from a wel dis-
ciplind army. Piles of brik and mortar ar not a tempi any more than heaps
( f typ ar Shakspere's works, tho if ' clasifyd ' and set, each in ryt relation
to the rest, the transformation is bro't about.

Scrapbooks The plan has proved the best for keeping newspaper
clippings. Uze manila sheets of uniform size (we find 20x25cm best)
Write clas number of subject in uzual place on paje, and mount clippings
on sheets as in a common scrapbook. These sheets ar arranjed
numericly like a clast card catalog, sheets of each clas being further arranjed,
when desirabl, under alfabetic subheds. When one sheet is ful, insert
another at the exact place. Thus perfect clasification is kept up without
blank sheets, and at smallest outlay of money and trubl. Scraps thus
mounted ar shelvd either in manila pamflet cases or in patent binders,
or ar kept in vertical files.

Index rerums These ar best made on standard P size (7.5x12.5cm)
cards or slips. Lyt weight catalog card stok is best for private indexes,
etc. It costs only § as much as hevy bristol, takes only f room, and
handls eazily.

Where durability and convenience of handling ar les important than
cheapness uze common hevy writing paper. Novises often greatly diminish
usefulness of the card sistem by uzing ordinary machine-cut cards or slips
varying in hy t so much as to make quik and accurate manipulation imposibl.
Extreme variation to be tolerated is 1 mm or inch. This wil be under-
stood by placing a 7.4cm card between two 7.5cm cards. In rapid turning,
fingers make a brij across taller cards and mis the lower one entirely.
Cards must be accurately cut or they lose half their value and in many
cases necesitate recopying material at a cost 10-fold greater than to hav
thrown away imperfectly cut cards or slips at the outset.

Clas number is writn in upper left corner, any alfabetic subject hed fol-
lows at ryt, and notes fil card below. Cards ar then filed in order of clas
numbers, the cards of each clas being further arranjed like scrap sheets,
according to any alfabetic subheds.

Paper the size of scrap sheets, 20x25cm, arranjed and stored the same way
may be uzed insted of cards. This has the advantaj of a ful letter paje in
syt at once, and holds over 5 times as much as card. While the sistem can
be applyd to slips or sheets of any size, there ar literaly hundreds of acces-

OTHER USES

45

sories and conveniences exactly adapted to these 2 sizes, which ar uzed
much more than all others combined; so it is folly to begin on another
size, and lose the advantajes of this uniformity. If intermediate sizes
must be had, the best ar Billet 10x15cm, Note 12.5x20cm, and Ms 15x25cm.
Often uzers of sum other size finaly find it profitabl to chanje to either
P, 7.5x12.5, or to L, 20x25cm, even at cost of rewriting many notes.

After 50 years use of P size, countless millions of cards ar in catalogs
and indexes in scores of cuntries, so it wud be quite imposibl to chanje
from 7.5x12.5cm. But recent study and experiments hav shown that
sheet or room proportions ar most pleazing in ratio of 1 to square root of
2, or about 5 to 7, i. e. ratio of the side of an equal-side triangl to its
hypotenuse. An immense practical advantaj is that this is the only
ratio where continuus halving givs always the same ideal proportion.
This results in markt economy in cutting sizes from larj standard sheets.
The favorit letter sheet is 19x27cm. This fits most vertical and other
files. We now uze it insted of 20x25 an d 15x25. Half this size is a
pleazing small quarto, 13.5x19, and its quarter is a very convenient
pocket size, 9.5x13.5cm. These replace our old Note and Billet sizes.

Note books ar best in loos-leaf form. A much poorer method is to take
a bound blank book, and assyn clas numbers in order, giving about the
space it is tho't each wil require, and, when pajes so assynd ar ful, note at
bottom where rest of the material may be found. This has all objections
of old fixt location as compared to relativ, and wil hardly be adopted by
any person who has ever seen loos-leaf simplicity and economy.

Scores of devices for convenient handling and storing of these slips and
sheets and of pamflets ar manufactured. The ful descriptiv and ilustrated
catalogs of Library Bureau giv details.

Topical indexes Clas numbers ar uzed to index books red. Simpl
numbers take the place of a series of words, and results can be handld,
arranjed and found much quicker. Such entries may be kept separate or
combined with index rerums.

Advantajes for making topical indexes of colected works, periodicals,
transactions etc. wil be evident to every indexer or librarian. These
consolidated indexes may be arranjed together with the card catalog of
the books, or by themselvs, as seems best in each case.

These ar only a few of the sistem's varid applications. Enuf hav been
mentiond to show its wide adaptability to wants of librarian, student and

Separates

There is growing use by specialists who wish very detaild tables of their
own subjects, but only so much else as wil show perspectiv of these sub-
jects in the jeneral skeme and provide for broad clasification of other
material on the same plan. As fast as demand wil cover expenses, any
subject elaborated wil be publisht separately with jeneral explanation,

4 6

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

directions for use, 3-figure tables for other subjects, and ful index; e. g.
normal skool libraries specializing on education wil want the elaborate
370 skeme but may not need to carry clasification of other subjects beyond
3 figures; electric enjineers may hav no use for 370, but wil need all details
of 621.3, with only 3 figures for other subjects.

This brief account has probably faild to meet sum objections which
may be raizd and could eazily be anserd.

Tho much elaborated and in sum few points alterd, the essential caracter
of the plan has remaind unchanjed from the first. Revision and expansion
constantly in progress involv many new interrelations. As extensi v advance
testing of new skemes is not always posibl, practical applications ar sure
to develop unnotist faults. Clasifyers ar therefore askt to uze new tables
criticaly and report defects of any kind, with proposed remedies and any
needed subdivisions, also any heds needed for the Index. All such criticizms
ar a decided help and favor.

Aknowlejments

The labor on Clasification and Index has been wholy beyond apprecia-
tion of any who hav never attempted a similar task.

In his varid reading, correspondence and conversation on the subject,
the author has doutless recievd many sugjestions and gaind ideas which it
is now imposibl for him specificly to aknowlej. The Nuovo sistema di
catalogo bibliografico generate of Natale Battezzati, of Milan, adopted by
the Italian publishers in 187 1, tho he copid nothing from it, more than
any other singl sistem stimulated his study of the problem. The plan of
the St Louis Public School Library and that of the Apprentices' Library
of New York, which in sum respects resembld his own, wer not seen til
all essential features wer decided on, tho not givn to the public. In filling
the 9 clases of the skeme, the inverted Baconian arranjement of the St
Louis Library was followd. The author has no wish to claim orijinal inven-
tion for any part of his sistem where another has been before him, and wud
gladly make specific aknowlejment of every aid and sugjestion wer it in
his power. Tho at its start a litl book, it came not forth except by
grievus labor.

Much valuabl aid has been renderd by specialists, who hav assisted
greatly in developing tables. Amung these ar many wel-known skolars,
and to all most cordial aknowlejment is made. Without such assist-
ance, the present development cud not hav been attaind, for many
minds wer necesary to supply teknical and special lerning absolutely
essential in filling minute heds. Indeed, in many subjects the author's
share has been limited to modification necesary for teknical adjustment
to his skeme, of material prepared by specialists. To many prominent
librarians we ar indetted for valuabl sugjestions and appreciativ criticizm.

AKNOWI.EJMENTS

4 7

While these frends ar in no way responsibl for any remaining imperfections,
they shud hav credit for many improvements made in these 54 years
of revision, during the 1st 3 of which the skeme was kept in manuscript,
that its many details myt be subjected to actual tryal, and modifyd where
improvement was found practicabl.

We ar under deep obligation to Institut International de Biblio-
graphic for its great volume of valuabl work, covering almost the whole
ranje of subjects, and also for its advice and criticizm during progress of
our own expansions. To Dr C W Andrews, John Crerar librarian,
Chicago, and to American Library Association clasification committee, of
which for past 10 years he has been chairman, we ar greatly indetted

W S Biscoe From 1st publication to the present, the most extended
and valued assistance has cum from my colej clasmate, associate and
frend, Walter Stanley Biscoe, my 1st assistant in Amherst College
Library, in charj of which he succeeded me, resyning to accept again in
1883 the place next me in Columbia College Library, and again resyning in
1889 to becum librarian in charj of clasification and catalogs in New York
State Library. This book is witness to the rare unselfishness with which
he has givn time taken from rest and recreation to this work, in which
he shared my interest and faith.

May Seymour Except a year in charj of clasification in the Osterhout
Library she was with me 34 years, from her entrance to the 1st Library
School clas in 1887 til her deth, June 14, 1921. At New York State Library,
clasification was her department til she was made director's assistant.
For 32 years every item of work on new editions past thru her hands.
For each of editions 4-10 she did all editorial and much constructiv work,
secured expert cooperation, cald attention to faults or omissions, and
sought the best availabl compromize where doctors disagreed, devoting
to this vast labor rare skolarly industry and a loyalty for which no words
of thanks can be adequate. She shared my faith in its immense usefulness,
did the hardest work, and deservs the gratitude of all who profit by this
in valuabl laborsaver. I often askt that her name appear on the title-pa je
of the book to which she gave so much, but she persistently refuzed.

Her place as editor was taken by one of her own choosing, Dorcas
Fellows, who more than anyone else had workt closely with Mis Seymour
for 25 years, and who wil giv future editions the benefit of cumulativ
experience in which she so larjly shared. D C uzers ar congratulated
that Mis Seymour's position is held by the one whom she herself chose
as best adapted to carry on her work. For 5 years past her hedquarters
hav been in New York State Library at Albany, which has long been
regarded by many as D C's library home, but recent developments in
relations of American Library Association, Library of Congress and
Decimal Clasification hav resulted in an invitation from L C to D C
to make its home henceforth at that Library, where, most appropriately,

is

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

D C's servis to American libraries, which is the chief f.-ictor in its work,
wil be coordinated with undertakings previusly install by the national
library, extending stil further the latter's alredy great servises to the
libraries of the cuntry at larj.

Future of D C

Mis Seymour had a stedily growing wish to make D C a permanent
force for education, by greatly improving its ful, short and outline edi-
tions, and by printing cheap special editions (indext) for many prominent
divisions; e.g. education, medicin. enjineering, agriculture. As a memorial
to her, all copyryts and control of all editions hav been givn to Lake
Placid Club Education Foundation, in establishing which she had been
warmly and activly interested, and which was charterd by the University
of the State of New York, Jan. 26, 1922, with these objects:

' as an educational institution, to restore to helth and educational
efficiency teachers, librarians and other educators of moderate means, who
hav becum incapacitated by overwork; to establish, maintain and aid
skools, libraries or other educational institutions, specialy at Lake Placid ;
and to institute, organize or foster other movements to advance public
welfare thru education, by means of the Foundation pres, conferences,

To this Foundation was at once givn all voting stok and surplus of
Lake Placid Co. which owns the 10,000 akers and 391 bildings of Lake
Placid Club, thus assuring permanent financial support, which has alredy
been further increast by gifts and bequests from interested f rends. Under
Foundation auspices future editions of D C wil be publisht, on absolute
condition that entire reciets abuv necesary expenses be uzed forever
solely for improving D C and extending its usefulness, thereby preventing
posibility that the work shud ever be made a source of either individual
or institution profit. A committee on D C, consisting of the most
interested Foundation trustees, in consultation with committees of Ameri-
can Library Association and Institut International de Bibliographic,
wil insure observance of the abuv condition.

D C has becum an international laborsaver. It therefore justly belongs
to its uzers as a whole. All who contribute to the stedy improvement
of future editions may kno that they ar helping to make stil more useful
a sistem which is so greatly helping stedily increasing thousands scatterd
all over the civilized world.

Melvil Dewey

Lake Placid Club N Y
Dec. 10, 1926

Previus editions hav been dated Amherst College Library, June 10,
1876; Columbia College Library, Aug. 10, 1885, and Aug. 30, 1888; New
York State Library, Dec. 25, 1890; Lake Placid Club, Ap. 10, 1911, Ap.
10, 1913, Oct. 1, 1915, Aug. 11, 1919, and Aug. 31, 1922.

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS AND RULES

Reazons

'Uzers of the Decimal Clasification ar entitled to kno why the author
feels compeld to recognize practicaly the urjent claims for reform in
English speling, by adopting enuf of many needed chanjes to call everv
reader's attention to the crying situation.

Many wil be annoyd and sum wil ridicule, but since 1872 I hav constantly
studid, with very unuzual opportunities, the need and practicability of
this reform. From its founding in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial,
I hav been secretary of the Speling Reform Association. I servd several
years on the advizory committee on speling and pronunciation for our
greatest and best English dictionary, the Standard. While executiv
offiser of the University of the State of New York, which has charj of all
hyer education, I uzed my great opportunities for studying relations of
speling to education. As a trustee and on its Executiv Board I hav shared
activly from its orijin in Simplifyd Speling Board work, to which Andrew
Carnegie gave (up to his deth) \$10,000 to \$25,000 yearly to spred correct
knowlej about English speling and the great need for its improvement.
I also servd on the National Education Association committee which,
jointly with committees of the American Filolojic Association and Modern
Languaj Association, during 10 years careful study made the key alfabet
now uzed in the entire series of Standard dictionaries and in all books
based on them. I was president of the Efficiency Socyety and also of the
National Institute of Efficiency, and chairman of the committee of each on
1 Efficiency in English writn and spokn '. It is therefore not an advocate
of a new fad who speaks, but one who has for over 50 years kept in tuch,
personaly and by correspondence, with others studying this matr, not
only in many American states but also in Canada, Great Britain, India
and Australia, and with many in non-English speaking cuntries.

In the past h century the most competent jujes hav cum to almost
unanimus agreement as to imperativ need for radical improvement. On
this point great universities, editors of all great dictionaries, leading edu-
cators of the English world, and recognized leaders amung students of
English all agree. It has been publicly stated in larj meetings of languaj
skolars that there was no recognized authority on English living who did
not now belie v in the urjent need of speling reform.

But as to the best method, there ar 3 skools with their varius combi-
nations. All agree that there is only 1 entirely satisfactory goal; i.e.
just i distinct syn for each of 40 distinct sounds, and just 1 sound for each
of these 40 syns. But we now hav over 500 simbols or combinations
to represent these 40 sounds. 1 Shay ' has only 2 simpl sounds. The

See note on spelling of Ed 14 on back of titic-page

( .10)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

sh is speld in 20 ways and the a in 24 ways; i.e. this simpl word of only
3 sounds may be speld 480 ways in exact analojy with other English
spelings. Webster's Dictionary says Shakspere's name was speld 30 ways;
the Mainwaring family records sho 130 variations in their name;
and A. J. Ellis made over 6000 spelings of ' scissors ', all justifyd by dic-
tionary analojies. Booker Washington told me that they wud not graduate
from Tuskegee one who cud not spel and pronounce correctly this sentence :
' Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to
cross the lough '. We markt agenst each letr all the different ways of
pronouncing it in English. By simpl permutation this showed over
16,000,000 ways in which this sentence cud be pronounst. Then we markt
agenst each sound all the different ways of speling it and proved that there
wer 66 decillion (66,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) ways of
speling the sentence, each justifyd by analojy. Yet he was soliciting
money to teach those poor colord students just which of this infinit yaryety
must be uzed, before he cud graduate.

One group believs in ading 6 new consonants for ch, ng, sh, zh, th and dh,
and 1 1 new vowels; for as c, q and x duplicate s, k, kw and £5 or gz we hav
only 23 letrs toward the 40 needed in a perfect English alfabet. These
letrs wud then be uzed with as invariabl meanings as arabic numerals
and we shud be rid of varius devices for expressing sounds for which we
hav no distinctiv letr; e.g. for the word ' fyn ' we ad e to ' fin ' and say
that ' servil e ' is silent where writn, but means that the i in erlier part of
word is not i, but the difthong ai, combined of the sounds of a in ' ar '
and i in ' it '. This is exactly analogus to writing 4537 and saying that
7 is silent but means that the 5 is realy 9, so the number is 493. We
ar so uzed to these absurdities that we recognize their folly only when
translating them into an exactly similar case with arabic numerals.

When these wer introduced into English the identical arguments put
forward today agenst syentific speling wer urjd agenst the stranje arab
caracters. Men said, ' Every child knows at a glance that V is five, but
who cud understand »»>? ' which they printed lying on its face.

No one questions that complete reform is best. Most skolars, however,
think it impracticabl to do it all at once except amung a limited clas,
becauz of difficulty of introducing new letrs on typwriters and for printers.
We hav evolvd i, j and y from 1 letr, and u, v and w from v, and skolars
say we shal in time, in same way, evolv the other new letrs needed.

The Simplifyd Speling Socyety of Great Britain attempts to solv the
problem without any new letrs by uzing digrafs, as we hav alredy dun
for ch, ng, sh and th. This has the advantaj that every typwriter and
printer is fully equipt for new speling. It has the great disadvantaj that
it lengthnS many words and offends the eye much more than new letrs.
It is es absurd to use c and h to represent a sound which has neither c nor h
in it as it wud be to uze 74 to represent 5.

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS

The Simplifyd Speling Board (American), supported by Andrew Carnegie
til his deth and now working on its own resources, decided that the most
practical plan was to list a limited number of most needed chanjcs, to urj
for immediate jeneral adoption, thus expediting the stedy growth toward
syentific speling shown by the history of English. This method is eaziest
but involvs glaring inconsistencies; e.g. it drops i of dubl consonants final
in most cases, speling mis, dol, tel, but leavs all, roll, hiss, off becauz they
wud be mispronounst by most peopl if shortnd.

i word is speld perfectly like ' fel ', perhaps the next is improved in only
i silabl like ' acquisitiv ', and the next may be worst of the 3 and not chanjed
at all becauz we lak necesary new letrs, e.g ' functioning'. S S S (English)
is consistent, for it spels each word foneticly, and this entire consistency
appeals to sum so much that they endure longer awkward forms. S S B
(American) offends the eye much les and shortns nearly every word it
chanjes, but has the fault of incompleteness.

The 5 reazons for speling reform ar:

1 Disgrace of having what experts agree is the most illojical, unsyentific,
unskolarly and altogether worst speling of any languaj in the world.
While this greatly discredits the peopl that hav becum greatest in all
history, it is least of the 5 reazons.

2 Criminal waste of money Careful count of many English selections
shows that 15% or 1/7 of the letrs wud be saved by strictly syentific spel-
ing. This means waste of 1/7 total cost of everything connected with
writing or printing English: stationery, time, composition, proofreading,
paper, ink, preswork, binding, transportation. Not only ar these countless
billions wasted each year, but there is enormus waste of time in hesitating as
to ryt speling, consulting dictionaries, interrupting train of tho't, which
fairly translated into money makes a staggering total.

3 Criminal waste of skool time A committee of expert educators,
after munths of consideration, agreed that on the skool life of a child going
from kindergarten to university we cud save 3 years if we cud eliminate
speling books and everything connected with them, as is dun in completely
fonetic cuntries, where speling is merely pronouncing a word letr by letr,
so anyone can spel if he can speak. This waste is not alone in speling clases,
for in all other studies speling is a continual handicap and wastes time
not only in skool days but all thru life.

4 Adling brains Any student of child sykolojy knows that one cud
hardly devize a more dedning process to a normal >prain than to teach
such words as bone, done, gone; love, move, rove; lose, dose; or, worst of all,
Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to cross t'te
lough. If the brain works normaly the child surely pronounces the vowels
of the later words like the 1st. If 'though' is 'tho', surely 'rough'
is 'ro' and 'cough' is 'co'. Long before he reaches the 8th word he is

52

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

redy to believ any absurd thing that is told him, and finds in English it
is a matr of personal introduction to each individual word before there is
any safety as to how it may be speld or pronounst. Ex-president Hill,
of Harvard University, declared that no man ever had or ever cud spel
and pronounce every word of English correctly, as it was beyond human
posibility to becum intimate enuf with all the 2 million words in the latest
dictionaries.

An associate city superintendent of skools in New York says :
' Next to lerning by imitation, the child must be taut to lern by associa-
tion and analojy. He develops strength of mind by exercize of jujment.
He must reazon from known facts in the solution of his litl problems. If
he cums to a new printed word and halts, the teacher asks him to think of
the oral word for which it stands. Having lernd that ' puff ' and ' muff '
stand for wel-known oral words, he is staggerd at 'rough' and 'enough',
frequently uzed in conversation. Having lernd that these caracters stand for
wel-known spokn words which he wrote 'ruff' and 'enuff' from hisknowlej
of ' puff ' and ' muff ' he is again confuzed when the teacher tels him that
' dough ' is the speling of the wel-known word his mother uzes when
speaking about bred-making, and that ' cough ' stands for the malady so
prevalent in the nursery during winter time.

The staje of the child's tuition during which all the similar incongruities
of our speling must be masterd, occupys many years of skool life, and
the process has wel-ny produced a disbelief in reazon as a means of lerning ,
and a total lak of confidence in inference. The result of falling into absurd
and ridiculus situations thru exercize of his jujment appears in a hesi-
tancy or fear of drawing any inferences upon data relating to other fields
of knowlej. The child has lost faith in his own conclusions with respect
to problems in arithmetic, biolojy, jeografy, history etc. To what extent
of subject matr and time the skool child has sufferd irreparabl los, by
failure to aquire confidence in exercize of his jujment as a result of his
erly stultification during process of lerning to master speling of common
words, may never be determind.'

5 English as world languaj Except for its scandalusly complex spel-
ing, English is betr fitted than any other languaj for universal use. It
Latin grammar which is almost useless. English has strength, simplicity,
conciseness, capacity for taking words freely from other tungs, and best
of all has the greatest literature the world has yet produced. Great
German filolojists hav said ' it is lucky for the rest of Europe that the
English do not realize that only its absurd speling stands between their
languaj and erly world empire '. If we chek over the past 5 centuries
the growth of English is astounding. Once Portuguese with its great-
Brazilian cuntry had sum chance, or Spanish with South America, but
French came to be the languaj of diplomacy and more than any other
the world languaj. Each century Germany, with its hy birth rate, gaind
rapidly, and it soon past France. Russia with its countless millions came in
as a leading competitor, but each century the most significant and remarkabl

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS

S3

growth was English. Long it was English, German, French; then
English, German, Russian. The World war sadly handicapt all other com-
petitors just when it greatly improved the position of English. 3/5 of the
world's business mail is now in our languaj and this ratio grows yearly.
Recent prominent French jurnals hav frankly publisht to their peopl the
need for every Frenchman to lern English beeauz it was alredy the world's
great gifts for simplifyd speling for 2 chief reazons. He had givn the Peace
Palace at the Hague, and recognized that a common tung was the greatest
protection agenst war. His study of history taut him that race, color,
relijion and jeografic location had les influence than a common tung in
binding peopl together. Our fraze, 1 He doesn't speak the same languaj ',
indicates hopelessness of agreement. He knew that no force wud contribute
so much to world peace as spred of a common tung. He knew that this
wud carry Anglo-Saxon ideals of liberty and tolerance thruout the world.
The canny Scot knew also that it wud do more than all else combined
to extend and strengthn our commerce.

Can anyone not blind to human welfare face these undouted facts
and not feel bound to help on wherever practicabl a reform that many
educators and publicists recognize as more important and as having more
far-reaching results for America and the world than any other? The
solution to most of our social problems lyz not in legislation and police, but
in education of the masses so that they wil kno and prefer the ryt. Such
education must be chiefly thru reading, for the great mas of peopl can be
in skool only long enuf to lem to take from the printed paje the author's
meaning. Their real education must be not in the few skool days in youth,
but all thru life and cuming chiefly from reading books, magazines and
papers. Those who believ in working for a betr world must see that the
1st great step is to take from the path of education this greatest stumbling
blok, for our speling not only wastes millions of years for every jeneration,
but dedns and dwarfs childhood's brain by its gross absurdities. Can
anyone not a selfish moral coward, knowing these facts, refuze to help
get rid of the incubus by uzing at least a few of the shortr, betr forms in
his own writing?

Disregard of pedants rules Thomas Jefferson said ' Where strictness
of grammar does not weakn expression it shud be attended to, but where
by small grammatical neglijences the enerjy of an idea is condenst or a
word stands for a sentence, I hold grammatical rigor in contempt '.

Study of the past 5 centuries shows how greatly English has been
simplifyd and improved and how absurd is the frequent comment of those
ignorant of the life history of English that ' languaj can't be chanjed by
conscius efforts of its uzers '. Of thousands of improvements made in
the last 500 years every one was uzed 1st by sumone who saw the need
and had the moral curaj to be a pyoneer and disregard rules of pedants of

54

DECIMAL CI.^SIFICATION

his day. The greatest need of the English world is to simplify its languaj,
specialy in speling, so it may be uzed by all nations. It is disgrace to be
blind to the facts or to be too cowardly to uze sum at least of the needed
chanjes and so risk criticizm or ridicule of the ignorant. The great func-
tion of English is to convey author's tho't clearly and compactly to reader's
mind.

Arabic figures ar the simplest simbols known to man. It is silly to
write out ' eighty-eight ' or ' LXXXVIII ' for the simbol 88, or to
write ' three hundred seventy-eight ' with 24 letrs when 378 is 1/8 as long
and vastly clearer. Modern pressure for space and economy has led many
prominent jurnals to substitute figures for words, but most of them stil
fear the silly pedants dictum that figures must not begin a sentence. But
figures ar winning their way, specialy in hedings, and our descendants wil
wonder at our stupidity which so long prevented ful use of 1 of the world's
greatest laborsavers. It is like continuing wigwag signals after invention
of telefone and wireless.

etc. Persistent use was copid by others til now many of our best writers
avoid the foolish al and get stronger as wel as shortr words. When ading
adverbial ly we shud stil omit al and say graficly, academicly etc. In fact
very few peopl pronounce the aj in common speech. If we adopt Thomas
Jefferson's standard we shud expedite greatly many needed improvements
in our great mother tung.

Consistency This is the hobgoblin bugbear of litl minds. If a printer
sets typs which realy shud be omitted or chanjed we often avoid expense of
correction; for consistency with other spelings is les important than to
1 ireak down by combined efforts of skolars and men of affairs the immense
and stubborn, pedantic, foolish prejudis which sees sumthing sacred in
the common speling of a word, while it thinks litl of constant variations
in its pronunciation. Many who wud gladly help the cauz ar too busy
with larj affairs to spend time in looking up rules. They shud simply
spel betr whenever they think of it and not be trubld if on the next paje
they forget to simplify. Hav Thomas Jefferson's curaj and hold pedantic
consistency in contempt.

Conciseness We shud uze shortest forms of expression consistent
with clearness. The 2d forms belo ar as much stronger and betr as they
ar shortr :

this has been found to be an encurajment to good work — this

encurajes good work
extend an invitation — invite
take into consideration — consider
the purchase of — bying
a larj number of — many

SIMPLER SPELING REAZONS

55

due to the fact that — becauz
sum of \$10,000 — \$10,000
in a prudent manner — prudently
put in an appearance — appear

the twenty-eighth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand

eight hundred and ninety-nine — 28 May 1899 ^jg vs 9 typs)
it is often the case that authors fail — authors often fail
giv the boundaries of — bound

Can it be dun? Absurd spelings like old 'fysshe' and 'dogge' for
'fish' and 'dog' ar slufing off useless letrs as a tadpole loses its tail, or as
scum rizes from boiling sap in a maple orchard. Samuel Johnson in 1755
printed a dictionary which greatly delayd this natural process. Uzing
neither rime nor reazon he embalmd in a book, with the weight of his
great name, simply the usaj of London printing offises, which wer run
almost wholy by Dutch and German printers, many of whom knew no
English. He laid down as a sacred law, ' U phill with 2 Is' but 'downhil
with 1', and endless similar absurdities, at which we laf, but we hav made
'downhill' as difficult as his 'uphill' and stil look askance at one who spels
'til' as he does 'until'. Our greatest filolojist, William D Whitney of
Yale, editor Century dictionary, wrote to our 1876 International Conference
on Speling Reform a concise statement which has been very often reprinted,
and I think never questiond by any competent authority: 'The true and
sole offis of alfabetic writing is correctly to represent spokn speech'.
Writing is attempt to convey to 1 at a distance (either in space or time)
what wud be spokn to 1 close at hand, and therefore writn word shud
represent spokn word as exactly as posibl.

Many chanjes wer merely corruptions resulting from slipshod pronuncia-
tion and lai of accurate speling, which wud hav been a relyabl gyd.
Always many chanjes ar inevitabl in any languaj, as its words and idioms
gro, dy or chanje, in pronunciation, speling and meaning. To continue
old spelings after words hav chanjed is as absurd as to continue old price
quotations insted of following the market. Englishmen ar conservativ
but we hav substituted ( tho only long after other nations) arabic numerals
for the clumsy I, V, X, L, C, D, M; we hav a reazonabl and uniform way
of writing music ; we ar soon (again last of civilized nations) to uze interna-
tional metric mesures, thereby saving countless millions. Practical busi-
ness wil not much longer endure the costly tirany of the \ educated and
wholy unbusiness-like and inefficient pedant. So if the intelijent wil do
their duty we shal expedite greatly the stedy growth of English toward
simplicity, strength and efficiency. That infinitly desirabl process can
be bro't about only by pyoneer adoptions by those who hav both knowlej
of the great need and curaj to lead in a cauz bound to be unpopular with
those ignorant of fonolojy and of the vitaly important reazons which hav

5<S

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

compeld all dictionary makers and great English skolars to declare in
favor of simpler speling.

It is sumtimes askt why, if editors of the great dictionaries favor simpler
speling, the dictionaries themselvs uze it so slytly (tho latest edition of
Webster has 3000 more simpler forms). This anser is givn by the Stand-
ard: 'The chief function of a dictionary is to record usaj, not, except in a
limited degree, to seek to create it'. Consequently it is not til a word
or form has made its way into sum what common acceptance that it can
look for dictionary recognition. Other cases where the interest which
<myt be expected seems to be lacking on part of simpathizers ar those of
authors, educators and men of affairs, who, if left to folio their own juj-
ment and preferences, wud gladly uze simpler spelings but who ar pre-
vented from doing so by official connections or rules of their publishers.

Rules

We print belo 7 of the best known codes, for convenient reference when
one wishes to decide with what chanjes he wil start his betr speling.
All wil doutless uze the 12 words and most wil be glad to adopt S S B 30
words, chozen with great care by leading skolars as the best small beginning
for the averaj man. These ar simply sampl words. S S B alfabetic
rules represent expert jujment of distinguisht filolojists as to chanjes
desirabl and practicabl to recommend for erly jeneral adoption. These
ar followd by 18 rules, which comprize an erlier list and, forming the
basis of the alfabetic list, larjly duplicate it but ar included here for
convenience of those who wish a selection of the most important. A
compact dictionary list of all English words coverd by S S B rules wil be
sent on application.

The 5th code is our D C rules, uzed in adition to S S B rules, by those
willing to pyoneer stil faster. The 6th code, a selection from U S Jeografic
Board rules, and the 7th, the 10 joint rules of American and English
filolojists, ar aded for reference and to sho by repetition in different codes
how closely the best authorities ar in harmony.

To all governd by reazon rather than by vizual prejudis the objection
to simpler speling that ' it looks queer 1 will be more than offset by the
arguments, both skolarly and practical, in its favor; while those who
shrink from uzing simpler forms thru fear of being regarded iliterate may
find curaj thru knowing that the movement is supported by the most
eminent flolojic authorities, and there wil be litl danjer that even the
silliest of their correspondents wil bring the charj 'they don't kno how to
speT, as result of their uzing simpler forms for such common and short
words as ar, giv, hav, shal, wer and wil.

SIMPLER SPELING RULES

61

N E A 12 words

The National Education Association in 1898 adopted for use in all its
official correspondence and printing the simplifyd spelings widely known
as ' the 12 words ', catalog, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, program,
tho, altho, thoro, thorofare, thru, thruout. In 1916 it adopted rule to
simplify ed to t when so pronounst, in past tenses of verbs.

Simplifyd Speling Board 30 words

This list was chozen with special reference to correspondence, and
includes the 5 typ-words, catalog, program, tho, thoro, thru, of the 1 2 words
adopted, as noted abuv, by the National Education Association in 1898,
for use in all its official publications and correspondence.

buro

fixt

reciet

(al)tho

catalog

giv

reciev(d)

thoro (ly, -fare, etc.)

anser (d)

det

hav

shal

thru (out)

ar

engin

insted

shipt

twelv

enuf

liv(d)

tel

wil

bil(d)

fil(d)

program

telefone

S S B alfabetic rules

ae, ce, initial or medial. Spel e; e.g. esthetic, medieval, fenix, maneuver,
subpena ; but alumnae, striae etc.

ae, ce ar now uzualy writn ae, oe. Other cases of ae, oe, medial, as in canoeist,
Gaelic etc. ar not affected

bt pronounst t. Drop silent b; e.g. det, dettor, dout, indetted, redout

Retain b, if pronounst, in subtil(e)
ch pronounst like c in car. Drop silent h except before e, i, y [or uze

k]; e.g. caracter, clorid(e), corus, cronic, eco, epoc, mekanic>

monarc, skolar, skool, stomac ; but architect, chemist, monarchy,
or arkitect, monarky
dubl consonant before e final silent. Drop last 2 letrs; e.g. bagatel,

bizar, cigaret, creton, crevas, gavot, gazet, giraf, gram, program,

dubl consonant final. Reduce dubl to singl, but in -// only after a short

vowel, and in -55 only in monosilabls ; e.g. ad, bil, bluf, buz, clas,

dol, dul, eg, glas, les, los, mes, mis, pas, pres, shal, tel, wil, but

not al for all, rol for roll, needles for needless, etc.

Retain gross, hiss, off, puss

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

e final silent. In the following cases drop e :

a) After a consonant preceded by a short vowel strest; e.g. bad (bade),

giv, hav, liv, centiped (when so pronounst)

b) In ar(e), gon(e), and in wer(e) when not pronounst to rime with

' there '

c) In the unstrest final short silabls ide, ile, ine, ise, ite, ive, pronounst

as if speld id, il, in, is, it, iv; e.g. activ bromid, comparativ, definit,
deterrnin, examin, favorit, hostil, infinit, iodin, nativ, opposit, positiv,
practis, promis, textil

This id, il, in, is, it, iv group shud be chanjed ist, as the long spelings constantly
mislead to vulgar mispronunciations like posilyv, infinyl, favoryt etc.

The ordinary use of e final after a singl consonant is to indicate that the preceding
vowel has a pronunciation different from that which it wud normaly hav if the con-
sonant in question wer final, as in bar, bare; hat, hate; her, here; them, theme; sir,
sire; bid, bide; con, cone; run, rune. Hence the e final is retaind in such words as
arrive, care, fine, mile, polite, ride, rode, and also in bromide, iodine etc., when pro-
nounst with the i of line, side

d) After lv and rv; e.g. involv, resolv, twelv, valv; carv, curv, 'deserv,

serv

e) After v or z when preceded by a digraf representing a long vowel or

a dif thong; e.g. achiev, believ, freez, gauz, leav, sneez

f) In oe final pronounst o; e.g. fo, ho, ro, to, wo

Retain e in inflections -oed, -oes; as foes, not/os, hoed, not hod

ea pronounst as in head or as in heart. Drop the silent letr; e.g. bred,
brekfast, hed, helth, hevy, insted, lether, plesure, welth, wether;
hart, harty, harth [except in case of derivativs where it wud clearly
be betr that pronunciation be made to correspond to root word than
that speling be made to correspond to present pronunciation;
e.g. clean, cleanliness]

ed final pronounst d. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro-
nunciation, drop silent e, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl
consonant; e.g. anserd, cald, carrid, delayd, cnployd, examind,
fild, followd, marrid, pleasd, preferd, robd, signd, sneezd,
struggld, traveld, worrid, wrongd; but n >t bribl for bribed, cand
for caned; changd for changed, fild for filed, pried for priced, usd for
used, etc.

The e is retaind only in cases where it has by convention a diacritic use, to indicate
a preceding long vowel, or, in case of consonants, c sibilant or g pronounst j

ed final pronounst t. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro-
nunciation, spel t, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl consonant,
and chanjing ced, seed, final, to St; e.g. askt, fixt, helpt, indorst,
commenst, invoist, notist; acquiest, effervest; but not bakt for baked,
deduct or dedust for deduced, fact or fast for faced, hopt for hoped,
etc. (See note to preceding rule)

SIMPLER SPEI.IXG RI'LES

59

gh pronounst f. Spel f; drop silent letr of preceding digraf; e.g. cof,

draft, enuf, laf, ruf, tuf
gh pronounst like g in gas. Drop silent h; e.g. agast, gastly, gerkin,

gost, goul

gm final. Drop silent g; e.g. apothem, diafram, flem, paradim

gue final after a consonant, a short vowel, or a digraf representing a long
vowel or a difthong. Drop silent ue; e.g. catalog, dialog, harang,
leag, sinagog; but not rog for rogue, vag for vague, etc. Tongue
spel tung

ise final pronounst as if speld ize. Spel ize; e.g. advertize, advize,

apologize, enterprize, franchize, merchandize, rize, surprize, wize
mb final after a short vowel. Drop silent b; e.g. bom, crum, dum, lam,

lim, thum; but not com for comb, torn for tomb, etc.
ou before 1, pronounst like o in bold. Drop silent u, except in soul;

e.g. bolder, mold, sholder
ough final. Spel o, u, ock or up, when pronounst as if so speld; e.g.

altho, boro, donut, furlo, tho, thoro; thru; hock; hiccup. Spel plow
our final, with ou pronounst as a short (obscure) vowel. Drop u; e.g.

color, favor, honor, labor
ph pronounst f. Spel f; e.g. alfabet, emfasis, fantom, fonograf, fotograf,

sulfur, telefone, telegraf
re final after any consonant except c. Spel er; e.g. center, fiber, meter,

theater; but not lucer for lucre, mediocer for mediocre, etc.
rh initial. Drop silent h; e.g. retoric, reumatism, rithm, rom (rhomb),

rubarb

sc initial pronounst as if speld s. Drop silent c; e.g. senery, sented,

septer, simitar, sissors; but scatter, sconce etc.
u silent before a vowel medial. Drop u; e.g. bild, condit, garantee,

gard, ges, gide, gild
y between consonants. Spel i; e.g. analisis, fisic, gipsy, silvan, sithe,

tipe

[We uze y for sound in by and so retain y in syth, typ etc.]

S S B 18 rules

1 When ed final is pronounst t, write it simply t, where chanje wil not
sugjest incorrect pronunciation, as askt, fixt, wisht etc. ; reducing a preced-
ing dubl consonant to a singl consonant, as blest, kist, dipt, dropt, stept
etc. ; and chanjing -ced to -st, as advanst, pronounst, rejoist etc. ; but avoid
misleading forms like bakt for baked, deduct or dedust for deduced etc.

2 Chanje ph to f when so sounded, as alfabet, fonograf, fotograf, sulfur,
telefone, telegraf etc.

6o

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

3 Drop e final after -Iv and -rv, as delv, shelv, carv, curv, deserv etc. ;
also in the endings -ide, -He, -ine, -ise, -ite, -ive, unstrest, pronounst id,
il, in, is, it, iv, as bromid, oxid, hostil, textil, anilin, determin, examin,
practis,. promis, definit, f avoruv opposit, activ, nativ, positiv etc. ; and at
end of arO), hav(<?), giv(V). forgiv(e), misgiv e), liv(<?); becauz its nonnal
use after a singl consonant fis to sho that preceding vowel is long. Hence
it is retaind in such words as bare, brave, mile, fine, wize, polite, arrive

4 When digraf ea is sounded as in head or heart, uze sounded letr and
omit the other, as helth, hevy, insted, tred, wether, plesant, hart, harth etc.

5 vSubstitute e for digrafs and ligatures ae, ce, oe, ce, when not final, as
esthetic, medieval, fenix etc.

6 When ch is pronounst like c in car drop h, except before e, i and

y, as caracter, clorid, corns- cronic, eco, epoc, arcangel, mecanic, monarc,

scolar, scool, stomac etc. ; but chemist, architect, monarchy etc.

Rule 6 was later alterd to 'uze k or drop h', so we prefer k in skool, mekanic,
arkitect etc. ; for the asender k looks more like ch than does c and it is -the form sure

to be uzed in the end

7 Drop silent h from initial rh, as rapsody, reumatism, rubarb etc.

8 Reduce // final, after a short strest vowel, to 1, as bil, dol, dril, dwel,
fil, ful, fulfil, shal, tel, wil, wilful etc.

9 Reduce dubl final consonants bb, dd, ff, gg, nn, rr, tt, zz, to a singl
consonant, as eb, ad, od, cuf, eg, bun, bur, whir, net, buz etc.

10 Drop -me from mme final, as gram, program

11 Drop 4e from ette final, as cigaret, coquet, etiquet, omelet, quartet

12 Drop silent ue final after g, as catalog, colleag, dialog, pedagog,
sinagog etc. ; except when g is preceded by a singl long vowel, as in rogue,
vague, vogue etc. Tongue spel tung, Milton's way

13 For -ough substitute o, u, of, ock, out or up, according to sound,
as tho, thru, cof, enuf, hock, drout, hiccup etc. Plough spel plow

14 Drop silent b final, as crum, lam, lim, num, thum etc. ; except where
omission sugjests incorrect pronunciation, as in tomb, comb etc.

15 Drop e from ey final unstrest, pronounst like short y final, as abby,
barly, chimny, donky, gaily, trolly, vally, whisky etc.

16 Substitute z for 5 in -ise final, pronounst as if speld ize, as advertize,
civilize, criticize, merchandize, rize, wize etc.

17 Chanje re final after any consonant except c, to -er, as center,
fiber, meter, theater etc. ; but lucre, mediocre, not lucer, mediocer

18 Drop u from our final in words of 2 or more silabls, as ardor, color,
favor, honor, labor etc.

Aded rules uzed in Decimal Clasification 1

Supplementing S S B's short list of most needed chanjes we hav selected
from its longer preliminary list and from the other best authorities a few
more chanjes which we uze in order to familiarize readers with shortr
forms sure to be uzed later.

1 See note on spelling of Ed 14

lack of title-page

SIMPLER SPELING RI LES

61

Besides chanjes in S S B rules we uzualy :

Spel cud, wud and shud for these constantly occurring words

Uze silabic 1, m, n and r without the unpronounst vowel; e.g, single
is not singlee or singul but singl, just as prism and enthusiasm ar not
prisum and enthusiasum. Also omit preceding obscure vowel before
silabic 1, m, n, r. These 4 consonants partake of the nature of a vowel
and so form silabls; little was pronounst litel, then litul, then lital, and
now simply litl. Many words ar going thru this same shortning. We
hav no letr for this lo unstrest vowel which most peopl ignore. The
Standard dictionary says it is 'reduced to a slyt vocalic resonance'. As
the present vowel is misleading and we hav no letr for this very obscure
sound it is betr to omit it and thus shortn the word. Peopl ar les likely
to mispronounce this short form than the uzual speling; e.g. pedal,
metal, gambol, ar not pronounst as speld, but more and more exactly like
peddle, mettle, gamble, which ar correctly speld pedl, metl, gambl. For
indicating minute shades of pronunciation in a dictionary our short
speling wud not be enuf but it is ampl for all ordinary use

Uze u for o or ou pronounst as in us; e.g. obvius, famus, cuntry,
cum, handsum

Uze j for dg, dge or g, pronounst j e.g jujment, rij, jem (except in propr
nouns and adjectivs, and in old D C entries and for initial in Index)

Uze y with its very common sound in by, my, reply etc. for eigh, igh,
ei, ie, m and ny; e.g. for height, might, pleistocene, replied, guide, buy, we
spel hyt, myt, plystocene, replyd, gyd, by

We often leav i — e, as in bite, ride etc. til later

Uze k for ck or ch, medial or final, if pronounst k; e.g. bak, stok, skool,
mekanic, epok, monark

For the present we often lcav initial c, as in caracter

Drop w frorr 011 final pronounst o, e.g. bio, flo. sho etc., but retain in
inflected forms, e.g blows blown, blowing

Drop any silent letr that is foncticly useless; e.g. drop c from fascinate

Drop 1 of dubl letrs that serv no use; e.g. clas, curiculum, paralel,
but retain if short form wud mislead, as in hiss, off

Sumtimes we substitute s for ce, when it wil not sugjest wrong pronuncia-
tion, e. g. offis, servis, prejudis, but not fens for fence ; also we sumtimes sub-
stitute z for 5 or se, as in becauz, eazy, uzual, but not in inflections, as in
rubs digs, egs (s pronounst z is lef t in inflections becauz there ar so many,
and chiefly becauz the vocal organs force the z sound after voist consonants
b, d, g, m, ng, v as in rubs, pads, digs, egs, hums, bangs, givs, etc. Try-
ing to pronounce 5 results in rups, pats, diks, eks, humps, banks, gifs etc.)

We leav many bad spelings where corrections as in similar words myt
lead careless readers into mispronunciation; e.g. we omit c, a silly dupli-
cation of k, in bak, but leav it in backer becauz baker wud confuze with
the bred man With only 23 letrs for 40 sounds we must make only more
obvins needed chanjes and leav many inconsistencies til we hav the needed
new letrs or modifyd forms to represent the other 1 7

67

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

U S Jeografic Board rules

Most chanjes made harmonize with rules uniformly uzed by U S Jeo-
grafic Board (and strongly recommended for jeneral adoption) in
officialy fixing propr spelings of jeografic names. Sum of these rules
applyd to other words ar:

Pronounce vowels as in Italian and other continental European
languages, consonants as in English

C always soft (sounded s) . Always uze k for hard c ; e.g. Korea, Dakota ;
never Corea, Dacotah

We leav initial c, at present, in cat, corns, cronolojy etc., also final c in grafic etc.

G is always hard. Uze j, never dj, for soft g (j sound)

Ch always as in church; never use for k sound, e.g. spel arkitect, caracter,
corns, skool

We keep chemic temporarily ; kemic cums later
Never uze ph for f sound

Always pronounce h when uzed; e.g. humor, not yumor

Never uze y for vowel i when it has its propr sound as in other languajes

(as in pin, pique) ; e.g. limf, linch, simbol, not lymph, lynch, symbol
Ei, with both short vowels pronounst respectivly as in met and pin,

sound like ey in they and prey, or a in fate

Omitting useless gh in sleigh, weigh, height etc. leavs betr spelings

Filolojists 10 joint rules

These wer made by American and English filolojic associations, includ-
ing nearly all eminent skolars in English, after several years study by
committees of their leading members. British and Americans jointly
recommended these 10 rules as in the interests of real skolarship as wel

as common sense :

1 e Drop silent e when foneticly useless, writing er for re; as in live
(verb), single, eaten, rained, theatre (theater)

2 ea Drop a from ea having sound of e as in met; e.g. feather, leather

3 o For o having sound of u in but, write u in above (abuv), tongue
(rung) and the like

4 ou Drop o from ou having sound of u in but, in trouble (trubl), rough
(mi) and the like. For our unaccented, as in honour, write or, e.g. honor

5 u, ue Drop silent u after g before a, and in nativ English words,
and drop final ue; guard, euess (ges), catalogtie, leagwe etc.

[Do not drop ue when pronounst, as in argue, value, nor when preceded by a
singl long vowel, as in rogue, vague]

6 Dubl consonants may be simplif yd when foneticly useless ; e.g. bailif/
(but not hal/ etc.), battle (batl), written (writn), travel/er

7 Chanje d and ed final to t when so pronounst, as in looked (lookt)
etc. unless the e affects the preceding sound, as in chafed etc.

SIMPLER SPELING RULES

6 3

8 gh, ph Chanje gh and ph to f when so sounded; e.g. enough (enuf),
laughter (lafter) etc. ; phonetic (fonetic) etc.

9 s Chanje 5 to z when so sounded, specialy in distinctly words and in

10 t Drop t in tch; e.g. ca/ch, pi/ch etc.

Rule 1 givs us 1, m, n and r as silabls without the useless e which no
authority pronounces as writn; e.g. singl, eatn

Rules 3 and 4 giv us u for o and ou pronounst like u in us; e.g. cum,
handsum, obvius, perilus

Rules 3, 4, 9 and 10, while not in S S B short list, ar fully approved.
It was merely choice of which chanjes to make 1st with those who havn't
the curaj to make all at once. When all leading skolars of the English
world, including editors of all great dictionaries, recommend shortr forms,
why shud we continue to write the worse than useless lctrs ? Every child
and forener who has lernd rave, wave, dive, alive etc. is sure to pronounce
have, give and live (verb) wrong unless we omit the useless e.

Sugjestions

We shud be glad to hav any practical sugjestions, but to save time and
gard agenst elaborate presentation of varius fine spun theories, we ad that
we hav wacht for many years the results of elaborate and wonderfuly
delicate experiments in our best sykolojic laboratories. We hav red care-
fuly all the 1 arguments ' that sum wil deduce for retaining certain useless
letrs. But these refinements, while very interesting to the specialist,
hav no practical bearing whatever on languaj as the greatest tool with
which man works. Its function is to convey meaning clearly, as quikly
and cheaply as posibl. Microscopic verbal milincry has no propr place
in this vast enjin. When one tels us that he has proved that o is uzualy
pronounst with a slyt vanish which cud be represented by w we admire
his observant analisis, but when he wishes to argue that we shud therefor^
ad w to go we hav no time for his vagaries. To attach sum mark to sho
every refinement which modern reserch cud establish wud result in sum-
thing quite too complex for daily use. Melville Bell's visibl speech was a
marvelus invention but only an unbalanst mind wud advocate its use
for infinit demands of daily life.

By evolution, not revolution, we shal stedily move toward the ideal,
when the greatest languaj the world has yet seen wil hav 40 distinct syns
for its 40 distinct sounds, and becauz of its manifold advantajes wil becum
the common tung of the world, known in adition to his vernacular by every
intelijent inhabitant.

Lake Placid Club N Y Melvil Dewey

Dec. 10, 1926

INDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND SIMPLER SPELING

Superior figures indicate the part of paje in ninths; i, 5 and 9 indicating top,
middle and foot: 27 s means £ way between top and middle of p. 27
D C means Decimal clasification

C D
I I B

L C
N E A
S SB
S SS

Classification dkimale, the enlarjd French translation of D C

Institut International de Bibliographic •

Library of Congress

National Education Association

Simplifyd Spclir.g Board (American)

Simplifyd Speling Socyety (English)

Absurdities in speling 50 5 , 55 s " 7
Accession book, advantajes of D C

for 24 3 -25 l
Accession order, for book numbers 33*
Accretion syn 41 5
Adaptability of D C 26 4
Aded entries 29 s -30 9
Adoption of D C by I I B 40 3
Advantages of D C 24 6 -27 4
Aknowlejments 46 5 ~48 l
-ai dropt 54*

Alfabct, use of, for final subdivisions
Alfabet, perfect 50 5

Alfabetic arrangement, method in C D
42'

Alfabetic caracters, new 50 5 " 8

Allyd subjects, sequence 16 7

American Filolojic Association, com-
mittee on key alfabet for Standard
dictionary 49*

American Library Association, clasifi-
cation committee 47 s , 48'; in rela-
tion to D C numbers on L C cards 8*

Amherst college, library recatalogd 26 2

Analitic references 30 2

Andrews, C W, indettedness to 47'

26', 54 2 ; argument agenst 50 6

Arrangement of D C 27 7 -28 l

Assyning numbers, directions 12 9 , 28 3 -
32 s

Author numbers 32 7
Author tables, special 33 1

Basis of I I B revision 40*

Bibliografic modifications 40 3 -43 1

Bilding numbers 3i 7 ~32 5

Biografy, treatment of 36 s

Biscoe, W S, time number sistem 53 s ;

valuabl assistance 47 s
Book numbers 32 6 -33 7
Books, arranjement I s ; how to find

subject of 28 5 -29 2
Bookstores, use of D C in 43'
Broken order, advantaj of 39 s

Cachtitles, use of

Cards, arranjement 3 3 , 23 s , 44 s
Carnegie, Andrew, supporter of simpler

speling 49 4 , 53 s
Catalogs 23 5 -24 6

Cautions, in making variations 34 2

Chanjes, unauthorized, effect of 32 1 ,
34*, 35* .

Charjing sistem, advantajes of D C for
25 «

Clas numbers, definition 15*; how
to assyn 12 9 , 28 3 -3i l ; how to bild
3i 7 ~32 5 ; how to read 27''; in name
catalog 23°; in shelflist 23 7 ; number
of figures uzed 3 1 1

Clases, divisions and sections I 1 ; broken
order 39 1

Clasification, labor of constructing
sistem I2 J , 46 s ; lak of uniformity 13 9 ;
requirements of sistem 9 7 ; test of
skeme 14 4 ; testing new skemes 19 1 ,
4 6 3

Clast catalog, arranjement 23 s ; objec-
tion obviated I3 a -i4 5 ; printed 23 9 -24'

Close clasing 15 9 , 29 r ', 31 1 - 7 ; ilustratcd by
history divisions 15 7 ; objection and
compromize 31 6 ; requisit for bibliog-
rafers and specialists 40 8 -4 1 2 ; value of
I7 9 -i8 9

Collaborators 46"-47 3

Colon, meaning 41* 42 1 ; use 41 2 - 3

Conciseness, D C io 5 ; English 54 8 -55 2

Consistency in speling, not essential
54 5 ; of S S S 51'

Consonants, new 50"

Contractions for specialists 38 s

Coordination, preservd in D C 16 1

Copyryt restrictions 35 1

Cronolojy, use of, for final subdivisions
3« 5

Cupling syn 41 6

Dash, meaning in C D 41 6

Decimal clasification, committee 7 s , 48 s ;
essential feature II*; explanation of
meaning 12 4 ; extent of use lo 9 -ii s ;
future of 7 8 , 48 s ; labor of constructing
46 s , numbers on L C cards 8 3 - 7 ; orijin
and growth 9'-io 9 :, 46 i -48 I ; practical
test 9 s ; priority of its invention II 8 ;
product of experts 14 5 , 46 a -47 1 : sim-
plicity 12 1 ; speling rules 56 s , 6o 9 -6i 9 ;
variations 33 8 ~40 2

Decimal form of the sistem 1 2 1

Decimalism, use of 20 3 -2i 9

Dewey, Emily (Mrs Melvil Dewey)
chairman D' C committee 7 8

Dewey, Melvil, deth 7 2 ; interest in D C

(65)

66

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Dictionary catalog 24 1

Dictionary speling 56 1

Differences between D C and C D 40 7

Digrafs 50'- 8

Divisions 3 J

Duplicates, see Sale duplicates

Editions 7 1 -8\ 11 3
Editorship 47*
Education, methods of 52*
Education of the masses 53 s
Efficiency in English, committee on 49'
Endowment of special departments

26 6 -27 l

English languaj, caracter of 52';
chanjes in 51 1 , 53°-54 7 . 55 2 "56 3 ;
conciseness in use of 54 8 ~55 2 ; pur-
pose of 54 1 , 63 s ; world languaj 52'-
53', 63' . •

English spcling caractenzed 51 4

Equality syn, meaning 42 s

Expansions 7 2 - 3 , 7 9_ 8 3 , 19 1

Fiction, treatment of 35'
Filolojic associations, rules 56', 62 5 -63 6
Fonetic speling 49", 51 7
Form distinctions, position 17 7 ; use
of 17 1

Form divisions, uniform numbers 17 8
Form syn 42 1
Future of DC 7 8 , 48

Heds 12 5 ; choice and arranjement 16 s
Hyfen, meaning in C D 41 s

Ideal in speling 49 s , 50 7 , 63 s
Importance of speling reform 53*
Improvements (so-cald) of D C 34'
Inconsistencies in speling, D C rules

61 9 ; S S B method 51 1
Index 3 7 , io 3 , s , 7 , 11 7 , I2 3 ,'i2 8 -i4 9 ; a dic-
tionary catalog 24 4 ; effect of chanjes
in tables 34 s ; essential feature of D C
II*; fulness I2 8 -I4 9 ; ilustration of use
13 1 " 8 ; labor of constructing 46 s ; plan of
27 9 -28 1 ; scope 14 8 ; sug jestionsfor uzing
279-2 8 s , 32 s ; use of blakface typ 13 7
Index rerums, use of D C for 44 s
Index tables, appended 20 2
Infinity simbol, meaning 42 4
Institut International de Bibliographic
adoption of Decimal clasification 40 4 ;
extension of D C by 40 6 ; obligations
to 47*

International languaj 52 7 -53 4 , 63 s

Johnson's dictionary 55'

Jujment, exercize of 52 s

Juvenil literature, treatment 35 8 ~36 4

Lake Placid Club Education Founda-
tion 48 s

Languaj, purpose of 54 1 , 63 s ; universal

52 7 -53 4 .63 9 .
Languaj and literature, combining 37'
Languaj colections 36 9 ~37 !
Languaj syn 42"

Letter notations for chanjes 35 1
Letters, new 50 6
Libraries uzing D C io 9 -ii'
Library of Congress cards, D C num-
bers on 8 3 - 7
Literature and languaj, combining 37'

Masses, education of 53 s
Minor subjects, disposition of 16'
Minute clasing,-5ee Close clasing
Mnemonics, use of l9 4 -2o"
Modern Languaj Association, com-
mittee on key alfabet for Standard
dictionary 49 s
Money wasted by English speling 51 s

Name catalog 23*

National Education Association, com-
mittee on key alfabet for Standard
dictionary 49 s ; 12 words 56 s , 57 1

Naught, normal value of 15 5 ; uzed for
chanjed caracter of subdivision 1 5";
for form distinctions 17 2 ; for jeneral
works I 1 , 15 1 , 17 2 ; initial and final
37 8 -38 l

Naught, dubl, meaning jeneral points
of view 42 7 ; subdivisions peculiar to a
subject 42 s
Nemonics, use of i9 4 -20 9
New subjects, disposition of 16 6
Notation 12 1 ; simplicity io 8
Note books, use of D C for 45 s
Note typ 18 4

Numeration, method of 27"

Obligation, speling 53 s
Order, of bibliografic simbols 43 1 ; of
clases, broken 39 s ; of subjects 16 9

Pamflets, advantajes of D C for 25 1
Paper, sizes 44 9 ~45 4

Paralel libraries, treatment of 36 8 -37',
37 5

Parenthetic numbers, form 42 1 ; place
42 s

Pedants rules 53 8 -54 5

Philolojic associations, rules 56 7 , 62 6 -63 5

Phonetic speling 49 9 , 51 7

Place syn 42 s ; use of 41 s

Plus syn, meaning 41 6

Points of view, jeneral, syn for 42 7

Pro and con division of topics 39 8 -40 l

Pronouncing correctly, imposibility of

5 2 ' • • • , .

Pronunciation, variations in 50', 51'-

52*. 54*

Quotation marks, meaning 42*

Reazoning power dednd 5i 9 -52 8
Reazons for simpler speling 5i 4 ~53 T
tajes of D C in 20 2
Reference library, treatment of 37 s
Refinements in speling, theoretic 63 s

INDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND SIMPLER SPELING

6 7

Reformd speling, see Speling, simpler
Relation syn 41 '-42' ; use 41 3
Relativ Index, see Index
Relativ location 2 i 9 -2,V ; need of 2 1'-22'
Revision of D C, basis of C D 40*
Rules for simpler speling 56 4 -03 6

Sale duplicates, advantajes of D C
for 25 s

School years wasted by English speling
51 s . 52 6

Scrapbooks, use of D C for 44'
Sections i 2 , 27 s ; subsections I s , 27 s
Separates, proposed 45 9 ~46 l
Sequence, of allyd subjects 16 7 ; of

bibliografic syns 43 1 ; of clases,

broken 3c/ 3
Sets of books 22 s , 30 8
Seymour, May 47 s

Shelflist 23'; advantajes of D C for
24"

Shelvs, advantajes of D C for 21 '-23' ,
24 7

Signs, I I B skeme 40 9 -43 l
Simbol notations for chanjes 35 2
Simpler speling, see Speling, simpler
Simplifyd Speling Board, method of
51 1 ; rules 56 s , 57 2 -6o 8 ; supple-
mented by D C rules 60 9 ; supported
by Carnegie 49 4 ; 30 words 56 s , 57 2
Simplifyd Speling Socyety 50 s , 51 3
Size, distinction by 23 2
Skool years wasted by English speling
5 1 6 . 52 5

Small libraries, adaptability to 31 1
Social problems, solution thru educa-
tion 53 s

Special colections, treatment 35'-

3 6 4 , 36 8 -37 3 , 3 7 5
Specialists, use of D C by io 5 , 38 s
Specialties, influence on assyning clas

numbers 30 3
Speling, simpler 49-63; agreement on

need for 49'; methods for attaining

499-5 1 3 ; reazons for 5i 4 ~53 7 ; rules

56 4 -63 6

Speling correctly, imposibility of 52 1
Speling variations 49 9 -.5o 4 , 52'
Standard dictionaries, key alfabet
for 49 s

vSubject catalog, see Clast catalog

Subject Index, see Index

Subject references, advantajes of D C

Subjects, sequence of 16 7
Sugjestions to uzers of D C 2 7 5 ~33 7
Summaries i 4 , 27'
Syns, I I B skeme 40 , -43 1

Tables, index, appended 20 2 ; of clasi-
fication, plan of I4 9 -I5 a , 27';
sugjestions for uzing 27 6 ~32 6 ;
tentativ i8 9 -i9 4

30 words of S S B 56 s , 57 2

Time numbers 33 s

Time syn 42 s

Time wasted by English speling 51*, 53'
Topical indexes, use of D C for 45'
Tuskegee Institute, speling and pro-
nunciation requirement 50 2
12 words of N E A 56 s , 57 1
Typ, significance of small 18 4

Uniformity in clasification, how to
gain 30 7 ; Index a gyd to 14 3

United States Jeografic Board rules
56 7 , 62 1

Universal languaj 52 7 -53 4 , 63'
Universality syn 42 4
Uses of D C io 1 , 43 2 -45 8

Variations practicabl in D C clasi-
fication 33 8 -40 2
View, jeneral points of, syn for 42 7
Vowels, new 50 5

Waste, see Money wasted; Time
wasted

Zero, see Naught

FIRST SUMMART

CLASSES

General works

1 Filosofy

2 Religion

3 Social sciences

4 Filology

5 Pure science

6 Useful arts

7 Fine arts

8 Literature

9 History

SECOND SUMMARY

DIVISIONS

ooo General works Prolegomena

010 Bibliografy

020 Library economy

030 General cyclopedias

040 General collected essays

050 General periodicals

060 General societies Museums

070 Journalism Newspapers

080 Polygrafy Special libraries

090 Book rarities

100 Filosofy

no Metaphysics

120 Other metaphysical topics

130 Phisiologic, abnormal and

differential psychology

Metapsychology

140 Filosofic sistems and doctrins

150 Psychology

160 Logic Dialectics

170 Ethics

180 Ancient and Oriental filosofers

190 Modern filosofers

200 Religion

210 Natural theology

220 Bible

230 Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology

240 Devotional Practical

250 Homiletic Pastoral Parochial

260 Church: institutions and work

270 General hist, of the church

280 Christian churches and sects

290 Nonchristian religions

300 Social sciences Sociology

310 Statistics

320 Political science

330 Economics Political economy

340 Law

360 Welfare and social institutions

370 Education

380 Commerce Communication

390 Customs Costumes Folklore

400 Filology

410 Comparativ

420 English Anglo-Saxon

430 German and other Teutonic

440 French Provencal

450 Italian Rumanian

460 Spanish Portuguese

470 Latin and other Italic

480 Greek and other Hellenic

490 Other languages

500 Pure science

5ro

Mathematics

520

Astronomy

530

Physics

540

Chemistry

550

Geology

560

Paleontology

570

Biology Anthropology

580

Botany

590

Zoology

600 Useful arts

610

Medicin

620

Engineering

630

Agriculture

640

Home economics

650

660

Chemic technology

670

Manufactures

680

690

Bilding

700 Fine arts Recreation

710

Landscape and civic art

720

Architecture

730

Sculpture

740

Drawing Decoration Design

750

Painting

760

Engraving

770

Fotografy

780

Music

790

Amusements

800 Literature

810

American

820

English Anglo-Saxon

830

German and other Teutonic

840

French Provencal, etc.

850

Italian Rumanian, etc.

860

Spanish Portuguese, etc.

870

Latin and other Italic

880

Greek and other Hellenic

890

Other literatures

900 History

910

Geografy Travels

920

Biografy

930

Ancient history

940

Europe

950 E

Asia

960 *>

Africa

970 £

North America

980 *

South America

990

Oceania and polar regions

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

General works

Limited to none of the 9 classes

000

General works Prolegomena

0K0

vnviai uci iijuil did

00 1

TCnowlpdirp nnd lpmin< r in prnornl

Atiirrinn

002

III' IJKJKJrt,

°5-

1* r% <r 1 1 a Ti
ivIlgUSil

00 1

0^1

German

004

054

French

005

055

Italian

006

056

Spanish

007

Activity in general

057

Slavic

008

058

Scandinavian

009

059

Other languages

010

Bibliografy

060

General societies

01 I

1— pfw>t*'il ni KlirtfTfi Hop
VJCIHIill I HI MlUgl cillt-o

Oo I

mot riCiin

012

Of individuals

062

English

01 1

v *

" special classes of authors

063

German

014

" " forms: pseudonims etc

064

French

015

countries

065

Italian

016

subjects

066

Spanish

017

Clast catalogs

067

Slavic

018

Author

068

Other countries

019

Dictionary catalogs

069

Museums

020

Library economy

070

Journalism Newspapers

02 I

ULU|JC) UoCL 11 lilt- 30 till 1 1 1 1 Lt 1 1 1 1 1 llj^

A TTipn pi n

£\ 1 1 1 1 1L tl 1 1

022

Bildings —

O72

English

O23

Government and servis

O73

German

O24

074

French

025

°75

Italian

026

Libraries on special subjects

076

Spanish

O27

General libraries Reports etc

077

Slavic

028

078

Scandinavian

029

Literary methods Laborsavers

079

Other countries

030

General cyclopedias

080

Polygrafy Special libraries

O J XT

nil

A men pq n
ill 1 1 1 - 1 1 l . itii

081

T flrti vii lin 1 t^ol \ t ctt"q T \f
mm v i . 1 1 , 1 1 ^jvjiy f^i diy

032

T-Tti (rl 1 c n

.C/IlgllMl

l o/^t" 1 \r t~~\ \ ' <y f 'i fir
^(JllLCllv | JUiy fel cLLy

German

Official publications

O34

French

084

035

Italian

085

036

Spanish

086

037

Slavic

087

O38

Scandinavian

088

r 39

Other languages

089

040

General collected essays

090

Book rarities

O-J-I

riincricdii

09 I

nn iniicpnnt*: \ n t nttnfc

042

English

OO 2

Block books

043

German

093

Erly printed Incunabula

044

French

O94

Rare printing Privately printed

045

Italian

095

Rare binding

046

Spanish

096

Rare illustrations or materials

047

Slavic

O97

Ownership Bookplates

048

Scandinavian

O98

Prohibited Lost Imaginary, etc.

049

Other languages

099

Other rarities Curiosa

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

150

151
152
153

154
155
156

Filosofy

»oo Filosofy

JOi Utility

102 Compends

J 03 Dictionaries

104 Essays

105 Periodicals

106 Societies
ioj Study and teaching
*o8 Polygrafy Maxims
»oo History

1 10 Metaphysics

1 1 1 Ontology

112 Methodology

113 Cosmology

114 Space

115 Time

116 Motion

117 Matter
it8 Energy Force
119 Quantity Number

J 20 Other metaphysical topics

12 1 Epistemology Knowledge

122 Cause and effect Causation

123 Freedom and necessity

124 Teleology Final cause

125 Infinit and finite

126 Consciousness Personality

127 The unconscious The subcon.

128 The soul

129 Origin and dest. of individ.
soul

130 Phisiologic, abnormal and
differential psychology

157
158
159
160

161

162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
i75
176

i77
178
179
180

Psychology

Intellect
Sense perceptions
Understanding

Memory and lcrning
Imagination
Intuitiv faculty Innate
reason
Emotions Sensibility

Motor functions
Wil

Logic Dialectics

Inductiv

Deductiv

Assent Faith

Simbolic Algebraic

Sources of error Fallacies

Syllogism Enthymeme

Hypotheses

Argument and persuasion
Analogy Correspondence
Ethics

Theories of ethics
State ethics
Family ethics

Ethics of amusements

Sexual ethics

Social ethics

Temperance

Other ethical topics

Ancient and Oriental filosofers

131

Mental physiology and hygiene

181

Oriental

132

Mental derangements

182

Erly Greek

133

Occult sciences

183

Sophistic and Socratic

134

Hypnotism

184

Platonic

135

Sleep Dreams Somnambulism

185

Aristotelian

136

Genetic psychology

186

Pyrrhonist New Platonist

137

Individuality Personality

187

Epicurean

138

Physiognomy

188

Stoic

139

Phrenology Mental fotografs

189

Erly Christian and medieval

140

Filosofic sistems & doctrins

190

Modern filosofers

141

Idealism Transcendentalism

191

American

142

Critical filosofy

192

British

143

Intuitionalism

193

German

144

Empiricism Pragmatism

194

French

145

Sensationalism

195

Italian

146

Naturalism Materialism

196

Spanish

147

Pantheism ^Monism

197

Slavic

148

Eclecticism etc

198

Scandinavian

149

Other filosofic sistems

199

Other modern

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

Religion

200

Religion

250

HomiletlC Pastoral Pnrnrhial

201

Filosofy Theories

2 S I

HoiTlllpfipQ Proa r>ri i n ■ t

202

Compends

2 ^2

vJC 1 l I 1 1 ' 1 1 1

201

Dictionaries

Jo

Pastoral lifo ("V1ibir»\r

204

Essays

Ohurch finnTiPf* ("M^rir* cumvtrt

205

Periodicals

255

Brotherhoods Sisterhoods

206

Societies

256

Societies for parish work Gilds

207

Education Theologic schools

257

Parish educational work

208

Polygrafy

258

Parish welfare work

209

History of religion

259

Other ministrations and work

210

Natural theology

260

Church; institutions and work

211

Deism Atheism Theism

2Cl

Church

212

Pantheism Theosofy

262

Ecclesiastic polity

211

Creation Evolution

261

Sabbath I ord's rlnv finrirlnj

Providence Theodicy Fatalis'ti

264

T^nblir* watqI 1 i n T?itii'1

A U Uil C WUIillllJ XV 1 tU(l i

215

Religion and science

265

Sacraments Ordinances

216

Good Evil Depravity

266

Missions Home and foren

217

Worship Prayer

267

Associations Y M C A, etc

218

Future life Immortality

268

Sunday schools

219

Analogies Correspondences

269

Revivals Retreats

220

Bible

270

General hist, of church

221

Old Testament

271

Religious orders Monasteries

222

Historical hooks

272

Persecutions

221

Poetic "

271

Heresies

224

Profetic "

274

Europe

225

New Testament

275

Asia

226

Gospels and Acts

276

Africa

227

Epistles

277

North America

228

Apocalypse

278

South America

229

Apocrypha

279

Oceania

230

Doctrinal Dogmatics

280

Christian churches and sects

211

God Unity Trinity

28l

Primitiv and oriental

212

Christ Christology

282

Roman catholic

211

Man The fall Sin

281

Anglican and American P E

.^filva firm Sntpnolncxv

284

Onntinenf fll nrnte^tant -

2 35

Angels Devils Satan

285

Presbyterian Congregational

236

Eschatology Deth Judgment

286

Baptist Immersionist

237

Future state

287

Methodist

238

Creeds Catechisms

288

Unitarian

239

Apologetics Evidences

289

Other Christian sects

240

f

Devotional Practical

290

Nonchristian religions

24 I

Didactic

2QI

Comparativ & general mythology

****

Meditativ

2Q2

7

Greek and Roman

1 1U1 lalUly

201

Teutonic and Northern

244

Miscellany Fiction, etc.

294

Brahmanism Buddhism

245

Hymnology Religious poetry

295

Parseeism

246

Ecclesiology Simbolism

296

Judaism

247

Sacred furniture, vessels etc

297

Mohammedanism

248

Personal religion A=cr ticism

298

249

Family devotions

299

Other nonchristian religions

THIRD SUMMARY

SECTIONS

Social

300 Social sciences

301 Sociology: filosofy, theories

302 Compends

303 Dictionaries

304 Essays

305 Periodicals

306 Societies

307 Study and teaching

308 Polygrafy

309 History of social science

310 Statistics

311 Theory Methods

312 Population Demografy

313 Special topics

314 Europe

315 Asia

316 Africa

317 North America

318 South America

319 Oceania

320 Political science

321 Form of state

322 Church and state

323 Internal or domestic relations

324 Suffrage Elections

325 Colonies Migration

326 Slavery

327 Foren relations

328 Legislation Lawmaking

329 Political parties

330 Economics

331 Labor and laborers

332 Financial economics

333 Land : ownership, rights and rent

334 Cooperation

335 Socialism and communism

336 Public finance Taxation

338 Production Manufacture Prices

339 Capital Consumption
Pauperism .

340 Law

341 International law

342 Constitutional law and history

343 Criminal law

344 Martial law

345 U. S. statutes and cases

346 British " " •

347 General works Treatises

348 Church law

349 Law other than Amcr. & Brit.

sciences

350

science

351

352

Local government : city, town

353

United States and state

354

Other countries

355

Military science Army

356

Infantry

357

Cavalry

358

Artillery, engineers etc

359

Naval science Navy

360

Welfare and social institutions

3 61

Charitable

362

Hospitals Asylums

363

Political

364

Reformatory Criminology

365

Penal Prisoners

366

Secret societies

367

Social clubs

368

Insurance

369

Other

370

Education

37i

Teachers Methods Disciplin

372

Elementary Kindergarten

373

Secondary Preparatory

374

375

Curriculum

376

Education of women

377

Religious, ethical and secular

378

Colleges and universities

379

Public schools State and educ.

380

Commerce Communication

381

382

383

Postal servis

384

Telegraf Cable Tclefone

385

386

387

Ocean and air transport

388

Locol transit

389

Weights and mesures Metrology

390

Customs Costumes

Folklore

391

Costume and care of person

392

Birth, home and sex customs

393

Treatment of ded

394

Public and social customs

395

Etiquet

396

Woman's position and treatment

397

398

Folklore Proverbs etc

399

Customs of war

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

Filology

400

Filology

450

401

Filosofy Origin

451

402

Compends

452

40 T

Dictionaries

453

404

Essays

454

405

Periodicals

455

406

Societies

456

407

Study and teaching

457

408

Polygrafy

Internat'l lang.

458

409

History of language

459

410

Comparativ

460

41 1

Orthografy

Alfabets

461

412

Etymology

462

413

Dictionaries

Lexicografy

463

414

Phonology

464

415

Grammar

465

416

Prosody

4OO

417

Inscriptions

4 6 7

418

Texts

4OO

419

Sign language

Hieroglifics

469

420

English

470

421

Orthografy

471

422

Etymology

472

423

Dictionaries

473

424

Synonims

474

425

Grammar

475

426

Prosody

476

Dialects

477

428

School texts

478

429

Anglo-Saxon

479

430

German

.0.
400

43 1

Orthografy

481

43 2

Etymology

482

433

Dictionaries

483

434

Synonims

484

435

Grammar

485

436

Prosody

486

437

Dialects

487

438

School texts

488

439

Other Teutonic

489

440

French

490

44 1

Orthografy

491

442

Etymology

492

443

Dictionaries

493

444

Synonims

494

445

Grammar

495

446

Prosody

496

447

Dialects

497

448

School texts

498

449

Provencal Catalan

499

Italian

Orthografy
Etymology
Dictionaries
Synonims
Grammar
Prosody
Dialects
School texts
Rumanian Romansh
Spanish

Orthografy

Etymology

Dictionaries

Synonims

Grammar

Prosody

Dialects

School texts
Portuguese Galician
Latin (classic)

Orthografy
Etymology
Dictionaries
Synon ims
Grammar
Prosody
Dialects
School texts
Other Italic
Greek (classic)

Orthografy
Etymology
Dictionaries
Synonims
Grammar
Prosody
Dialects
School texts
Other Hellenic
Other languages
Other Indo-Europea»
Semitic
Hamitic

Scythian Turanian

Asiatic

African

North American
South American
Malay-Polynesian and other

THIRD SUMMARY

SECTIONS

Pure science

500

Pure science

550

Geology

5 01

Filosofy

551

Physical and dynamic geology

502

Compends

552

Lithology Petrografy

503

Dictionaries

553

Economic geology

5°4

Essays

554

Europe

5°5

Periodicals

555

Asia

506

Societies

556

Africa

507

Education Museums

557

North America

508

Polygrafy

558

South America

S09

History

559

Oceania Polar regions

Mathematics

560

Paleontology

5"

Arithmetic

561

Plants

S12

Algebra

562

Invertebrates

513

Geometry

5 6 3

5H

Trigonometry

564

Mollusks

515

Descriptiv geometry

565

Articulates

516

Analitic geometry Quaternions

566

Vertebrates

517

Calculus

567

Fishes Batrachians

518

568

Reptils Birds

Si9

Probabilities

569

Mammals

520

Astronomy

570

Biology Anthropology

521

Theoretic

57i

Prehistoric archeology

522

Practical and sferic

572

Ethnology Anthropology

523

Descriptiv

573

Natural history of man

524

Maps and observations

574

Physiologic and stiuct. biol

525

Earth

575

Evolution Phylcgeny

526

Geodesy

57"

Origin and beginnings of life

527

577

Properties of living matter

528

Ephemerides

578

Microscopy

529

Cronology

579

Collectors manuals

530

Physics

580

Botany

53i

Mechanics

58i

Physiologic and structural

532

Liquids Hydraulics

582

Phanerogams Seed plants

533

Gases Pneumatics

583

Dicotyledons

534

Sound Acoustics

584

Monocotyledons

535

585

Gymnosperms

536

Heat

586

Cryptogams Seedless plants

537

Electricity

587

Pteridophytes

538

Magnetism

588

Bryophytes

539

Molecular physics

589

Thallophytes

540

Chemistry

590

Zoology

54i

Theorel ic Physical

59 1

Physiologic and structural

542

Practical and experimental

592

Invertebrates

543

Analisis

593

544

Qualitativ

594

Mollusks

545

(Juantitativ

595

Articulates

546

Inorganic

596

Vertebrates

547

Organic

597

Fishes Batrachians

548

Crystallografy

598

Reptils Birds

549

Mineralogy

599

Mammals

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

Useful arts Applied science

600 Useful arts 650 Communication Business

60 1 Filosof y 65 1 Offis economy

602 Compends 652 Writing: materials, typewriters

603 Dictionaries 653 Abbreviations Shorthand

604 Essays 654 Telegraf Cables Signals

605 Periodicals 655 Printing Publishing Copyright

606 Societies Fairs Exhibitions 656 Transportation: railroading etc

607 Education Schools of tech nol. 657 Bookkeeping Accounts

608 Patents Inventions 658 Business methods

609 History of useful arts 659 Advertising and other topics

610 Medicin 660 Chemic technology

611 Anatomy 661 Chemicals

612 Physiology 662 Pyrotechnics Explosivs Fuels

613 General and personal hygiene 663 Beverages

614 Public helth 664 Foods: sugar, starch etc

615 Materia medica Therapeutics 665 Lights: gas, oil, candles etc

616 Pathology Diseases Treatment 666 Kcramics Glas Cement

617 Surgery Dentistry, etc. 667 Bleaching Dyeing Inks Paints

618 Diseases of women and children 668 Other organic chemic industries

619 Comparativ medicin Veterinary 669 Metallurgy Assaying

620 Engineering 670 Manufactures

621 Mechanical 671 Articles made of metals

622 Mining 672 Of iron & steel; stoves, cutlery

623 Military Naval 673 Of copper, bras, bronz etc

624 Bridge and roof 674 Lumber & articles made of wood

626 Canal 676 Paper " " " " paper

627 River and harbor 677 Textils

628 Sanitary Waterworks 678 Rubber & articles made of rubber

629 Other branches 679 Celluloid and other

631 Farm Farmsted 681 Watch and instrument making

632 Hindrances Protection 682 Blacksmithing Horseshoeing

633 Field crops: grains, grasses etc 683 Lock and gun making

634 Fruits Forestry 684 Carriage and cabinet making

635 Garden crops 685 Saddlery Shot-making Trunks

636 Domestic animals 686 Bookbinding

637 Dairy and dairy products 687 Clothing industries

638 Bees, silkworms etc 688

639 Hunting Trapping Fish culture 689 Other trades

640 Home economics 690 Bilding

641 Food Cookery 691 Materials Preservativ processes

642 Serving Entertaining 692 Plans Specifications

643 Shelter: house, home 693 Masonry Plastering

644 Heat Light Ventilation 694 Carpentry Stairbilding

645 Furniture Decoration 695 Roofing: .slating, tiling

646 Clothing Toilet 696 Plumbing: gas and steam fitting

647 Household administration 697 Heating Ventilating

648 Sanitary precautions 698 Painting Glazing Paperhanging

649 Nursery Sickroom 699 Carbilding

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

Fine arts Recreation

700

Fine arts

750

Painting

701

Pilosofy Esthetics

751

Materials, methods, etc.

702

Compends

752

Color

703

Dictionaries

/ jj

Epic Mythic Idealistic

704

Essays Poligrafy

754

Genre

705
706

Periodicals

Societies

755

Religious Ecclesiastic

707

Education Study

7S6

Historical Rattl^n etc

708

Art galleries

757

Portrait Human figure

709

History of art

/ J J

Land *^canp Sttl lifo f*tc

710

Landscape and civic art

759

Various schools

7"

Regional and city planning

760

Engraving

712

Landscape architecture and

761

Relief engraving

gardening

762

Metal ■

713

Construction and mainte-

761

1 • ' 1 1 1 <^ 1 ■ 1 1 \

714
715

nance

Water features

704

v^iiruizioiiiiiugriixy

Vegetation Trees, shrubs,

76*

hedges

766

\f p 7 7 nt iflt" Annotinf
ivic^^uuir iLt-J ua LIU I

716

Herbaceous plants

7°7

L/LLiiiiig Ljiy point

7'7

Structural elements

768

Banknote Machine

718

Cemeteries Monuments

769

Collections of engravings

Mausoleums

770

Fotografy

719

Natural landscapes Scenery

77 1

Fotografic chemistry & materials

730

Architecture

772

Processes: silver etc

721

Architectural construction

771
I/O

Gelatin, pigment and dye

722

Ancient and oriental

723

Medieval Gothic, etc.

724

Modern

774

* ft printers ink

725

Public bildings

775

Fotolithografy etc

726

Ecclesiastic and religious

776

Fotozincografy etc

737

Educational and scientific

777

Fotoengraving Fotoelectros

728

Residences

778

Special applications

729

Design and decoration

779

Collections of fotografs

730

Sculpture

780

Music

731

Materials, methods, etc.

781

Theory and technic

732

Ancient

782

Dramatic

733

Greek and Roman

783

Sacred

734

Medieval

784

Vocal

735

Modern

785

Instrumental ensemble

736

Carving Seals Dies Gems

786

Piano and organ

737

Numismatics Coins Medals

787

Stringd instrument

738

Pottery Porcelain

788

Wind ■

739

Metal arts Bricabrac

789

Percussion and mechanical

740

Drawing Decoration

790

Amusements

74i

Freehand Crayon, etc.

79i

Public entertainment

742

Perspectiv

792

Theater Stage

743

Art anatomy Life school

793

Indoor entertainment

744

Mathematical drawing

794

Games of skil

745

Arts and crafts Design

795

Games of chance

746

Art needlework Fanciwork

796

Outdoor sports and games

747

Interior decoration

797

Water sports Aerostation

748

Staind and iridescent glas

798

Horsemanship Racing

749

Artistic furniture

799

Fishing Hunting Sh<x)ting

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

Literature Belles-lettres

800

Literature

801

Filosofy

802

Compends

803

Dictionaries

804

Essays

805

Periodicals

806

Societies

807

Study and teaching

808

Rhetoric Collections

809

History

810

American literature

811

Poetry

812

Drama

813

Fiction

814

Essays

815

Oratory

816

Letters

817

Satire Humor

818

Miscellany

819

820

English literature

821

Poetry

822

Drama

823

Fiction

824

Essays

825

Oratory

826

Letters

827

Satire Humor

828

Miscellany

829

Anglo-Saxon literature

830

German literature

831

Poetry

832

Drama

833

Fiction

834

Essays

835

Oratory

836

Letters

837

Satire Humor

838

Miscellany

839

Other Teutonic literatures

840

French literature

841

Poetry

842

Drama

843

Fiction

844

Essays

845

Oratory

846

Letters

847

Satire Humor

848

Miscellany

849

Provencal Catalan

850

Italian literature

851

Poetry

852

Drama

853

Fiction

854

Essays

855

Oratory

856

Letters

857

Satire Humor

858

Miscellany

859

Rumanian Romansh

860

Spanish literature

861

Poetry

862

Drama

863

Fiction

864

Essays

865

Oratory

866

Letters

867

Satire Humor

868

Miscellany

869

Portuguese Galician

870

Latin literature (classic)

871

Poetry

872

Dramatic

873

Epic

874

Lyric

875

Oratory

876

Letters

877

Satire Humor

878

Miscellany

879

Other Italic literatures

880

Greek literature (classic)

881

Poetry

882

Dramatic

883

Epic

884

Lyric

885

Oratory

886

Letters

887

Satire Humor

888

Miscellany

889

Other Hellenic literatures

890

Other literatures

891

Other Indo-European

892

Semitic

893

Hamitic

894

Scythian Turanian

895

Asiatic

896

African

897

North American

898

South American

899

Malay-Polynesian and other

THIRD SUMMARY SECTIONS

History

QOO

History

950

Asia

00 1

Filosofy

95 1

Chifia

bo*

Compends Cronologies

952

Japan

903

tiictiotiaries

953

Arabia

904

Essays

954

India

905

Periodicals

955

tran (Persia;

906

Societies

956

Turkey in Asia

907

Study and teaching

957

Siberia [chist.m

908

Polyurafy

958

Afghanistan Turkestan Baiu-

909

Universal histories

959

Farther India

910

Geografy and travels

960

Africa

911

Historic

961

North Africa

912

Maps

962

Egypt

9'3

Antiquities

963

Abyssinia Ethiopia

914

Europe

964

Morocco

915

Asia

965

Algeria

016

Africa

966

North Central Africa

5>i7

North America

967

South Central Africa'

918

South America

968

South Africa

919

Oceania Polar regions

969

920

Biografy

970

North America

921

Of filosofy

971

922

" religion

972

Mexico Central America

923

" sociology

973

United States

924

" filology

974

North Atlantic states

925

" science

975

South Atlantic states

926

" useful arts

976

South Central or Gulf states

927

" fine arts

977

North Central or Lake "

928

" literature

978

Western or Mountain "

929

Genealogy Heraldry

979

Pacific states

930

Ancient history

980

South America

93i

China

981

Brazil

932

Egypt

982

Argentina Patagonia

933

Judea

Q83

Chile

934

India

984

Bolivia

935

Medo-Persia [nations

985

Peru

936

Races forming new European

986

937

Rome Italy

987

Venezuela

938

Greece

988

Guiana

939

Other countries

989

Paraguay Uruguay

940

Europe

990

Oceania Polar regions

94 '

Scotland Ireland (Eire)

99 1

Malaysia

942

England Wales

QQ2

Sunda

943

Germany Austria Czecho-

A 11 if tt\ 1 a Qia

slovakia Poland Hungary

994

995

A n if m 1 1 a

944

France

New Guinea

945

Italy

Polynesia

946

Spain Portugal

996

947

Union of Sov. Soc. Rcpubs.'Rus.)

997

Isolated ilands

948

Norway Sweden Denmark

998

Arctic regions

949

Other countries

999

Antarctic regions

<

Complete tables

including all the

SUBSECTIONS

General works

000 General works Prolegomena

001 Knowledge and learning in general

002 The book

Science of the book, history of the book and book arts in general

007 Activity and organization in general

010 Bibliografy

.1 Theory, utility, etc. .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals
.6 Societies .7 Education, training, see also 020.7; .8 Polygrafy .9 History

on General bibliografies Universal catalogs

01 1 is by Authors. If by Subjects they go in 016. See also 028.S Reading of children
Properly a catalog is of a special collection and so tells where the works may be
found. A bibliografy disregards actual location and tells what there is,, but its con-
tents can seldom be found in any one library

012-016 include both bibliografies and catalogs. 017-019 is limited to catalogs of
general collections

012 Of individuals

Alfabeted by subjects of bibliografies (bibliografees), not by compilers; e. g. Chaucer,
Dante, Ruskin, etc.

A bibliografy of an Individual may Include either works about or by the Individual,
or both

Authors on whom special collections are being made (e. g. in 800) attract their
bibliografies to 6ame number, leaving only a reference here. Other Individual
bibliografies class here, unless clearly limited to 6ome subject; e. g. artists or
musicians, bibliografy of Wagner 016.78a

013 Of special classes of authors

Subdivided like the general classification, as indicated below. Lists of writings
of such classes, if limited to a special subject, class with that subject; e.g. list
of historical works by Jesuits 016.9. But in exceptional cases the bibliografy
of a special class of authors may be put with that class; e.g. bibliografy of
women's writings 396.58, tho 013.396 would be the better number in a general
library

.020622 Writings of members of A L A

.064 " " " " French academy

.282 " " Roman catholics

.9 Writings of foren residents in a special country

Often extended to one or more generations of descendants. This provides fof

bibliografies in which nationality, not subject, is the important idea

.91 Authors from special country^

Divided like 930-999 by country of origin and farther subdivided with
o like 930-999 by country of adoption; e.g. 013.91485 bibliografy of writings
of Swedes outside Sweden, 013.91485044 writings of Swedes in France,
013.9148507 of Swedes in America. This groups under mother country;
e.g. gathers together all lists of works by emigrant Swedes

.930-990 Foren authors in special country

Usually preferable to .91. Divided like 930-999 by country of adop-
tion and farther subdivided with o like 930-999 for country of origin;
e.g. 013.944 foren authors in France; 013.973 foren authors in U S;
013.9730485 Swedish authors in U S; 013.9485073 American authors in
Sweden. Ordinarily 013.94807 would be explicit enough; the longer
under a given country all its foren authors

014 Of special forms: anonyms, pseudonyms, etc.

.1 American .a English .3 German, etc. like 030

BIBLIOGRAFY

015 Of special countries

Books publisht in the country. Publishers lists, current publications. Subdivided
by countries like 940-909; e. g. 015.42, Bibliografy of books publisht in England, t«
Lowndes or English catalog

The history of literature, i. e. belles lettres, poetry, drama, fiction, etc. goes, of course,
with those topics in 800; but the literary history of any given place or period covering
the writings on all subjects as well as in literature, is bibliografy, and goes usually
in 015, tho the literary history of some special class is 013

016 Of special subjects

Subdivided like the main classification, from 000-999; e. g. 016.01 Bibliografy ot
bibliografies ; 016.091, of manuscripts; 016.5, of science; 016.942, of English history,
etc.

Library and sale catalogs

Catalogs of any special subject, whether subject, author, or dictionary, go under its
subject number, in 016, which is the ruling heding wherever it conflicts with another.
017-019 therefore includes only catalogs of general collections, limited to no one class
or subject

Under 017-019, 4 means catalogs of books for sale, not publisht, by booksellers. For
publishers catalogs see 01\$

017 Clast catalogs: systematic or logical

.1 Public_ .2 Private .3*Auction .4 Booksellers

Class here author and subject lists bound together, as they are much oftener used to
see what has been written on some subject than whether a library has a certaia
book

For all forms of alfabetio subject catalogs, see 019. See 016 for Bibliografies

018 Author catalogs See OH for Bibliografies

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers

A volume containing both author and subject catalogs is more useful in 017. For
auction catalogs of private libraries use 018.2, not 018.3. 018 includes accession,
chronologic, and any other forms (except subject and dictionary) of catalogs of col-
lections

019 Dictionary catalogs Alfabeticoclast, etc.

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers

020 Library economy

SUMMARY

020-025 Science and administration of libraries in general

021 Scope, founding, supporting

022 Bildings and grounds

023 Government and servis

024 Regulations

026-027 Special libraries and collections; history,
description and management

026 Libraries on special subjects

027 General libraries
028-029 Allied subjects

029 Literary methods

REFERENCES TO OTHER MATERIAL
010 Bibliografy
090 Book rarities

020.1 Theory

.14 Library terms, definitions, etc. Discussion. For dictionaries, glossaries, etc. see 0JC.3
.2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

020.6

.61

.62

.621
.622

.623

.624

.625

.626

.627
•63

•65

•7
•7i

.711

.712

•V3
•7M
•71S

.716
.717
.718
.719
.72

•73
•74

•75
.76

•77

•78

•79

.8

.81

.82

.822

•83
•84
•85

.86
.87
.88
•9

Societies, associations, clubs, conferences

Official institutions; government department*

For library commissions see 021.83
Societies not under government control
International associations
National ■
State
Local clubs

Associations of special groups

State librarians, or class in 017.506

Medical " " " " 026.6106

Sunday school " " ■ 027.831

Library dep't of N E A or class with subject in 031.3
Mutual benefit associations

Or class in 023 . 59, if preferd

Library association publishing boards

For children's library leagues see 027.6251

Congresses, conferences, meetings, temporal/ organizations
Commercial establishments Library Bureau
For commercial circulars see 020.85
Education Training Library schools
Instruction, schools

Standards location, cost, etc
Library schools

Use letter for each school, and if desired divide like 378 A-Z
Summer schools

Apprentis classes Training classes
Correspondence schools
Library institutes

Similar to teachers institutes; local meetings with a conductor, for <lii«

cussion of practical problems

Courses in colleges and universities
Courses in normal and high schools

Private schools and instruction
Research work

Museums, exhibits

Collections of illustrativ appliances, blanks, 6C0.

Special pedagogic methods

Competitions, prizes, traveling scholarships
Polygrafy

Individual polygrafy
Collectiv

Extracts, maxims, anthologies
Recipes

Commercial circulars

Curiosa, anecdotes, library humor, dummy book titles
History of library economy

For history of libraries both public and private see 027

Lives of librarians are clast in 920.2. To keep them with the subject use
020.9?. and for fotografs of librarians 020.921. Collected lives may be sepa-
rated trom individual by use of the Olin booknumbers (following Index)

LIBRARY ECONOMY

021 Scope, usefulness and founding of libraries

Also scope and founding of combined libraries and museums. Support, develop-
ment

.01 Arguments for libraries: purpose, benefits

Impressivness of libraries. Discussion of free public libraries is better c'.ait
here than in 037.4

.02 Arguments against libraries: evils of libraries

For paternalism in library see 031.201

.03 Progress and future of libraries

Reforms, improvements, projects, plans, profesies, library ideals

.04 Ideals for special communities

e.g. what a library can do for a manufacturing community

.1 Library as a storehouse

.16 Character of material appropriate to library
.2 Library as an educator ; people's university

Material on private reading is better in 038 than in 021 .2

While the work of a library is nearly all educational in a broad sense, the rela-
tions of the library to special classes of the community, outside of direct educa-
tional work thru schools and home education work, ar best clast with libraries
for special classe; in 027.6, or when a special subject predominates, in 026

.201 Paternalism in library

books, 025.217 Exclusion of immoral or il made books

.25 Library as a publisher

.26 " bookseller

.28 Work for special classes of users

.3 Library in relation to schools and other institutions

This is mainly for relations of general public libraries to school work. Class a
library owned by and kept at the school in 027.82. School libraries, 371.622, is
only to keep all school material together under 370. Class general work for
children with children's libraries in 027.625.

.31 Relations to teachers
.32 " pupils

Librarian's talks to pupils, either at schoolhouses or at library, on use of
library

.33 Special libraries for schools

Specially selected from general library and lent to school either for class or
general school use. Duplicates for schools

•34

37 Work of individual libraries with schools

Alfabeted by library; e.g. accounts of work with schools by Hartford public
library under Hartford, by Osterhout library at Wilkesbarre under Osterhout

.38 Relations to special institutions

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 021.38069 Library work with
museums

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

021.4 Home education

This includes all servises or added fields of work undertaken by the library
outside the use of books. For programs, reports, etc. of home education agen-
cies, see 374 . x - -9

.41 Study clubs Reading circles, etc.
.42 Conferences, conventions, institutes, etc.
.43 Lectures

For extension courses, see 021 .44

.44 Extension courses Lecture study

.45 Entertainments: dramatic, musical, etc.

.46 Museums and temporary exhibits

.47 Science museums or collections

.48 Art galleries " "

.5 Library as a recreation

Serving refreshments; e. g. tea

.6 Library extension and cooperation

For work done by the state see osi .8

.61 Deliveries

.62 Branches

.63 Centralization Grouping of libraries
.64 Cooperation between libraries

Cooperation in any special department is clast with the department; e.g.
interlibrary lending 035-6

.65 Traveling libraries

A collection (usually 35 to 100 volumes) either general or on one subject,
lent to a community, library, study club or other organization. Book wagon

.66 House libraries

A small traveling library for use of a person or household. Originated
at New York state library for isolated students

.67 Home libraries

Small libraries for children, each library kept at home of some child for
use of a group, under supervision of a visitor. The libraries travel from
group to group. Originated by Boston Children's aid society

.7 Founding Developing and maintaining interest

This is mainly for starting a library, interesting people and bringing them to
the library. For most special methods of interesting those who ar alredy
readers see 025 .5 and 025 .6

.71 Personal canvass, visits and correspondence
.72 Circulars

In newspapers, posters, street cars, etc.

.74 Press Publicity

Discussion of use of newspaper colums (editorials, articles, letters, new book
lists, etc.) to secure interest

.75 Schools and teachers

.76 Churches and ministers Pulpit

.77 Literary and other organizations and institutions

.78 Lectures Public meetings and addresses

.79 Library propaganda

Societies, local or general, for encouragement and stimulation

LIBRARY ECONOMY

1.8 Libraries and the state Library legislation

.81 State supervision

.82 Library departments or commissions

Special work done by commissions is clast by its subject. Reports of com-
missions, if largely a summary of the public libraries of the state, go in 027.4
If important to keep all work c' commissions together, class their reports
here

.83 Government aid

.831 State grants of money

.832 Local subsidies

.841 Public documents, etc.

.85 Exchanges

See 025 . 266 for systems of exchanges, management, routine in individual
libraries. This number is for general exchanges by state or central authority

.851 Local
.852 Foren

Vattemare international exchanges, Smithsonian exchanges

.86 Privileges

.861 Remitted duties Free importation

.862 Free postage Franking privilege

.863 Lower rates or special facilities Cheap library post

.87

.88 State or local hindrances Politics

.89 Library legislation

General; laws for a special subject ar clast with the subject; e.g. law for a
library commission 021.82; law against injuring library books 024.8

.891 National legislation

.892 State "

.893 Local legislation (county, city or village)

.894-. 899 Legislation in special countries or places

Divided like 940-999

.9 Support, raising funds, etc.

For state aid separate from local help see 021 .8

.91 Taxes Appropriations Subsidies

.92 Endowment

.93 Gifts of money or books

.94 Bequests
.95 Subscriptions

.96 Lectures Fairs Entertainments, etc.

For raising money. For educational purposes ice 02i.43~-45

.97 Membership fees

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

022

.1

.1 I

. I 2

•13
.14

•15
.16

•17
.2

.21

.22

• 2 3
.24

•25

.26
.27
.28
.29

•3
•31

•32

•33
•34
•34i

.342

Library bildings

Sec also 727.8 Architecture. For care of bilding see 035.9

Location, site, etc.

Location with reference to field of work

Accessibility to population serve], to other libraries, educational institu

tions, etc.

Site

With reference to space, air, light, soil, slope ot ground, etc.

Provision for growth New bildings

Branches
Delivery stations
Material, protection

Material: wood, brick, stone, steel, glass, etc.

691 Bilding materials

Fireproof construction
Protection against fires

Location and relativ efficiency of apparatus: hose, extinguishers, chemic
engins, standpipes, etc. For watchman see 02s. 9. See also 614.84 Fire

protection

Library fires, burning of libraries
Insurance

Other dangers

Flood, earthquake, cyclone, war, etc.

Design Plans Construction

Alfabet plans, elevations, exteriors, general descriptions, etc. by name of
library. Use .3 1- .33 only for indexing

By kind of library

Divided like 027. Group plans for public libraries, 022.314, in 3 subsections
022.3141 Libraries under 20,000, small: i.e. under this number list
plans of such libraries, but shelv them in their alfabetic place
under 022 .3
.3142 Libraries from 20,000-100,000, medium
.3143 Libraries over 100,000, large

By subject

Divided like 026; e.g. under 022.3234 list plans of law libraries so that they
may be redily referd to in 022.3, or ' n journals or reports clast elsewhere

By country

Divide like 930-999 and use like 022.31-.32 only for reference

Design and decoration

Divided like 729 as follows:

Elevation, style

Only for general discussion; class elevation of a special library under
022 .3

Plan

Number, distribution and dimensions of rooms; special forms, spiral,
circular, etc. See note under 022. 341

LIBRARY ECONOMY

2.343 Artistic forms

344 Painted decoration, etc.

.348 Staind glass

.349 Accessories and fixt furniture

Include paintings, statues, busts, etc. as decoration for hilding. Special
library furniture, bookcases, loan desks, etc. ar 022.9

.35 Construction

Divided like 721. Class here only discussions limited to library bildings

•36

.37 Library rooms as part of other bilding
•38

.39 Remodeling old bilding

Either other bildings (churches, residences, etc.) for library purposes, or
remodeling a library to meet modern conditions

.4 Storage and shelving

For furnishing of private libraries see 645.63

.41 Storage

Capacity per square meter of floor, or running meter of cases; allowance for
growth

.42 Shelving round sides of room

.421 Wall cases

.422 Alcoves

.423 Galleries

.43 Stacks

.431 Stack rooms

Dimensions, maximum width with natural light only, dumber of
rooms, one or several. Number of floors

.432 Arrangement of cases

Parallel, radial; light; open access, supervision

.433 Movable cases

.434 Ailes

Position, width

•435 Flooring of stack rooms

Solid, glass, open grating

.44 Cases, tiers

.44 1 Material: wood, metal, glass

.442 Dimensions of case and tier, hight, length

.443 Plan of cases

Open or closed ends and backs; I or 2 ledges

.444 Fixt or movable shelvs

.445 Quarto and folio shelving

.45 Shelvs
.451 Material

Wood, metal, glass, stone, sheet iron, skeleton steel

.452 Dimensions; length, depth, thickness; standard shelf

.453 Surface finish or covering

Paint, varnish, cloth or lether covering

.454 Shelf supports: pins, brackets

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

2.46 Cases and shelvs for large books, lying flat

Dimensions, sliding or roller shelvs, etc.

.47 Closed cases Doors: glass, screen or wood

.48 Special cases

.481 Hanging presses

.482 New-book cases

.483
.484

.485 Cases for maps, engravings, etc.

.486 Cases for fotografs

.487 Cases for lantern slides

.51 General reading room Central hall

.52 Small reading rooms Study rooms

Gallery study tables. For seminar and class rooms see 02a.

.53 Reference room

.54 Standard library
•56

.57 Women's room

.58 Children's room

.61 Rooms for trustees or outside organizations

.6 1 1 For trustees

.612 " committees, commission, school board
.613

.614 For local societies

Divided like 025

.63 Rooms for special material

Divided like 025.17; e.g. 022.6332 Newsrooms

.64 Special collections: patents, local history, etc

.65 Instruction rooms, etc.

.651 Lecture room or hall, theater, concert

.653 Seminar room, class room

.655 Museum

.656 Art gallery

.657 Exhibition room

.658 Fotografic and dark room

.659 Piano and music room

LIHRARY ECONOMY

022.66 Recreation rooms

.661 Conversation room

.662 Chess room

.663 Other games

.664 Billiards

.665 Bowling

.666 Gymnasium
.67

.68 Other rooms Lavatories, etc.

For helth, comfort or convenience

.681 Entrance halls and corridors

.682 Waiting room »

.683 Telefone booth or room

.684 Lunch room

.685 Coat room

.686 Toilet room, lavatories, etc.

.687 Garage, bicycle room, etc.

.69 Residence quarters

.691 Librarian

.695 Janitor

.7 Lighting

.71 Natural lighting; windows

For architectural side see 022.358; for staind glass see 022.348

Position of windows; size and number; shape. Provision for opening;

sliding, hinged or pivot sash, French casement

.72

Skylights

•73

Prisms

•74

•75

Artificial lights: materials

•7Si

Lamps, oil, etc.

•752

Gas

•753

Acetylene

•754

Electricity

.76

Fixtures

.762

Portable or semiportable lights

•763

Table lights

.764

Standards

•765

Bracket lamps

.766

Chandeliers

•77

Lighting of stacks by electricity

Fixt or movable lights

.8

Heating and ventilation

General hygiene of library. Divided like 697

DECIMAL CI.ASIl Ii ATION

022-9

•QI

.911

.912

•913
.914

•915
.916

.918
.92
.92 I
.922

•9 2 3
.924

•93
•931

•93 2

•933

•934

•935

•9+

.941

.942

•943
.944

•945
.946

•947
.948

•95

.96

.961
.962

•9 6 3
.964

.965
•97
.98
.99

fixtures, furniture, fittings

General furniture
Chairs
Tables
Desks

Revolving cases
Bases

Vertical files

Counters
Public conveniences
Ilatracks
Umbrella stands
Clocks

Bulletin boards
Furniture for exhibiting or using books, pictures,- etc.
Exhibition cases, fixt or movable
Wing frames
Easels

Reference book holders
Magazine and newspaper racks, files, etc.
Appliances for getting or carrying books or messages
Book trucks
Carrying trays
Mechanical carriers

Book lifts
Pneumatic tubes
Speaking tubes
Interdepartment telefones

Elevators

For carrying persons, goods, etc. See also 621.877. Class here unly dis-
cussion of them for library use. For book lifts see 022.945

Floor coverings

For permanent flooring see ou.jc*

Linoleum, corticine

Matting

Carpets

Rugs

Door mats: rubber, wire, etc.

Desk fittings, etc.

Divided like 651.465

LIBRARY ECONOMY

023 Government and servis Personnel

For government of special kinds of libraries see 026 and 027

T
• 1

{"*nncrifiirinn sinH huln wc fnr trftvprninff KnarH
wUllolllUUUll clHU uyicLvvo 1UI eUVCl UHl^;

Charters. Local ordinances, etc.

rappUlUllllClIl dllU IC11U1C Ul UlllaClo U11U~1 id*-' VCl lllllt uuaiu

State or local civil servis. Special library examinations. Promotions. Pro-

bationary appointments. Temporary or limited period appointments. Ap.

pointments by executiv offiser

3

Governing board

Trustees, committees, directors, regents, etc.

1 T

IvfptlinH nf Qplpot 1 r»rt

Election, appoint lent, exofficio trustees, close corporation, i.e. selfperpetu-

ating body

•32

Number

•33

Qualifications

•34

Women as trustees

•35

•3°

n 1 n q vt r»i 1 H m inter ro 1 1 r\ti

•37

•

•38

Time and place of meetings

•4

Executiv Consulting librarian Library expert

For appointment see 023.2. See also 023. 5-, 9, which apply to executiv as

well as to staf

^0

Responsibilities and privileges

•5

Staf

Including all subordinate positions. For method of appointment see 023.2

•5 1

Qualifications

•5 2

Personality Character Moral and social equipment

•53

Mental equipment Natural ability

•531

General education

532

Professional education Training

•535

•54

Physical equipment Helth Exercise

•55

Staf meetings Relations to hed

•56

Women as librarians

Including difference in salaries of men and women

•57

Worries and trials

•58

Longevity

•59

Library benefit associations

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

023.6 Daily hours Holidays and vacations

.61 Daily hours

.611 Records Record clock

.612 Punctuality Tardiness

.62 Hours for meals Lunch room

.63 Special work

.631 Evening

.632 Sunday

.633 Holiday

.64 Work by hour Overtime, extra hours

.641 Making up lost time

.642 Payment for overtime

.643 Effect of overstrain on employees

.644 " " on servis

.65 Holidays

.651 Weekly half holiday

.652 Legal holidays

.66 Vacations

.661 Time of year

.662 Length

.663 Continuous or in instalments

.664 Sabbatic year

.67 Absences for sickness or other causes

.60 Attendance at meetings

.601 International

.682 National

.683 State

.684 Local

.7 Titles and duties

.701 Specialization Monotony Change of work

.70? Understudies

.71 Executiv Director

Chief or principal librarian, keeper, etc.

.72 Department, division or section heds

Librarians, sublibrarians, chiefs, heds

. 73 Reference staf or faculty

Librarians of special subjects

74 Assistants Catalogers

LIBRARY ECONOMY

023.7\$ Pupil assistants, apprentises, volunteers

Paid mainly by instruction

.76 Clerical servis

.761 Stenografers

.762 Typewriters

.763 Clerks

.77 Mechanic servis

.771 Binders

.772 Electricians

.773 Carpenters

.774 Other mechanics

.78 Pages, messengers, ushers, runners

.79 Janitor servis

.791 Janitor

.792 Watchman

.793 Elevatormen

.794 Attendants, in coat room, etc.

.795 Porters and packers

.796 Cleaners, etc.

.8 Remuneration: salaries, pensions

Divided like 023.7. See 023.56 for difference between salaries of men an«
women

.9 Rules for staf Codes

For punctuality see 023 .612. For absences or sick leave see 013.67

.91 Conversation

.92 Personal calls or work

.93 Soliciting money, subscriptions, contributions

.94 Respect and care for library property

.95 Uniforms

.96 Curtesy Indifference

For reference and circulating departments

. 1 1 Age

.12 Residence

.13 Relations to community

Membership in society, club or institution; official position; profession, etc,

.14 Responsibility

Reference, guarantor, money deposit

.15 Registration

.16 " for limited period

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

,2 Fees Assessments Free use

21 Membership fees

Mercantil libraries, atheneums

22 Book fees

"Circulating library fees. For fines see 024.6

23 Fees for readers card. etc.

For petty expenses to gard against wastefulness

24

25 Extra library fees; e. g. college library

26 Public library fee

For subscription departments see 024.76

27

28 Free use

3 Hours of opening

31 Number of hours

32 Time of day: morning, aftornoon

33 Evening opening

34 All night

35 Intermission for meals

Closing library during lunch, dinner or supper hours

36 Hours for reference and circulating departments

37 Cooperation of local libraries

Agreement on hours so that some library shal always be open

4 Days of opening or closing

4T Sunday

.42 Special religious days

43 Holidays

44 Vacation, summer

.45 Inventory Examination

Closing for annual examination of library

46 Special occasions

Closing for recataloging or rearrangement; public calamity, detht

,47 Closing for epidemics

,5 Reference use

,52 Decorum in library

Unwelcome visitors; library cranks

For women's separate reading room see on 57

,55 Open reference shelvs

.56 Open shelvs in general

Restriction as to persons or subjects

58 Library censorship of news

Obliteration or suppression, in reading room copies, of newspaper reports
tending to lower morals; e.g. betting and racing news, report* of crime,

LIBRARY ECONOMY

024.6 Home use Loans

.61 Number of books

.611 Two book system

.612 Summer vacation cards

.62 Time: 7-day books, new periodicals

.63 Delinquencies Fines

For injuries, etc. see 024.8

.64 Renewals

Extension of loans by library

.65 Relending

Lending by borrowers

.66 Reservations

.67 Restricted books
.671 Reference
.672 Rare or costly

.673 Medical

.674 Of immoral tendency Library inferno

.68 Interlibrary loans

.681 International loans

•7 Special privileges

.71 Extra books Teachers cards

.72 Extra time

.73 Remission of fines Excuses

.74 Favord classes: trustees, faculty, staf

.77 Lending restricted books

.78 Subscription department

Novels and popular new books lent for fee. bxtra copies lor rent in public
(tax supported) libraries

.8 Injuries Abuses

.81 Defacements

.82 Mutilation

.83 Removal of plates, maps, etc.

.84 Mutilating newspapers

.86 Thefts

.87 Restitutions

.88

.89 Prevention of abuse

Methods of preventing injury and inducing better .-are of books. For
children's library leag see 027.6251

.9 Other rules

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

025

.1

.II

.III
.113

•"3

.114

•"5
.116

.117
.118
.12

121

.122
•123

.124
•«s

.126
.127
.128
.129

SUMMARY

Supervision 025.1 Executiv

Acquisition
Utilization

Preservation

Accession
.3 Catalog
.4 Classification
. 5 Reference
. 6 Loan
.7 Binding
Shelf

Care of bilding

025 is for the librarian's part. The trustees bild and furnish (on); make rules
for government and servis (033), and regulations for readers (034): but the
administration involvs questions of its own, which, however, ar closely allied
to topics in 021-034 and elsewhere; e. g. the librarian must know his side of
binding, and be able to giv proper directions and supervision, but need not know
all the details of the binder's craft (686)

Administration includes .1 Supervision .3 Acquisition .3-.6 Utilization
.7-.9 Preservation; i. e. the librarian's duty to books is to Get, Use, Keep

Executiv General supervision

Finances

S«e also 023 .36 Financial administration of governing board

Appropriations: local or state

Other money receivd

Fees, assessments, fines, payments for special servises and investigations,

etc.

Accounts: receits and expenses, bookkeeping
Salary payments Staf payrolls

Expenses: fittings, supplies and incidentals

Class with a department supplies peculiar to it, their kind, quality, cost,
etc.; e.g. catalog cards with 025.3. Eor bookbuying see 025.2

Cost of preparing books for shelvs
Printing and publications

Both preparation of material and details of printing, including size, stvle,
type, etc. ^

Blanks and forms, stationery

If relating to a special department class with it; e.g. bookplates in 025.2)

Publications
Reports and statistics

Catalogs

Bulletins

lists see 025 .3; for newspaper publication of new book lists, see 031 .74

Library magazine or paper

Duplicating by neostyle, carbon, etc.

For machines and processes see 652. Class here discussion of fitness fof

library applications only

LIBRARY ECONOMY

15 Correspondence

151 Stationery

152 Stenografers, dictation machines

1 53 Typewriters

154 Copiers

156 Letter files

See 651.5 for methods

17 Treatment of special material

For general discussions of arrangement, care and use. Cla3S special work undel
each department: e.g. cataloging of incunabula in 025.3

171 Manuscripts, archives and rarities

Divided like ogo

172 Pamflets

173 Serials, documents, etc.

1 Periodicals, magazines, etc.

2 Newspapers

3 Annual reports

4 Documents; national, state and local

175 Clippings

176 Maps and charts

177 Art material

Engravings, fotografs, drawings, lantern slides

178 Music: scores, rolls, etc.

179 Museum material

Alfabet by name of library. For administration of special kinds of libraries-
gee 026 and 027

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

025.2 Accession Acquisition

SUMMARY

o»s . a 1 The library and its selection

.21 Methods of acquisition

. 13 Ordering and receiving

.34 Accessioning

.35 Marks of ownership

.36 Duplicate and exchange department

. 39 Special material

.21 The library and its selection

.211 What? Proper proportion of subjects

Division of funds; endowments for special subjects; accession statistics

.212 Specialization by libraries

tion. For collections on special subjects, economics, science, etc. see

026

.213

.214 Who? Selectors of books

Trustees or trustee committee; librarian; staf committee, book board;
advisory committee from outside; experts; central body (bibiiografic
bureau, state commission, etc.)

.215 How? Methods of selection

Recommendations by readers; personal examination; visits to book

stores; books sent on approval; printed reviews; first selection for new

library. Want lists, books under consideration

For lists of best books, ALA catalog, annual lists, etc. see 016

For principles of selection and choice of editions see 038.3

For selection for special classes see 037 .6, 037 .8, 038 . 5

Duplicating popular fiction: extra copies of best fiction

.217 Rejection, exclusion, censorship

03I.30I Paternalism

.218 Weeding out, sifting

Separating books no longer of servis to library. For wltn^rawal book
see 035 . 349

.22 Methods of acquisition

Local bookstore; book center, general agent; publishers; subscription
agent; bids on special lists; foren books thru home or American agent,

.222 Prices Discounts

Secondhand catalogs; remainders, trade sales; dealers in old book*,

bookstalls; value of old books

.224 Auctions

For auction catalogs see 017-019

.226 Exchange

Request blanks and records; gift lists; acknowledgments; privately

printed books; propagandist books

For government documents and copyright books see 031.84
See 035.368 for gifts from library to library

LIBRARY ECONOMY

025.23 Ordering and receiving

For gifts, see 025.227; for exchanges, see 025 . 266

.231 Ordering

Order slips or lists; order books or sheets; copies of oiders; order index-
order numbers

.232 Examination for duplicates and verification

Misspeld names; changed titles; separates

.233 Reception and opening

Express, mail, etc; frequency of shipments; free delivery

.234 Checking bills

Prices and amounts

.235 Collation

.236 Receit index

.24 Accession book

.241 Importance of record

Accession book vs shelflist. etc.

.242 Printed headings Items Fulness of entries

.243 Accession number: volume, work or invoice

.244 Accession stamp

.249 Withdrawal book

.25 Ownership marks

.251 Private marks

.252 Stamping

Ink, embossing, or perforating stamp. Table and foot power

.253 Book plates Plating

.254 Library name on outside of book

Gilding or impressing name of library on back or covers

.255 Card pockets

,26 Duplicate and exchange departments
.261 Duplicates

Definition, rules and decisions, marking, stamp, plate, etc.

.262 Duplicates of institution's own publications

Either of library or larger organization including it; e.g. duplicate Colum
bia publications in Columbia university library; stock on hand

.264 Arrangement

.265 Sale for cash

.266 Exchange

General exchange of publications; exchange accounts

.267 Clearing house for duplicates

changes

.269 Deposits

By large libraries in small or in hospitals, prisons, etc also deposits in
great collections by individuals or small libraries. See also 025 .2 18

.29 Special material

Divided like 025.17

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

035.3 Catalog

For printed catalogs themselvs, see 017-019. This is for cataloging
Printed, manuscript, or card; Author, subject, title, clast; Dictionary or
combined; Cooperativ rules; Size notation; Cooperativ cataloging;
Duplicated titles, print or photografy; Mechanical accessories, cards,
cases and fittings, drawers, trays, blocks, checks, guides, labels

.4 Classification

For philosofic classification of knowledge, see 1 1 2 Methodology. This is
for practical classing of books, pamflets, and notes, rather than theo-
retic speculation

On shelvs; in catalogs; in dictionary catalogs; Systems of notation, fig-
ures, letters, symbols, combined; Importance and advantages; Diffi-
culties; Close vs broad classing; Mnemonic features; Basis of division;
Coordination of special subjects

.5 Reference Reference books Aids to readers

See 038 lor general discussion of reading and aids. This is limited to

.6 Loan

See 024 for rules for readers

indicators; Charging systems, legers vs cards; Book cards, marks, pockets;
Call slips, readers cards; Notises. reservs; Registers; Interlibrary loans;
Mechanical accessories, slip cases, trays, tills, stamps, etc.

.7 Binding and repair

Materials, durability, tight vs spring backs, sewing, color, lettering; Paper
covers and temporary binders; Restoring, mending, cleaning, and oiling

.8 Shelf

Arrangement; Shelf numbers; Shelf and book labels; Fixt and relativ
locations; Sizes of shelvs; Arrangement and preservation of public
documents, pamflets. papers, manuscripts, maps, drawings, and plans,
music, broadsides, clippings; Chaind books; Injuries, heat, gas, insects;
Stock taking; Shelf lists

,9 Bilding: care, cleaning, safety Janitor Police

See 032 for bilding and fittings. This is janitor s department

LIBRARY ECONOMY

026 Libraries on special subjects

Histories, reports, statistics, bulletins, handbooks, circulars and every
thing about the library not more required in preceding sections. Sub
divided by adding clas number of subject; e. g. a Medical library is 026.61;
a Ches library, 026.7941; but the catalog of a ches library is 016.7941. Blanki
etc from any library go under subjects in 025, as more used in studying topics-
but, if history of individual libraries is specialized, duplicates ar also desir.
able under the library in 026-7, thus making a complete set of its publicationi

027 General libraries

This includes both circulating and reference: i. e. all not limited to special
subjects

Clas here histories, reports, statistics, bulletins, handbooks, circulars and
everything about the library not more required in preceding sections

Subdivided if wisht (except 027.6 and 027.8) by countries, like 930-999;
e. g. 027.744 College libraries in France. Or if wisht, group all by geografic
location, using o in 4th place to indicate no division by kinds of libraries;
e. g. 027.044 Libraries of France; 027.07471 Libraries of N. Y. city

A private library is still clast 027.1, after it has been sold or merged in
a public library. But a society library changed to a free public should
take 027.4 for all publications after the change

.1 Private and family

.2 Proprietary, society, club and Atheneum

.2 is limited to libraries that ar semiprivate, requiring an election for
admission, while .3 includes all open to any one on payment of a fee. It
is the difference between a club and a hotel. .3 is for libraries run as a
business. A mercantil library, even tho it has endowments, if open with-
out individual election, goes in .3 as a subsidized public subscription
library. Many private subscription libraries go in .2

.3 Subscription Circulating

Mudie's, Booklovers, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

027.4 Free public Rate supported Endowd

Public library commissions. Fee also 33i-8s Libraries in intellectual life of
laboring classes, and 027, last note

.42 Special kinds of public libraries

.422 According to area servd

For national and state libraries see 027.5; see also 021.6 Library exten-
sion, 021.65 Traveling libraries

2 Urban, city

3 Rural, country

Include here general discussions of village libraries

4 County

5 Township

New England 4 town ' libraries

6 District School district

.423 According to means of support

2 Rate or tax supported

3 Endowd

.424 According to function

2 Circulating

Free circulating libraries; for circulating libraries charging rental or
fee see 027.3. See also 024.6 Rules for home use, 025.6 Loan depart-

3 Reference

LIBRARY ECONOMY

027.5 State and government
.6 For special classes

See also 021.28 Library's educational work for special classes of users, 026
Libraries on special subjects. A workmen's library of books on engineering is
clast 026.62, not here, as the subject is more useful than the clas of readers

.61 General questions

.62 Libraries conducted with reference to age and sex
.621 General questions

For religious organization libraries for adults sec 027.674

.623 Men

For religious organization libraries for men see 0^7.6742

.624 Women

For women's room see 022.57. For religious organization libraries for
women see 027.6743

.62 5 Children's and yttng people's libraries and departments

schools and the yung, 021.67 Home libraries, 022.58 Children's room,
027.675 Religious organization libraries for yung people, 027.8 School
libraries, Sundayschool libraries, 028.5 Reading of yung

1 General questions Method

12 Instruction in use of books and catalog

13 Disciplin

15 Story telling

.626 Groups by age

Picture book group

.627 Boys libraries

Boy scout libraries, etc. For religious organization libraries for boys
see 027.6752

.628 Girls libraries

Campfire girls libraries, etc. For religious organization libraries for
girls see 027.6753

.63 Foreners and special racial groups

For library's educational work for foreners see 021.28

.632 According to language

Divide like 400, preferably using country divisions (027.633-.639) when
possible

.633-639 According to country of origin

Divide like 930-909, e. g. libraries for negroes 027.636. Divide by
country when possible, using language divisions (027.632) for groups
like Semitic, Aryan, Teutonic, English etc

.64 Industrial classes Workmen's libraries

For discussion of library in relation to intellectual life of laboring classes
see 331-85

.642 Factory

.644 Marine Ship libraries

Merchant marine libraries, library work with sailors, libraries in sailors
homes. For warship libraries and library work with navy see 027.653

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

027.65 Government units

For general national and state libraries see 027. 5. For such government
department libraries as ar primarily libraries on special subjects, sec 026

.652 Army: military post libraries, camp libraries

.653 Navy: warships, navyyards

For merchant ship libraries see 027.644

.655 Police stations

.656 Fire stations

Clas here libraries for firemen, even when the fire organizations ar voluntary

.657 Lifesaving servis: stations, lighthouses Bridge tenders

.66 Welfare institutions Work for the afflicted

.662 Hospitals and asylums

1 General questions

2 General hospitals Sanitariums

3 Insane Feebleminded

4 Def Dum

5 Poorhouses

6 Libraries for aged, infirm, invalids
.663 Blind

Library work for blind; reading for blind; types

.664 Reformatories

.665 Prisons

.67 Religious organizations

.672 Monastic

.673 Religious societies

Salvation army

2 Men

3 Women

See also 267 SS32 Library as part of Y W C A

.675 Yung people

2 Boys

3 Girls

.678 Sectarian (Christian)

Not limited as to subject but selected with sectarian bias. Divide like 280

.679 Non-Christian religious organizations

Divide like 290

.68 Social groups

Social clubs, hotels, ocean liners. For society and club libraries where the
library is the primary consideration see 027.2j027.68 is for libraries conducted
incidentally (with or without charge) in connection with social clubs etc

.69 Other

Clas under 027.62-.68 libraries coverd by those general heds, even if not
specificly mentiond. Clas here only those libraries not otherwize provided
for. Divide like main clasification

.7 College, university

For libraries of professional and technical schools see 026

LIBRARY ECONOMY

027.8 School Sundayschool Parish

.81 General questions

.82 School libraries

See also 021.3 Library work in relation to schools and the yung, 027.625
Children's libraries, 027.7 College and university libraries, 028. 5 Reading
of yung, 371.64 Libraries as school equipment

.822 Types

2 Elementary

22 Kindergarten

3 Secondary

4 Traveling

.823-829 In special countries

Divide like 930-999

.83 Sundayschool and parish libraries, etc

.831 Sundayschool libraries

Librarian as part of Sundayschool personnel

.832 Parish or parochial libraries

.833-839 In special countries

Divide like 930-999

.9 Free reading rooms and newsrooms

rooms (under Library bildings), 024.5 Rules for reference use, 025.5 Administration
of reference department

.922 Newsrooms

•93~99 I n special countries

Divide like 930-999

DECIMAL CI.AS1FICATION

Methods

Tasting, skipping, reviewing, making synopses, abstracts, extracts, and

index rerums (see 029), book marking

Choice of editions

Annotations, indexes, paper, type

Both discussion and lists of books

For sets of books representing prescribed courses for general culture, e. g.
Harvard classics, see 080

Discussion. Short selected lists may be put here, tho all fiction lists are
better together in 016.823 (in German libraries 016.833, French libraries
016.843, etc.)

Both discussion and lists of books

Lectures. Stimulus and guidance in schools

Use of reference books

Literary methods and laborsavers

Much in 025 and 028 belongs equally under 029 In its full meaning, but

practical convenience is best servd by referring to 025 and 028 insted of
repeating the heds

Study and teaching
Methods

Exact reference; standard sizes; use of colors; thought study; intercalation
or card system (see 025.3); cooperativ methods; records vs memory, etc.
See 653 Abbreviations and shorthand; 154.1 Mnemonics; 035.4 Classifi-
cation

.1 is for what one learns how to do by an improved method

.2 is for articles which one must make or buy in order to utilize. Where a

pamfiet covers both appliance and method, class with predominant feature

Appliances Laborsaving tools and devices

See also 651. Most literary laborsaving devices go also under 651, Oftis
equipment and methods; and are best kept together there; e. g. all offis
and study furniture, fittings and supplies, cases, bookholders, reading
desks, pigeonholes, files, etc. For pamfiet, map, etc. cases, see 025.8; for
binders, 025.7

Clippings Scrapbooks or files

Notebooks, notetaking, abstracting, etc.

Indexing Index rerums Printed and patent indexes

For alfabeting and transliteration see 025.3

Authorship Writing for press Copy and proof

GENERAL WORKS

030 General cyclopedias

Subdivided according to language

031 American

Limited to cyclopedias in English publisht in North America

032 English

All cyclopedias in English publisht outside North America

033-036 Divided by language like 430-460

E.g. 033 German, 033.931 Dutch, 034 French, 034.99 Catalan. But clas
Scandinavian cyclopedias in 038

037 Russian

.8 Other Slavic or Slavonic

Divided like 491.8; e.g. 037.8s Polish

.9 Ukrainian Ruthenian

038 Scandinavian

.6-82 divided like 439. 6-82; e.g. 038.82 Norwegian

039 Other

Divided by language like 420-499, except for those specially provided for
above; e.g. 039.89 Modern Greek, 039.94511 Hungarian

040 General collected essays

Subdivided like 030

050 General periodicals Magazines

Subdivided like 030

060 General learned societies

Subdivided according to country

Academies of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, etc. Societies on a specific subject go with
that subject; e.g. 550.6 Geologic societies. See also 360 Institutions and associa-
tions, for filanthropic, political, social and similar organizations

061-067 divided like 071-077

E.g. 061.44 Massachusetts learned societies, 061.2 Mexican, 063.8 Polish,
066.9 Portuguese

068 Other

Divided geografically like 930-999, except for those specially provided for
above; e.g. 068.481 Norwegian, 068.82 Argentine

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

069 Museums Museum economy

The following classification is somewhat reduced from the schedules
prepared by a committee of the American Association of Museums,
consisting of L. V. Coleman, chairman, E. O. Hovey, H. W. Kent
and H. L. Madison. Dcvelopt primarily for museum use, many
subjects ar included in the ful schedules (for which see eds. 12 and
13) for which provision is made elsewhere in the main classification.
For these it is recommended that in general the other number be
used (e.g. see note under 069.018). For complete list of form
divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index

.01 Theory: Objectivs, ideals, scope, etc.

.011 may be divided like .01 in Table 2 following Relativ
index, e.g. 069.01 11 General purpose of museums
.012 Museums from standpoint of support and control

.013 Public .016 Elementary and secondary

.014 Association Society school Children's

.015 College University .017 Private

.018 Museums from standpoint of field coverd

Including discussion of possible range of museum subjects
and theoretic discussions on general museums covering
several subjects, e.g. science, art and history. Material
on museums devoted to a single subject may also be clast
here, subdividing .018 like the whole classification, e.g.
069.0185 Science museums; but in general prefer specific
subject, e.g. 507.4 Science museums
.019 Museums from other standpoints

According to phisical character, outdoor museums,
expositions, etc.

SUMMARY

069.1 Educational and recreational functions

.2 Buildings

.3 Equipment Furnishings Supplies

.4 Collecting Preparing Repairing Restoring

.5 Collections Exhibits

.7 Publications and publishing

.8 Research

069.1 Educational and recreational functions

Including museum functions in Americanization, conservation,

etc.

.107 Principles of museum education

Museum work with children, school service, adult

education

.13 Lending objects, collections, exhibits

For scope and character of lending collections see 069.56
.14 Lending slides, films, projectors

Includes lending of written lectures to accompany slides;

also sale and exchange of slides and films. For scope of

slide and film collections see 069.57

MUSEUMS

069.15 Museum instruction

Information buros, lectures, story hours, museum games,
study clubs, field instruction, training teachers in use of
museum facilities, etc.
.16 Music in museums .18 Publicity
.2 Buildings

Clas here general works on museum buildings and works includ-
ing descriptions and pictures of a considerable number of build-
ings. Descriptions and pictures of an individual museum ar best
clast with history of that museum in 069.09
.21 Location, site, improvement of grounds, etc.

.22 Architectural design and decoration

.23 Materials Construction

Including preservation and repair. Foundations, walls,
roofs, floors, ceilings, windows and doors, stairs, fire escapes,
etc.

.24 Construction of special rooms

Including museum rooms in schools, libraries, etc. May be

alfabeted by rooms
.28 Reconstruction

Remodeling, catastrofies, etc.
.29 Service construction

Including service machinery, fixtures and fittings. Plumbing,

lighting, heating and air conditioning, power construction,

fire protection, 1st aid cabinets, etc. For fixtures for specific

rooms see 069.36

.3 Equipment Furnishings Supplies

For service equipment see 069.29
.31 Exhibit cases Screens Pedestals

Cases, etc. for special purposes should be clast with purpose
.32 Exhibit apparatus

Projection, viewing and sound apparatus. Lanterns, phono-

grafs, etc.

.33 Furnishings Fittings Furniture

Including desk fittings, tools, implements, storage containers,
museum glasware, etc. When limited to special purpose clas
with purpose; furnishings for special rooms clas in 069.36

.34 Supplies General materials

Cleaning supplies and use, fuel, stationery, etc. Materials
for general use: Wood, stone, metal, paper, glas, chemicals,
glues, etc.

.36 Equipment of special rooms

May be alfabeted by rooms

.4 Collecting Preparing Repairing Restoring

This section is for all methods, special equipment and materials
involvd in preparing objects and specimens for exhibit or for
incorporation into a study collection. Since preparation of
certain kinds of material is begun in the field, it is impossible
to divorce the collecting from the preparation of these. On the
other hand, much material, specially in art, is collected by
methods treated under 069.51 Acquisition, so only its 'getting
redy ' (restoration and repair) is included here. The tecnic
of excavating (069.419), however, applies in part to works of
art

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

069.41 Modeling Molding Casting Coloring

Including materials used; e.g. clay, wax, plaster, glas and

other plastics; fabrics, etc.
.411 Modeling Pattern making .415 Coloring

.412 Molding .419 Excavating

.413 Casting
.414 Electroplate reproduction

.42 Construction of models

Architectural, ethnografic, etc. Models of caves, animals,

plants, etc. Relief maps, etc.
.43 Construction of groups

Composition, layout, field work, backgrounds and foregrounds.

case and lighting, etc.
.44 Expeditions

Equipment, supplies, personnel, transportation, relations with

nativs, guides, regional information, protection of materials,

packing, etc.

•45-.49 Collection and treatment of special materials

.45 Science materials

.451-.459 may be used corresponding to the divisions 51-59 of 500 Pure sciences,
e.g. 069.455 Geologic materials: rocks, minerals. Use 069.4592
Invertebrates, 069.4596 Vertebrates

.46 Industrial and commercial materials

.47 Art materials

.471-. 476 may be used corresponding to the divisions 71-76 of 700 Fine arts,

e.g. 069.473 Sculpture, ceramic materials
.477 Textils Weaving

.478 Wood and metal work

.479 Other art objects

.48 Literary material .49 History material

.5 Collections Exhibits

. 5 1 Acquisition Disposal

Policy, manner of selection and disposal, terms of gift or
bequest, purchases, sales, dealers, prices, terms of loan,
exchanges, etc.

.52 Registration and recording system

Accession record, catalog, index, donor list, etc.

.53 Exhibition

Discussion only. Principles of visual presentation : arrange-
ment of exhibits, museum fatigue. Originals v. reproductions;
scope, classification, correlation of exhibits; temporary
exhibits; installation methods and devices; labels and label-
ing; public catalogs, guides, gallery leaflets, etc.

.54 Specific museum material

For data concerning museum objects thcmselvs, whether
exhibited or in reserv, including thefts, forgeries, etc. May
be divided by subject like the whole classification, e.g.
069.54913 Data on antiquities as museum objects

MUSEUMS

69.55 Study collections: scope, arrangement, housing

Classification, tagging, shelving, storage, etc.

.56 Lending collections: scope, arrangement, housing

.57 Filed collections and materials

Including all information concerning material and accessories
which ordinarily ar filed for preservation. Photografs,
ncgativs, slides, films, maps, broadsides, etc.

.58 Library

.581 and .583-585 may be used and subdivided like 021 and 023-025 of Library
economy so far as applicable, e.g. 069.581 Scope of museum
library, 069.5852 Acquisition of books. Clas material on
construction of library room in 069.24, on equipment in
069.36

.61 Organization

including discussions of questions involvd in founding and in
relationship to federal, state or local government, in so far as
control is concernd; various forms of organization, etc.
Charters, constitutions, bylaws, membership, etc.

.62 Principles Regulations Ethics

Including publisht codes of rules; regulations for staf, mem-
bers, visitors, patrons, students, etc.

.63 Personnel

Professional requirements, qualifications and duties, appoint-
ment, hours, vacations, etc. Governing board, staf, women's
auxiliary, etc.

.64 Finance

Value of collections and other property, income, expenses,
plant (including agreements with government for use of
public land and buildings), endowment, accounting and
budgeting; employes welfare, pensions, employe clubs, etc.

.65 Office methods

Filing, correspondence, statistics, etc.

.66 Care of buildings and grounds

.67 Branch museums Outdoor exhibits

For outdoor museums see 069.019. Bee also 069.52 for
registry of outside objects

.68 Cooperativ relations

Intermuseum relations; relations with" other institutions,
groups, etc.: with schools, business world, etc.

.7 Publications and publishing

For discussions of publication and for complete file of an institu-
tion's own publications: authorship, publishing arrangements,
printing, binding, distribution, storage, etc. Also for other
museum publications when clast as such, for use as format, sample
publications, etc. When dealing with special subject they ar
preferably clast under subject, e.g. museum reports in 069.09

.8 Research

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

070 Journalism General newspapers

179. 1 Morals of the press
333.445 Liberty of the press (political science)
351.751 Regulation of the press (government administration)
396.507 Women in journalism
741 Cartoons Caricatures

.1 Utility Theories Relations to other professions

For government relations see 070.15

.n Standards Ethics Influence Responsibility-
General and higher view, educativ influence; for degradation of the press
see 070 . 16

.13 Endowd newspapers

Independence of popularity

.13 Liberty of the press Censorship

Individual privacy; diplomatic secrets; seditious or anarchic influence

.14 War censorship

.15 Subservience to special interests

Use by sectarian, partizan or private interests. Government relations and
influence: subsidies, 'reptil fund'

.16 Sensational or ' yellow ' journalism

Fictitious news; scandals, murder and divorce trials; blackmail, bribes

•17

.18 Anonymous journals

Those with editors or place of oublication unknown

.10 Other general questions

Comparison of field, importance and influence of newspaper, periodical and

book

.2 Ownership and control

.22 Newspaper names
.23 Location

.232 Metropolitan Large city

.234 Provincial Small city

.236 Rural or village

.26 Syndicates Patent insides

.31 Staf and workmen

.311 Offis staf

Manager, stenografers, bookkeepers, clerks, messengers

.312 Workmen

Compositors, foundrymen, pressmen, mechanics, laborers
.315 Hours, shifts

.318 Newspaper strikes

JOURNALISM

Newspaper printing

Clas here discussion of economy and other advantages of special methods
and appliances

For mechanism and operation of newspaper presses see 655.3' Printing
presses

Size of page

Methods and appliances
Composition: linotype, monotype, etc.
Stereotyping
Presses

Newspaper cuts: wood, zinc line, halftone
Frequency of issue

Daily, semiweekly, weekly, etc.

Time of issue

Morning, evening, successiv editions, extras

Size of editions, number printed
Distribution Circulation Sale
Direct: subscription Mailing
House delivery

Indirect: newsboys, news agencies, etc.

Crying and peddling in streets; news stands

Specialties

As means of increasing circulation. For special departments see 070 43-. 44

Regular: foren or marine news, stocks, sporting, etc.

Occasional: adoption of popular causes, exposure of abuses, etc.

Other means of increasing circulation

Competitions, guessing contests, prizes, fairs, lotteries, expeditions, etc.

Cost of production Expenses

Plant : bilding and equipment, ofhses

Duplicate plant. Depreciation of machinery

Supplies: paper, stationery, etc.
Salaries and wages

Space rates. Pay of journalists, pecuniary inducements of vocation.
Traveling expenses

Postage: pound rates, free carriage

Necessity and cost of advertizing itself to i£aiu circulation and secure
advertizements. For methods see 070 336

Sources of income Receits

Sales, subscriptions, subsidies. For bribes see 070.16

Foren offises

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. N. Y. herald office in Paris 070.394436

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

070.4 Editorial management

.41 General

Editing rules: order of departments and articles; style; newspaper diction

.42 Staf: reporters, correspondents

Organization: hours, duties. For pay see 070.344

.43 Editorial departments
.431 News

1 Sources and channels of news

Telegraf, telefone, wireless, mail, reporters, carrier pigeoni, other

Utilization and precautions; conflicting news

2 Press bureaus: associated press

Laffan and other news bureaus. For clippings see 039.3 under
Literary methods and labor savers

5 Foren

6 Home

7 Local

.433 Local interests

Discussion of local affairs, questions affecting schools, library, publio
works, etc. For local news department see 070.4317

.44 Special subjects: departments and editors

.443 Financial: stocks, business, shipping, etc.

.445 Household Home Women Children

2 Cookery

4 Clothing Fashions

6 Hygiene Care of children

7 Women's clubs

8 Children's department : games, puzzles, etc.
.446 Recreation Sporting

.447 Art, musical and dramatic

7 Art

8 Musical

9 Dramatic
.448 Literary

1 Poetry

3 Fiction

.449 Other departments

a Religion; 3 Education; 5 Science; 8 Humor

.45 Voluntary correspondents Contributors
.47 Special editions

Sunday newspaper. Supplements. For extras see 070.337

.48 Special kinds of journals
.481 Official journals
.482 Religious
.484 For foren population

In language foren to country in which publisht

.485 Propagandist

.486 Professional and technical

.487 Humorous

.488 Literary

JOURNALISM

70 489 Other: amateur, etc.

070.5-.9 Form divisions
.5 Periodicals oh journalism
.6 Press clubs Conventions Expositions
.7 Study and teaching of journalism College courses

Schools Personal qualifications for journalism

.9 History of newspapers and journalism

General History of American newspapers 071, of German journalism 073.
etc. Clas history of a particular journal with that journal

1-079 Newspapers of various countries

The 3d figures 1-9 are used as follows:

1 American 4 French 7 Slavic

2 English s Italian 8 Scandinavian

3 German 6 Spanish 9 Other

In large collections use geografic divisions under I, American; a, English, etc. an
in 970 and 940-999. Because of large size and very general character, it is better
to keep newspapers together here than to clas with local history of the place
where publisht. They could not go on shelvs with ordinary books, and a refer-
ence is made as easily to them under 070 as anywhere.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Polygrafy Special libraries

For sets or ' libraries • so constituted as not to be redily scatterd by subjects, and
miscellaneous information; but clas in 807.6 literary questions and ansers. 080
includes works composed of several distinct writings, united in a singlo collection
or scries other than periodicals, newspapers and collections of lerned societies. Col-
lections conditiond by terms of gift on being kept together may be put here, but for
preferable treatment of sets, see in Introduction, Assyning clas numbers, section 11,
and Reference library. If limited to a special subject, treat like Phoenix library,
but shclv the collection in a block before or after the regular books on the
same subject; e.g. the Doe collection on Spanish painting, D750.6, would stand
together, yet would be where it belongd with the rest of the books on that subject.

Individual polygrafy

Complete or partial collections of an author's works, treating of various subjects. If
they treat cxclusivly or mainly of one subject they ar clast with that subject

Collectiv polygrafy

Distinct works of several authors, treating of different subjects and pubhsht in a

collection

Libraries or series

Clas here only such as include several branches of knowledge

Miscellanies, extracts etc.

Clas here only such as include several branches of knowledge

Official publications

Official publications of countries, states, provinces, cities and other public bodies and
powers may be clast together here but ar much better clast with subject treated or, if
too general for that, with the body by which they ar issued

Publications for various classes of readers

Children's literature

Children's collections may be clast here but ar much better kept as a separate
collection markt J, the separate books being given their regular subject numbers
(see section relating to Juvenils, in Introduction)

I

GENERAL WORKS

090 Book rarities

Books about these topics, and those chiefly valuable because of their rarity, go here.
A rare early edition of Shakspere goes in 822.33 with reference from 09 \. oyo is mostly
used for grouping references to books located elsewhere.
See also 010 for bibliografy and bibliofily; 655 for printing and publishing.

091 Manuscripts

Clas in 096 mss important chiefly for illumination. Photografs of mss, when more
valuable for subject matter, go with subject rather than here

For Diplomatics and Paleografy. see 417. and under the special language, 421.7,
431.7, etc.

.5 Autografs

.6 Printed works with notes in hand of celebrated writers

When notes ar by author of work, clas in 091.5

092 Block books

093 Books printed before 1500 Incunabula

Colophons

094 Rare printing

.1 Books of great rarity but later than incunabula

Typografic masterpieces (Aldines, Elzevirs, Caxtons, etc.); small editions;
privately printed books; books interesting from choice of type, accuracy etc.

.2 Unique copies
.3 Editions de luxe

On colord or large paper or printed in colors

.4 First editions

095 Rare binding

Noted binders, costly ornaments, curious bindings, bindings bearing coats of arms

096 Rare illustrations or materials

.1 Rare illustrations

Illuminated. Illustrated by inserted plates

.2 Rare materials

Printed on vellum, silk, bark etc. in gold or silver letters etc. Workg in car-
acters woven, carvd, engraved etc.

097 Ownership Book plates Ex libris

DECIMAL ci.A sir I cation

098 Other classes of works, based on inner

caracteristics

.1 Prohibited books

Condemd by temporal or spiritual power. Books supprest or censord

Library inferno. Obscene books, sold secretly

.11 Prohibited by religious authorities

Index expurgatorius. Index librorum prohibitorum. Books proscribed as
contrary to church faith, tradition or disciplin

.12 Prohibited by civil authorities

Contrary to morality, government or social peace. Seditious, satirical or libelous
books

.3 Books lost, imaginary, supposed, projected

.5 Books with key

099 Other classes of works, based en outer

caracteristics Curiosa

.1 Minute size, etc.

Microscopic editions, dwarf books

F*tiilosofy

100 Philosof y in general

Works limited to none of the 9 divisions

101 Utility

102 Compends Outlines

103 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

105 Periodicals Philosofic magazines

106 Societies: transactions etc.

107 Study and teaching of philosofy

108 Polygrafy, extracts, maxims etc.

109 History of philosofy

See also 140 Philosofic sistems, 180 Ancient philosofers. 189 Erlv Christian and
medieval philosofers, 190 Modern philosof-js

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

no Metaphysics

III Ontology

Nature of being. Substance and form

.1 Analisis of idea of being, of ist substance

. 1 1 Existence

Distinction from essence

.12 Essential being Essence Quiddity
.125 Possible being Intrinsic possibility

Divine essence and the possible

.31 Distinction from accidents Phenomenalism

.32 ist substance Individual substance

Subsistent being, hypostasis

.321 Formal reason of subsistence

.322 Principle of individuation of corporeal beings

Immultiplicability of separate forms in a given space

.33 2d substance Abstract essence
.4 Accidents

.41 Existence of accident

Conjunction with or separability from substance

.42 Qualities Powers Operativ possibilities

Forces Faculties
.5 Relation

.51 Existence of real relations

Confuson of their reality with that of correlativ terms; relativistic theories

.6 Acts Operations

.61 Being in potentiality Being in act

For applications to substantial action see 113 Cosmology, 231.& Theodicy

.62 Motion Evolution

146 Evolutionism (philosofic sistem), 575 Evolution in biology

.7 Created and uncreated being Immateriality
.8 Transcendental properties of being

.81 Distinction between being and its transcendental
properties

Number of transcendental properties, primary principles

.82 Unity Nonexistence Plurality

Unity and indivisibility of being

.821 Real distinction Distinction of reason

Oneness, identity; unity of composition, simplicity; metaphysical com-
position; multitude, indefinit number; possibility of infinit multitude.

.822 Unity Transcendental property of all being

Reconciliation of unity of beings with their synthesis

PHILOSOFY

1

1 1 1.83 Truth

.831 Conformity with an ideal type

God and truth. Unity or multiplicity, eternity or temporality,
immutability

.832 Truth, transcendental property of all being

The false in nature

.84 Goodness Evil

.842 Goodness, transcendental property of all being

.845 Evil: its relativity, its cause

.85 Beauty

.851 Objectivity and subjectivity of sentiment of

beauty

.852 Beauty, transcendental property of all being

112 Methodology

Philosofic clasification of knowledge. Terminology. For book clasification see 025.4

113 Cosmology

Philosofy of nature, physical or inorganic world from philosofic viewpoint, cosmos,
nature, universe; general laws of nature, substantial transformation and corruption,
origin of world, cosmogony

Philosofy of mathematic processes

114 Space Locus Void

Internal and external space, infinit space, plenum. See also 115. 4 Space-time;
119 Quantity, number; 152.752 Space perception

115 Time Duration Eternity

Relation of time and motion. See also 116 Motion; 119 Quantity, number;
152 753 Time perception; 218 Eternity in natural theology; 237.1 Eternity in
Christian theology

.4 Space-time

116 Motion Change Transition

in ontology, 115 Relation of time and motion, 152.754 Perception of movement

117 Matter Body

118 Energy Force Power

Properties or accidents of inorganic substances. Sec also 531-6 Conservation of
energy

.2 Identity of energy and matter

119 Quantity Number Extent

Mesurement, bulk, mas; continuity, continuousness. Distinction from substance;
Space, 115 Time

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Other metaphysical topics

Epistemology Theory of knowledge

Origin, sources and limits of knowledge. Relativity of knowledge. The unknow-
able. Dout. Denial. Belie'. Faith. Theory of values, worth. See also 165
logic

Cause and effect Causality Causation

Material cause, formal cause, efficient or moving cause, original cause; condition,

Freedom and necessity

Freedom and determinism in psychology, 233.7 Freedom in theology, 234.9 Pre-
destination

Teleology Purpose Final cause

Norm, pattern, ideal, perfection, archetype, exemplars, exemplary cause

Infinit and finite Indefinit
Consciousness (Personality s

The unconscious The subconscious

The soul

Nature of life and deth

Origin and destiny of individual soul
Special creation

Pre-ejJstence

Transmigration Palingenesis Metempsy-
chosis

Incarnation, disincarnation, reincarnation

Emanation

Destiny

Future state

PHILOSOFY

130 Physiologic, abnormal and differ-
ential psychology Metapsicology

SUMMARY

131 Mental physiology and hygiene Physiologic psychology

132 Mental derangements

133 Transcendental psychology Occultism Occult sciences

134 Hypnotism Animal magnetism

135 Sleep and wakefulness D. earns Somnambulism

136 Genetic psychology Mental caracteristics

137 Individual psychology Individuality Personality

138 Physiognomy

139 Phrenology Mental photografs, etc

.1 General theory

For other subdivisions and other form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index

.16 Miscellaneous theories

Relations of mind and body, psironeural parallelism. Philosofic anthro-
pology. Mutual influences of sensitiv and suprasensible life

.162 Dualistic theories

2 Interaction

22 Mutual interaction

23 Occasionalism

24 Cause thee y Influxus physicus

3 Parallelism

32 Preestablisht harmony

33 Methodologic parallelism

Physiologico-psychologic parallelism

34 Psychophysical parallelism Pseudomonistic

342 Double or dual aspect theory

343 Naturalistic theory

.163 Monistic theories

2 Materialistic Materialism Mechanistic

22 Conscious automaton theory Automatism

parallelism

23 Epiphenomenon theory Epiphenomenalism

3 Spiritualistic Spiritualism Idealism Animism

32 Spiritual monism Psychic monism

33 Panpsychism Spiritual pluralism

34 Mind-dust or mind-stuf theory

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

131 Mental physiology and hygiene Physiologic
psychology Psychophysiology

For anatomy and physiology of special senses and mental functions see 150; sec
also 61 1.8 Anatomy of nervous sistem, 612.8 Physiology of nervous sistem, 150.72

Experimental psychology

.1 Anatomy of nervous sistem

Evolution and development. May be divided like 61 1.8. Most important

subdivisions ar given below

. 1 1 Brain

.12 Spinal cord

.13 Ncrvs

.139 Simpathetic and autonomic nervous sistem

.2 Physiology of nervous sistem

May be divided like 612.8. Most important subdivisions ar given below

.21 Nerv fibers Neurons Fibrils

Nerv elements, nerv impulse, nerv connections, synapse. Sec also 612.81

Physiology

.215 Physiologic morfology of nervous stimulation

1 Sensory terminations

2 Motor "

.22 Nerv centers Brain

.222 Nerv eels and nerv centers

1 Chemistry of nervous sistem
.225 Cerebral convolutions (cortex)

2 Psychomotiv centers Localizations

Divide like 612.8252

5 Sensory functions of convolutions

Divide like 152 Sense perceptions

8 Intellectual and motor functions

Divide 83-89 like 153-159 Psychology

.23 Spinal cord and nervs

.233 Reflex and automatic functions

.29 Simpathetic and autonomic nervous sistem

.3 Mental hygiene

.32 Mental helth Menticulture Helth pro-
moting agencies
.323 Influence of personal habits, diet etc on mental helth

May be divided like 613 Hygiene

.324 New thought

Mental science, new metaphysic movement, metaphysic healing.

PHIL0S0FY

I 3 I -33 Unhygienic agencies
.334 Action of poisons

1 Alkaloids

2 Nonalkaloids
4 Alcohol

.335 Effect of disease

.336 Effect of overwork, fatigue, mental strain

.337 " " worry

.34 Psychoanalisis

.3407 Clinics Training classes

.341 Explanations of mental processes

2 Dynamic

22 Instincts: ego instincts, sex instincts, etc

Libido, ambivalence

23 Complexes: Oedipus complex, Electra complex,
inferiority complex, etc

24 Conflict: censorship, repression, regression, con-
version, transference, fixation, rationalization,
simbolism, sublimation, compensation etc

3 Economic

Plesure-pain principle, reality principle, etc

4 Topografic

Id, ego, super-ego

.342 Technic and methods

2 Cathartic method Abreaction

4 Free association

5 Suggestion

7 Reeducation

.346 Psychoanalitic schools or sistems

2 Freud: sexual view

4 Jung: energic view

5 Stekel

6 Kempf : dynamic mechanisim
.348 Applications

Divide like main clasification; e.g. 2 Religion, 37 Education, 572
Anthropology, 615 Therapeutics

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

132 Mental derangements

Pathologic psychology, abnormal psychology, mental diseases, psychopathy,
psychiatry, psychopathology, teratologic psychology. For legal aspects see 340.6
Medical jurisprudence, 347.1 Legal capacity; for medical discussions see 616.8.
The form divisions ar those of 616 and ar applicable to all subdivisions of 132.
Clas pathology of special psychologic functions with those functions

.01 Theory

.011 Causes

.012 Clasification

.014 Language Terminology Nomenclature

For dictionaries see 132.03

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500

.016 Miscellaneous theories

8 Popular theories and errors

.02 Compends Handbooks Outlines

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

.05 Periodicals

.06 Organizations

.061 Government departments, state boards, etc

.062 Nongovernment organizations

Societies, clubs etc

.063 Congresses

.07 Study and teaching .075 Diagnosis

08 Polygrafy Collections Extracts

.09 History

.092 Case histories, biografy

PHILOSOFY

132. i Insanity Mental alienation

Craziness, madness, lunacy. Use form divisions of 616 (being more fully
developt). For housing, management and care see 362.2 Hospitals for
insane

.13 Organic brain diseases

.14 Functional brain diseases

.143 Neurasthenia Cronic nervous exhaustion

.15 Neuroses Psychoneuroses

.151 Chorea Huntington's chorea

.152 Hysteria

I3S.S Somnambulism

2 Psychasthenia Obsessional or anxiety neurosis

Obsessions, phobias

3 Dissociation of personality

32 Depersonalization

33 Alteration or transformation of personality

34 Fragmentary personality

Dual, secondary, alternating and multiple personalities

35 Fugues

. 1 53 Epilepsy Narcolepsy

.155 Aphasia Alexia Amusia Agraphia Apraxia etc

.156 Anesthesia Hyperesthesia Hypesthesia Paresthesia

.16 Neuroses due to special poisons
.161 Alcoholism

.162 Metallic tremor

.19 Special psychoses and syndromes
.192 General paralysis of insane Dementia paralytica

Paresis

.193 Confusional insanity

Mental confusion: acute and primitiv. Delirium: acute, febril, collapse
exhaustion (acute organic reaction types)

1 Pathologic intoxication (mania a potu)

2 Delirium tremens

3 Abstinence delirium

4 Traumatic delirium: immediate, protracted

5 Exhaustion delirium Exhaustion psychosis

6 Acute hallucinosis

7 Acute pseudoparanoia

8 Korsakow's psychosis

9 Other

DECIMAL CLA8IFI CATION

Maniodepressiv insanity

General unsystematized delusions; affectiv reaction types

Manic type: mania, expansiv psychosis; euphoria

Hypomania

Acute mania

Delirious mania

Cronic mania
Alternating, periodic or circular type

Circular insanity (folie circulaire); insanity of double form;

cyclothymia, variability of mood

Depressiv type

Depressiv psychosis, pathologic sadness and grief, hypochondria,

Simple retardation

Acute depression
Stuporous type Depressiv stupor
Mixt type

Manic stupor

Agitated depression

Unproductiv mania

Depressiv mania

Depression with flight of ideas

Akinetic mania
Involution melancholia

Paranoid reaction types

Partial, systematized; unopposed, polymorfic diffused delusions;

delusional insanity

Paranoia
Original
Acquired
Abortiv
Latent

Paranoia querulans Querulous paranoia
Paraphrenia
Sistematic
Expansiv
Confabulatory
Fantastic

Paranoid states or paranoid constitution

Narcissism

PHILOSOFY

132.198 Dementia

Cronic organic reaction types

1 Acute or furious dementia Primary dementia

12 Alcoholic dementia

122 Alcoholic deterioration

123 Cronic alcoholism

124 Alcoholic pseudoparesis

125 Alcoholic epilepsy

126 Cronic hallucinosis

13 Traumatic dementia

132 Traumatic constitution

Vasomotor neurosis, explosiv diathesis

133 Post-traumatic mental enfeeblement

2 Dementia precox and schizophrenic reaction types

Neuroepithelial dementia, discordant insanity, secondary or

22 Simple type: schizophrenia simplex

23 Katatonic type: katatonia, katatonic dementia

24 Hebephrenic type: hebephrenia, hebephrenic
dementia

25 Paranoid type: paranoid dementia

26 Mixt type

3 Senile dementia

3 1 Simple senile deterioration

32 Presenile dementia

33 Senile delirium; delirious and confused types

34 Presbyophrenia

35 Alzheimer's disease

36 Deprest and agitated type ,

37 Senile and cronic pseudoparanoid type

38 Arteriosclerotic type

382 Post-paralytic dementia

383 Post-apoplectic dementia

39 Other

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

132.2 Mental deficiency

Amentia, foolishness, arrests of development, maldcvelopments, stupidity.
Use form divisions as in 132. For housing, manaRement and care see 362.3
Hospitals for idiotic, imbecils, feebleminded;, for education of feebleminded

see 371-92

.22 Psychopathic personality

Constitutional psychopathic inferiority

.222 Emotional

2 Emotional instability

3 Pseudoquerulance

4 Eccentricity

.223 Moral imbecility or insanity

.24 Intellectual defect

2 Idiocy

3 Imbecility

4 Moronity Feeblemindedness

5 Borderline and dul normal
.243 Accompanying deformity

2 Brachycephalism

22 Mongolism

23 Kalmukism

24 Tartarism

3 Hydrocephalism

4 Microcephalism

.244 Accompanying disease and injury

1 Amaurotic family idiocy

2 Cretinism Myxedemism

3 Paralytic types

4 Epileptic types Eclampsic types

5 Syphilitic types

6 Inflammatory types

7 Sensory-deprivation types

8 Traumatic types

9 Other

PHILOSOFY

2.3 Hypochondria Melancholia

depressiv type; 616.852 Hysteria

.32 Hypochondria Hypochondriasis

Use form divisions as in 132

.322 Physical hypochondriasis

.323 Psychic "

.35 Melancholia Melancholy

• Use form divisions as in 132. See also 132.1957 Involution melancholia

.352 Acute (recent, recurrent) melancholia Melancholia

simplex

•353 Cronic (excited or hypochondriac) melancholia Mel-

ancholia agitata

2 Cotard's syndrome

•358 Special types

1 Religious 4 Stuporous 7 Confusional

2 Delusional 5 Suicidal 8 Impulsiv

3 Resistiv 6 Anxious q Other

.4 Catalepsy

Use form divisions as in 132. See also 132.152 Hysteria, 132.153 Epilepsy,
132.5 Ecstatics, 134 Hypnotism, 61O.852 Hysteria, from medical viewpoint

.43 Degrees

.432 Complete : physical and mental

.433 Complete physical rigidity

.434 Partial physical rigidity

•435 Mental activity

.438 Duration

.44 Caracteristics

.46 Effects

.5 Ecstatics Ecstasy

Mistic or religious insanity; illuminism; visionaries. Use form divisions as in

.52 Types

.522 Voluntary or natural

.523 Involuntary or supernatural

.53 Degrees
.538 Duration

.54 Caracteristics

Ecstatic visions, trances, frenzy, rapture etc

.56 Effects

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

132.6 Derangements leading to crime Criminal manias

jurisprudence, 347.1 Legal capacity

.62 Kleptomania

.63 Pathologic swindlers

.64 Destructiv manias : pyromania

.65 Homicidal and suicidal manias

.7 Derangements leading to vice Vicious manias

.72 Dipsomania

medical viewpoint

Morphinomania or morphinism, cocainomania, etheromania etc

.74 Pathologic lying

.75 Sexual manias and aberrations

Including those leading to crime. Sexual anomalies, sexual psychopaths.

.752 Eroticism Erotic delusions

.753 Nymphomania

.754 Sexual perversions

1 General questions 6 Sexual inversion Homo-

2 Exhibitionism sexuality

3 Fetishism 7 Incest

5 Bestiality 9 Other
•755 Moral impotence Frigidity

.8 Mnemonic derangements Memory defects

Not knowing in one state what past in another. See also 154 Memory

.82 Hypermnesia

.83 Paramnesia Pseudo-reminiscence

.84 Amnesia

.841 Complete

.842 Partial

1 Anterograde 4 Periodic 7 Sistematized
Progressive 5 Circumscribed 8 Hysteric

3 Continuous 6 Sensory

Divide like 152

PHILOSOFY

133-135 Metapsychology Psychic fenomena

Parapsychology, metapsychics. General works including occultism, hypnotism
and dreams ar (unless one of the other subject"; strongly predominates) clast in 133

133 Transcendental psychology Occultism
Occult sciences

Delusions, cabalistic art. For alchemy, hermetics, alkahest, elixir of life, philosofer 3
6tone, transmutation of metals see 540.1

.01 Theory

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500. Include under 133.015-.016 theories regarding hum-
bugs and frauds in general, but clas those relating to a specific topic with
that topic

.016 Miscellaneous theories

.07 Psychic reserch Psychic studies

Clas reserch in a special field with that field

. i Apparitions Ghosts

Hallucinations, 398.3 Folklore

.12 Localized

Hauntings, haunted houses, house spirits, poltergeister, haunted graveyards,

.13 Unlocalized

.14 Supernatural beings

Revenants, goblins, hobgoblins, loups-garous, werewolves, lycanthropes etc

.15 Sea specters: Flying Dutchman, etc
.2 Hallucinations illusions

.22 Hallucinations

See also 132.1 Insanity, 132.5 Ecstatics, 133. 1 Apparitions, 133 322 Cristal
gazing, 133.4 Witchcraft, 133.8 Telepathy, clairvoyance, 133-9 Spiiitism
(veridic hallucinations), 134.52 Hypnotic hallucinations, 135.33 Dreams, hyp-
nagogic hallucinations

.221 Causes

2 Peripheric stimulation

3 Cerebral "

4 Reductorless images

5 Obstruction of neural paths

6 Abnormal excitation of neural paths

7 Emergence of subconscious imagery
.222 Types

2 Reproductiv

3 Constructiv

4 Creativ

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

133.223 Forms

1-6 may be further subdivided like 152.1-.6

1 Visual

2 Auditory

3 Olfactory

4 Gustatory

5 Tactil or haptic

6 Muscular, psychomotor, visceral

7 Synesthetic or reflex
.224 Degrees

1 Pseudo- or semi-hallucinations

2 Complete hallucinations
.24 Illusions

.241 Causes

2 Confusion of sense impression

3 Misinterpretation of sense impression
3 2 Passiv

322 Determine! by organism

323 " " environment
33 Activ

332 Voluntary preperception False recognition

333 Involuntary "
.243 Forms

Divide like 133.223

.3 Divination Predictions : oracles, 2d sight,
omens

Divinatory art, prognostication, profecies, Sibyllin books, etc. Sibyls, augurs,

soothsayers, profets, seers etc

.32 Autoscopic

.322 Sensory automatisms

Cristal gazing, shel hearing, premonitions, 2d sight, presages, deth warn-
ing, etc. See nlso 133.83 Clairvoyance

.323 Motor automatisms

Divining rod (Cumberlandism), dowsing for water and preciou" metals
(lee also 622.12 Prospecting), coscinomancy (divining with a balanst siv),
ring divining, ordeal by Bible and key, sand divination, divination by auto-

.324 Mental impressions

Cartomancy, card fortune telling, reading coffee grounds and tea leave,
etc. For Palmistry see 133.6, for Dreams see 135-3

.33 Heteroscopic

.332 Sortilage Casting lots

Astragalomancy (divination with dice or small bones), bibliomancy (omens

•333

drawn from Bible and other books; sortes Virgilianac) etc

Haruspication (inspection of entrails), hepatoscopy (in-
spection of liver) , scapulimancy (divination by sholder-
blade), divination by footprints in ashes, geomancy etc

PHILOSOFY

133-334 Augury and omens

Behavior and cries of birds, meeting ominous animals, signs, auspices,
thunder and lightning, falling stars, celestial signs, prodigies, portents etc

.335 Simpathetic omens Simbolism

Numerology etc. For Astrology see 133.5

.4 Witchcraft Sorcery Magic Demonology

Black magic, white or natural magic, necromancy, psychomancy

.401 Theories

6 Miscellaneous

62 Religious aspects

63 Legal
.409 History

.4093-. 4099 In special countries

973-25

.42 Activities and practises

Satanism, witches sabbaths, nocturnal revels; incantations, evocations, spels,
evil eye; demoniac obsession and possession, diakka; lycanthropy, incubi,
succubi, vampires; flying thru air, riding on broomsticks, etc

.43 Instruments and apparatus

Black books, grimoire, conjuring books, magic metals, rituals, magician's
wand, etc

.44 Means of help and protection

Exorcism, charms, amulets, talismans, philters etc

.5 Astrology

Judicial or mundane astrology only; for natural astrology see 520.1. Under
this number and its subdivisions ar included both descriptiv and interpretiv
material

.52 Zodiac signs

.522 Works on individual signs

.523 According to position

2 Northern, commanding, masculin or strong

Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo

3 Southern, obeying, feminin or weak

Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces

.524 According to structure Triplicities

2 Erthy: Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus

3 Fiery: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius

4 Airy: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius

5 Watery: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces
.525 According to time

2 Diurnal

Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Aquarius

3 Nocturnal

Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricornus, Pisces

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Planets
Works on individual planets

Uranus, Saturn. Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Asteroids (Juno, Pallas, Ceres.

Vesta), Moon, Venus, Mercury

Aspects

Conjunction, sectil, quartil. trine, opposition

Houses

Life or person, riches, brethren or kindred, parents, children, servants
and sickness, marriage, deth, religion, magistracy, frends, enemies

Special positions

Joys, dragon's hed, dragon's tail, part of fortune, ascendent etc

Horoscopes

Hyleg, Amareta etc

Tables of declinations
General applications
Nativities

Clas nativities of special individual with biografy of that individual

Horary questions

Special applications

Medical astrology, etc. Divide like main clasification. For Biblical
astrology see 220.81335

Palmistry Chirology

Chirognomy

Determination of type of intelligence from form of hand

Anatomy and physiology of hand

Types of hands

Elementary. Spatulate or activ. Conic or artistic. Square or useful.
Knotty or philosofic. Pointed or psychic. Mixt

Chirosofy

Study of comparativ value of manual formations

Chiromancy

Divination by means of mounts, lines and other markings of hand and
fingers

Mounts

Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo or Sun, Mercury, Mars, Luna or Moon, Venus

Lines

On palm

Hed line; life line; hart line; fate line or line of Saturn; line of
Apollo, of Sun, of fortune or of brilliancy; line of Mercury, of
helth, of liver, hepatic line or hepatica; girdle of Venus; line of
Mars; ring of Solomon or Jupiter; line of intuition, of Moon or
Luna; via lascivia; lines of affection; etc

On wrist

Racettes or 3 bracelets

On fingers
Signs

On palm

Star, square, spot, circle, iland, triangle, cros, croix mystique, grille,
signs of planets quadrangle or table, percussion etc

On wrist
u fingers

PHILOSOFY

133.7 Humbugs Quackery

Charlatans, impostors. Subdivide by type of humbug according to main
divisions of 133; e.g. fraudulent magicians and sorcerers 133.74, fraudulent
astrologists 133-75. fraudulent palmists 133.76, telepathic and clairvoyant
frauds 133-78, fraudulent mediums 133.79. For humbugs not thus provided
for use 133.77 divided like main clasification

.8 Telepathy Clairvoyance Clairaudience

.82 Telepathy

Mind reading, thought transference, telepathic hallucinations

.8201 Theories

16 Miscellaneous theories

161 Psychic

162 Physical
.822 Forms

2 Physical

Divide like 152 Sense perceptions

3 Mental

4 Emotional

.823 Reciprocal telepathy

.824 Collectiv "

.83 Clairvoyance Clairaudience

.8301 Theories

16 Miscellaneous theories

161 Psychic

Lucidity, telepathy etc

162 Physical

Ray theories, corpuscular theories, hyperesthesia etc

.832 Cryptoscopic

Vision of normally invisible hidden objects, or hearing of normally in-
audible sounds, near at hand

.833 Psychoscopic Psychometric

Supernormal knowledge of distant, future or past events connected witf
objects at hand

2 In space

3 " time
.84 Clairvoyance

Divide like 133.83

.85 Clairaudience

Divide like 133.83

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

33.9 Spiritism Spiritualism

Psychism; communication with ded, with discarnate spirits or intelligences;
mediums and mediumship; spiritistic or mediumistic fenomena with or with-
out trance. For Bible and spiritualism see 220.81339, Christianity and

spiritualism 289.9

.901 Theory

5 Theories derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500

6 Miscellaneous theories

61 Subliminal self Subconscious mentation Mental dis-
sociation Multiple personality Dissociation of personality
Multiple consciousness

62 Telepathy Veridic hallucination Exteriorization of sen-
sations or impressions

63 Clairvoyance Retrocognition

64 Hallucination and illusion

65 Spiritistic possession

.92 Objectiv or physical fenomena
.922 Telekinesis

Table-tipping, table-turning, typtology, raps, levitation, apports,
transports, dematerialization of objects or 4th dimension, psychog-
raphy or direct writing and drawing, etc

.923 Ectoplasms

Materialization of spirits, teleplasmy, bilocation, psychic or spirit
photografy, fluidic body, emanation of substance, psychic rods,
astral body, etc

.93 Subjectiv or mental fenomena

Telethesia or cryptesthesia. Sensory automatisms, ouija board and
planchet messages, automatic writing and drawing, trance speaking,
automatic speaking, intrapsychic conflict, interference, book tests,
psychometry or pragmatic cryptesthesia, xenoglossis, monitions, pre-
Telepathy, Clairvoyance

.94 Psychic healing

34 Hypnotism

Mesmerism, hypnosis, Braidism, electrobiology, neurohypnotism, neurypnology

.01 Theory

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500

.016 Miscellaneous theories

1 Psychologic

Mental, cerebral or functional dissociation; secondary, submerged,
subconscious or subliminal self; suggestion; etc

2 Physical

Odic or odylic force, ectenic force, magnetic fluid, animal magnetism,
biomagnetism etc

6 Physiologic

7 Pathologic

Hysteric susceptibility, neurosis etc

.1 General questions

" Legal aspects etc

PHILOSOFY

134.2 Induction

.22 Methods
.222 Domination
.223 Cooperation

.23 Means

.232 Physical: monotonous stimulation of sense organs, etc

.233 Mental: suggestion etc

.5 Effects

.52 Concurrent

Hightend suggestibility, rapport, lethargy, hypnotic or artificial catalepsy,
hypnotic or artificial somnambulism, hypnotic trance, anesthesia, positiv
and negativ hallucinations, hypnotic delusions, organic effects, telepathy,
clairvoyance etc

.53 Post-hypnotic

Amnesia respecting events occurring during hypnosis, post-hypnotic
suggestions, unconscious reckoning of time, etc

.6 Autohypnotism Autosuggestion
.8 Applications

Medical, psychotherapeutics etc. May be divided like main clasification

135 Sleep and wakefulness Dreams Somnam-
bulism
.2 Sleep and wakefulness

.201 Theory

5 Theories of sleep derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500

6 Miscellaneous theories

63 Neurologic or histologic theories

64 Psychobiologic theories

Sleep as an instinct: hypnoidal state, muscular ielaxation
theory, psychoanalitic theory, vasomotor control theory, etc

66 Physiologic theories

663 Mechanic or circulatory theories

664 Chemic theories

67 Pathologic theories

Toxic and autotoxic theories

68 Erly and popular theories

.22 Conditions conduciv to sleep

.23 Fenomena normally accompanying sleep

.232 Physical

3 Cerebral circulation

4 Chemic fenomena

5 Positions during sleep
.233 Mental

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

135.24 Depth and length of sleep

Partial sleep, rediness to wake in response to definit stimuli. Prolongs

sleep. Hypnagogic state

.25 Results of sleep

.26 " " lack of sleep

.27 Abnormalities

.272 Excessiv tendency to sleep

.273 Insomnia or abnormal wakefulness

.274 Sleep of insane

.275 Drugs and sleep

<>3 Dreams Visions

.301 Theory

5 Theories derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500, e. g. 135.30157 Biologic, recapitulation or ata-
vistic theories

6 Miscellaneous theories

62 Free association theory

63 Illusion theory

64 Psychoanalitic theories

Expression of represt desires or fears

66 Physiologic theories

68 Erly and popular theories

Wandering of soul, divine origin, astrologic theories, various populai
views, etc

.32 Clasification of dreams
.322 According to origin

2 Presentativ

Due to objectiv or physical stimuli

3 Representativ

Due to subjectiv or mental stimuli

,323 According to type

Premonitory, profetic, prodromic, collectiv, kinesthetic, recurrent, night-
mares, night terrors, dreams of ded, etc

•33 Content of dreams

Imagery, past experiences, effect of special stimuli on content, hypnagogic
hallucinations, etc

.34 Caracteristics or peculiarities

Speed, condensation, absurdity, sense of r;ality or unreality, effect of waking
on dreams, etc

.35 Effects of dreams

As conservers of sleep, as influencers of waking life, etc

PHILOSOFY

135.36 Dreams of special classes of persons

.362 Groups by age

2 Children

3 Aged

.363 Sensory defectivs

Blind, def etc. Divide like 152. including cripples etc under 135.3636

.364 Insane

.366 Criminals

.37 Day dreams Autistic thinking

.38 Interpretation of dreams

.382 • Popular: oneiromancy, fortune telling by dreams,
dream books, etc

.383 Scientific: psychoanalitic etc

.5 Somnambulism Sleep walking Noctambulism

Hysteric somnambulism

.51 Causes

.53 - Degree of sensibility

.532 Responsibility

.55 Activities

•553 Degree of difficulty

2 Simple

3 Complicated
.554 Habitual

•555 Unusual

.56 Management Treatment

.6 Sleep talking

.61 Causes

.63 Caracter

.632 Coherent

•633 Incoherent

.634 Relation to waking interests

-635 Rememberd on waking

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

I36~ I 39 Differential psychology

General works on Differential psychology clas in 136

Genetic psychology Evolutional psychol-
ogy Mental caracteristics

1 As influenced by sex Sex psychology

11 Sex and intellectual qualities

12 Sex and mental derangements

Divide like 132 Mental derangements

17 Sex and personality

Divide like 137 Personality

2 As influenced by physical and social surroundings

Psychology of physical environment. Bionorric influences. Mental euthenics

22 Sensory influences

May be further divided as under 152 "

221 Vision: color, light, darkness etc

222 Hearing: sounds, noises, silence etc

223 Smel: odors

224 Taste

225 Touch: rufness, smoothness etc

24 Topografic influences Landscape

Divide "like 551.4 Surface features of earth

25 Metcorologic influences

Climate, wether. Divide like 551.5 Meteorology

26 Residential influences

262 Urban

263 Suburban

264 Rural

265 Housing: rooms etc

27 Social influences; neighbors, associates

28 Clothing

3 As influenced by ancestry Mental heredity

575.1 Evolution

3 1 Inheritance of intellectual qualities

Divide like 150 Psychology

32 Inheritance of mental deficiencies

Degeneracy, criminality, inferior families. Divide like 132 Mental derange-

33 Moral and spiritual qualities

37 Inheritance of personality caracteristics

Divide like 137 Personality

PHILOSOFY

136.4 As influenced by race Racial caracteristics

Race psychology, folk psychology, ethnic psychology, cthnopsychology.

.41 Prehistoric or primitiv man Paleopsychology

Divided like 571 Prehistoric archeology

.411 Paleolithic Erly stone age

.412 Neolithic Late stone age

.413 Bronze age

.414 Iron age

.48 Races divided by language like 400
.49 " country like 930-999

National psychology, psychology of nations and peoples. Divide by
country where possible. Use language divisions for groups like Semitic,
caracteristics

.5 As influenced by age

For general works, also for adult period only, for erlier period sec 136.7
Childstudy

.52 Maturity

Adult manhood, period of greatest ability, efficiency, mental virility

.53 Senescence

Period of mental decline, old age, 2d childhood

.6 As influenced by physical structure and conditions

Stature, posture, physical abnormalities, deformities etc

.7 Childstudy Paidology, pedology Child
psychology

.702 Methods Mental tests

1 Laboratory

2 Home

.708 Observations Records Albums

.71 Body: structure, growth, care

136.3 Mental heredity, 371.7 School hygiene, 612.64 Embryology,
612.65 Growth, 613 Hygiene, 613.9 Heredity

,72 Mind Intellectual development of child

Divide like 150 Psychology. Limited to period of physical development.
In a general library better clast in 130 and ISO, with only references here

,73 Mental caracteristics

Groupt by influence like 136. 1— . 6

.735 As influenced by age Nascent periods

2 Babyhood, infancy Infant psychology

22 Pre-social period (ist year)

23 Imitating and socializing period (1-2)

3 Childhood

32 Period of individualization (3-5)

33 " " competitiv socialization (6-1 1 )

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

136.74 Children's point of view What children think

Divided like main clasification; c. g.

.7417 Ethics .7479 Games, play

.742 Religion .748 Literature

.744 Language

.75 Delineation of children

Psychology of children from artists' and authors' point of view

.757 In art .758 In literature

76 Abnormal children

Study of development. For methods of instruction see 371.9; for institu-
tions see 362 Hospitals, asylums, 364 Reformatories

,761 Physically defectiv

1 Blind 5 Def-mutes

2 Def 55 Blind def-mutes

3 Blind-def 6 Crippld

4 Dum 7 Deformd
.762 Mentally defectiv

Divide like 132 Mental derangements; e. g. study of idiotic children
136.7622422

.763 Morally defectiv Delinquents

.764 Wildings

A clas of children who, having been lost or deserted, hav grown up
away from the surroundings of children, alone or among animals.
Paidology 1 :i96 (July 1900)

.765 Exceptional Precocity

.766 Backward children Retardation

.767 Dependents

Homeless children, a public charge, lacking ideas and associations of chil-
dren in families. Abandond children, foundlings, orfans

.769 Other abnormal classes

.77 Boys The ' gang ' Boy problem

Gamins

•775 Girl problem

.79 Childhood in various countries and times

Divide like 930-999

,791 The child among uncivilized and semicivilized peoples

PHILOBOFY

I 37 _I 39 Caracter analisis Caracterology

Clas in 137 general discussions not limited to a special sistem

137 Individual psychology Individuality Per-
sonality

Psychology of caracter. Idiosincrasies, mannerisms, personal equation, etc. See
also 170 Ethics, 153.7 Consciousness

.3 Constituent elements of personality Traits

Psychogram

.31 Physical

Divide like 610 Medicin

.311 Anatomic

Divide like 611 Anatomy

.312 Physiologic

Divide like 612 Physiology

.313 Helth

Divide like 613 Hygiene

.316 Pathologic

Divide like 616 Diseases

.32 Moral and religious
.33 Social
.35 Mental

Divide like 150 Psychology

.37 Esthetic

.38 Special abilities or talents

Divide like main clasification; e. g.

137.3851 Mathematical ability

.3878 Musical talent

.389 Historical ability

.4 Types of personality Temperaments

Biotypology

.42 Popular clasifications

Choleric, sanguin, mercuric, flegmatic, bromidic etc

.45 Scientific clasifications

Introverts, extroverts etc. Apathetic, affectiv, intellectual, temperate,
voluntary etc. Visual, audil, motor etc. See also 154.45 Types of lerners

.5 Cultivation of personality
.7 Grafology

.72 Popular and divinatory grafology

Fortune telling by means of handwriting

.75 Scientific grafology

.8 Tests of personality and caracter

Tests of specific traits clas with those traits. See also 15 1.2 Mesurements

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

138 Physiognomy

Expression of mentality thru the body. Bodily signs revealing caracter. Caracter
analisis by study of physical features. Effect of expression of emotions on facial
and bodily features as index to caracter. Pathognomy. See also 157.2 Expression

of emotions

.2 Divinatory Astrologic
.3 Descriptiv
.4 Physiologic

139 Phrenology Mental photografs, etc.

152 Sense perceptions

.2 Caracter analisis by cranial bumps and depressions

.22 Feelings

.222 Propensities: internal impulses inviting only to certain

actions

.223 Sentiments: impulses prompting to emotion as wel

as to action

2 Lower: those common to man and the lower animals

3 Higher: those proper to man only
.23 Intellectual faculties

.232 Perceptiv faculties

.233 Reflectiv "

.3 Anatomic aspects
.4 Physiologic aspects
.5 Psychologic "

PHILOSOFY

140 Philosofic sistems and doctrins

Heds 1 40-1 49.9 ar for discussion of sistems and doctrins as such. Philosofic works
of authors of these various schools ar clast under iyo, not here. Prom these heds refer
in catalogs to authors clearly falling under them, without attempting to label each writer
Psychologic sistems

141 Idealism Transcendentalism Spiritualism
Panpsychism Subjectivism Individual-
ism Personalism Voluntarism Roman-
ticism

e. g. Plato, see 184.1, 888.4; Berkeley, see 192.3; Fichte, see 193.3; Emerson, seo

142 Critical philosofy Criticism Neocriticism
Kantism Neokantism Phenomenalism

143 Intuitionalism Bergsonism

e. g. Reid, sec 192.5; McCosh, see 191s; Bergson, see 194.9. Sec also 149.3 Misti-
cism, 156 Intuitiv faculty, 17 1.2 Ethics

144 Empiricism Pragmatism Humanism
Instrumentalism Utilitarianism

e. g. Descartes, see 194. 1; Bacon, see 192.1. See also 150.1943
Behaviorism

145 Sensationalism

e. g. Locke, see 192.2

146 Naturalism Materialism Positivism
Atomism Mechanism Neomechanism
Dynamism Energism Evolutionism
Transformism Comtism

e. g. Hobbes, see 192.9; Comte, see 194.8. See also 11 1.62 Evolution in ontology,
149.2 Realism, 187 Epicureanism, 575 Evolution in biology

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Pantheism Panentheism Monism Ani-
mism Vitalism Dualism Pluralism
Parallelism Occasionalism

e. g. Spinoza, sec 199.492 Sec also 130.16

Theories of mind-body relations, 212 Pantheism in natural theology, 189.1
Philosofic gnosticism, 273.1 Gnostic heresy

Eclecticism Liberalism Syncretism Dog-

e. g. Cousin, s»e 194.7

Other philosofic sistems
Nominalism Conceptualism
Realism Neorealism Critical realism

Misticism Occultism Esoteric philosofy
Theosofy Anthroposofy

Bergsonism; 181.5 Sufism; 189.5 Medieval misticism; 212 Theosofy in natural
theology; 273.2 Mistic heresy

Associationism
Optimism Meliorism

Pessimism

e. g. Schopenhauer, see 193-7. See also 216 Evil, 233 Doctrin of man

Agnosticism Skepticism Rationalism In-
tellectualism Innatism Nativism Sophisti-
cism

Agnostic heresy

Nihilism Fatalism

Other sistems

PHILOSOFY

Psychology General psychology

Mind. Mental functions and faculties. Philosofy of intellect. For other
aspects of psychology see 130

An alternativ scheme of psychology incorporating all topics of 130 and 150
was publisht in ed. 13 under 1599. Libraries and individuals who prefer to
continue 159.9 arrangement may obtain it thru Forest Pres. Inc., Lake Placid
Club, N. Y.

Works on psychology as applied to various subjects ar in general best clast
with those subjects, but may be kept together under 150.13. Relations of
psychology to other subjects may be exprest by using 150.001 divided like the
whole classification; e.g. 150.0012 Psychology and Religion, 150.0015 Psirology
and Science, etc. For interrelations of psychologic topics use 0005 divided
like 150, e.g. Conception and perception 153.1000527

SUMMARY

151 Intellect Capacity for knowing

152 Sensation Sense perceptions

153 Understanding Cognition Knowledge Comprehension

154 Memory and lerning Reproductiv power Mnemonic apprehension

155 Imagination Creativ power Imagtnal apprehension

156 Intuitiv faculty or power Innate reason

157 Emotions Affections Sensibility

158 Conation and movement Instincts Appetites Motor functions

159 Wil Volition

50.1 Philosofy Theories Laws

130.1 Theories of mind-body relations, 140 Philosofic sistems, 180-190 Individual
philosofers

For other subdivisions and other form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index

.13 Usefulness Value Importance Appli-
cations

May be divided like the whole classification; e.g. 150.1337 Educational
psicology, 150.1361 Medical psicology, 150.13658 Psicology of business
management, etc.

.18 Psychologic methods

General; for methods of experimental psychology see 150.725

.182 Sub j ectiv : introspecti on

Observation of one's self

.183 Obj ectiv

. 1 84 Analitic

. 1 85 Synthetic

. 1 86 Descriptiv

.187 Explanatory

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

.19 Psychologic sistems or schools

See abo 131.34 Psychoanalisis, 140 Philosofic sistems

.192 Structural or existential psychologies
Structuralism

2 Faculty psychology

3 Mentalism

4 Gestalt or configuration psychology

5 Psychosomatic organism, or mind-body performance
psychology

.193 Functional psychologies

2 Dynamic psychology

3 Purposiv psychologies

32 Hedonic

33 Hormic

.194 Reaction or response psychologies

2 Endocrin psychology Endocrinism

Glandular reaction psychology

3 Behaviorism Anthroponomy

4 Reflexology

5 Dialectic materialism
.7 Study and teaching

.72 Experimental psychology Experiment and
reserch

field see that field

.722 Laboratories
.725 ' Methods

For psychologic methods in general see 150.18

2 Subjectiv Introspection (reflection, analisis, retro-
spection)

3 Objectiv

32 Reception methods Methods of impression

33 Reaction "

332 Methods of judgment

333 " " execution

334 " " expression

34 Qualitativ methods

35 Quantitativ " Statistical etc

Statistics

PHILOSOFY

;i Intellect Capacity for knowing

Intelligence, talent, intellectual life, the normal mind

.1 Genius

Men of superior attainments, eminent or illustrious men, supermen etc

.12 Traits of genius
.122 Physical

Stature, pigmentation, deformity etc

.123 Mental

talent, inspiration, intuition, originality etc

.124 Personality traits Temperament etc

. 1 3 Genius as hereditary-
superior families, royalty, ethnic incongruity, miscegenation etc. See
also 136.3 Mental heredity

.16 Genius as pathologic
.162 Genius and insanity

Manic-depressiv insanity, neurasthenia, secondary personality, idiots

.163 Genius and disease

Tuberculosis, gout, general il helth, etc

.164 Genius and vice

Alcoholism; use of opium and other drugs, etc

.165 Genius and degeneracy

.17 Environment and training of genius

Home life, position of family, occupation of parents, education etc. See also
136.2 Influence of physical surroundings, 371.95 Education

.18 Classes of genius

137 38 Personality talents

.19 Geografic distribution of genius

Divide like 930-999

.2 Mesurements Tests

Mental tests, psychologic mesurements, mesurements or tests of innate mental
Education mesurements anJ tests

.22 Clasification

.222 Tests of general intelligence

2 Individual

22 Verbal

Binet-Simon, Stanford revizion of Binet-Simon, Yerkes point s> ale, etc

23 Non-verbal

Healy picture completion test, army picture completion test, Pintner
performance test, etc

3 Group

32 Verbal

Otis group tests, army alpha tests, national reserch tests, national
intelligence tests, Thurstone omnibus test, etc

33 Non-verbal

Army beta, Dearborn group tests no. 2, Myers mental mesure, etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

151.223 Tests of special capacity or aptitude

Individual or group, verbal or non-verbal. Clas preferably under
special capacity tested; e. g. Association tests 153-28

2 Tests of simpler processes

Reaction times, coordination, motor control, sensory capacity, simple
discrimination tests, space perception, attention etc. Divide like 152

Sense perceptions

3 Tests of higher central processes

Association, lerning, retention, memory, reasoning etc. Divide lik«
I53-I5S. e. g. 151.223332 Association, 151-22334 Memory, 151-22335
Imagination

4 Tests of emotion aspects

Divide like 157 Emotions

5 Tests of volition qualities

Divide like 159 Wil, volition

8 Tests of talent

Musical, mathematical etc. Divide li'ce main clarification. See
also 137.38 Personality traits, 151. 18 Classes of genius

.23 Forms of tests

Cancelation, completion, formboard, genus-species, pirture completion, ink-
blot, nonsense sillables, maze, substitution, crossing out, whole-part, true-false,
mirror, etc. If form and purpose ar discust together clas with purpose; e.g
Army picture completion test 151.22223

.24 Apparatus

.25 Construction and administration of tests
.26 Interpretation of results Statistical methods,
etc

.262 Scoring

.263 Establishing norms

Mental age, intelligence quotient (I.Q.) etc

.264 Tabulating results

Tables, curvs, grafs, histograms, psychograms, frequency polygons, etc

.265 Correlations Correlational psychology

r General questions

Factor theory, etc

2 Among tests

3 " traits or abilities
.28 Applications

Divide like main clasification; e. g. Mental tests applied to industrial manage-
ment 151.28658; but usually better clast with special subject, as 331. 115
Mental tests for selecting workers

PHILOSOFY

1 5 1. 3 Animal psychology Comparativ psychology
Biopsychology Zoopsychology

ISI.33 and 151-35 may be subdivided like 130 and 150, e. g. Insanity in animals
I5I-332. Tests of animal intelligence 151.3512. In general libraries better clast
in 574-18 Irritability and movement in biology, 575.3 Biologic behavior, ecology;
591.18 Nervous functions and sensations in animals, 591. s Habits and behavior, in
animal ecology

.307 Study

2 Experiment

25 Experimental methods

258 Special methods

1 Labyrinths 6 Method of salivation

2 Boxes with special devices 7 " " associativ or

3 Animal training and lerning conditiond reflex

4 Observations on imitation Methods of Bechtercv,
and insight Pavlov etc

5 Observations on orientation 8 Method of psychogalvanic

reflex, Veraguth's method

9 Other

.4 Plant behavior Organs and responses Phyto-
psychology

In general libraries prefer 581.18 Irritability and movement in plants, 581.5 Plant
behavior and ecology

152 Sensation Sense perceptions

Sense, sensible perception and representation, sense impressions, sensible
knowledge. Relations of sense perceptions in general and of each sense in
particular to other topics may be exprest by colon followd by number for
specific topic; e. g. Esthetic relations of taste 152.4: 7 or, if preferd, use 0001
divided iike main clasiflcation, e. g. 152.400017 Esthetic relations of taste.

.01 Theory

.012 Relation of sensation and sense perception

2 Sensational theory (Sensation and perception
identical)

3 Component theory (Sensation a component of
perception)

4 Correlativ theory (Each a component of the othev^
.015 Theories of sensation derived from the pure sciences

Divide like 500, e. g. 152.0153 Physical, mechanic; 152.0154 Chemic

.016 Miscellaneous theories

1 Metaphysical theories
15 Psychologic theories

Eccentric projection theory, etc

2 Deistic theories

6 Physiologic and psychophysical theories

Specific energy theory, theory of specific disposition of sense organs,
etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Passiv or receptiv faculty or functions

Sensational qualities or modalities

1 52. i Vision Visual sensations

Divide like 611.84 Physiologic optics

. 1 1 Fibrous tunics of eye

.111 Cornea Conjunctiva Anterior chamber

.115 Sclera

.12 Vascular tunics Iris Choroid Ciliary

body

.121 Iris accommodation Pupillary reflex

i Pupillometers

.122 Action of nervs and nerv centers on pupil

.123 Effects of light

.124 Action of chemic substances on iris Atropin

.125 Choroid Eye pigments

.126 Ocular circulation Intraocular pressure

1 Ofthalmometers
.13 Optic nerv Retina
.131 Physiologic morfology

2 Ofthalmoscope

3 Retinal circulation

4 " purple

5 Physiologic morfology of retina

Blind spot, yellow spot

.133 Color sense Chromatic sensibility

01 Theory

016 Miscellaneous theories of color sensation

3 3-color theory (Young-Helmholtz)

4 4-color theories

42 Color-contrast theory (Hering)

47 Zone theories

472 Duplex or duplicity theory (von Kries)

473 Theory of indirect values (Muller)

1 Color sight

Power to distinguish colors

2 Sensitivness to color Color preferences

4 Mixture of colors

5 Contrast " "
501 Theory

6 Miscellaneous theories of color contrast

61 Psychologic theory

Deception of judgment (Helmholtz)
66 Physiologic theory (Hering)

52 Simultaneous contrast

53 Successiv "

PHILOSOFY

152.134 Entoptic fenomena

Purkinje's figures or images, Sanson's images

.135 Persistence of retinal impressions

2 After images or after sensations Successiv

images

22 Positiv

23 Negativ or complementary

.136 Field of vision Visual acuteness and sensibility

1 Photometry Photometric technic

2 Field of vision

22 Direct vision

23 Indirect vision Perimetry

3 Visual acuteness and sensibility

33 Twilight vision Purkinje fenomenon Pur-
kinje spectrum Sensibility to contrast

.137 Conduction in brain Perception

1 Histology of fibrillae Center of sight

2 Optic perceptions Localization of image in
space

2 1 Binocular and monocular perception

22 Stereoscopy Binocular fusion and rivalry
Pseudoscopic vision

23 Perception of distance, size and form

Perception of differences in hight of surface

2301 Theory

16 Miscellaneous theories of visual distance

163 Theory of identical points

164 " " projection

165 " " distance as an optic sensation

232 Kinesthetic eye sensations

2 Accommodation strains

3 Convergence 8

233 Parallax

2 Binocular parallax

3 Parallax due to hed movements

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

152.137234 Associativ aids

1 Apparent size 6 Lights and

ness 7 Relations

3 Apparent rapid- among ob-
ity of movement jects in field

4 Linear per- of vision
spectiv 8 Cooperation

5 Haze and other of other
atmosfcric - senses
effects 9 Other

3 Impression of color suggested by sound

4 Optic illusions

41 Primary illusions

412 Illusions of movement

414 Double images

415 Geometric illusions

Of distance, size, direction, form etc

01 Theories of geometric illusions
016 Miscellaneous theories

3 Eye-movement theory 5 Dynamic theory

4 Perspectiv 7 Association or con-

fusion theory

2 Reversible perspectiv

3 Illusions of extent

Mviller-Lyer illusion, etc

4 Illusions of direction and angles; confluxion and
contrast

Poggendorf, Zollner, twisted cord, etc illusions

5 Illusions of form

6 " ■ area

Apparent size of planets at horizon, etc

42 Secondary illusions

43 Mixt illusions

5 Observations on those born blind

8 Degenerations of optic nerv and fibrillae

.14 Refractory apparatus Ocular refraction

Dioptrics

.141 Cristallin lens

,,144 Aqueous humor

0I47 Vitreous "

1

PHILOSOPY

152.15 Functional disorders or pathology of sight

viewpoint

.151 Myopia .155 Daltonism Color

.152 Hypermetropia blindness

.154 Presbyopia - r 5 6 Hemeralopia

.16 Movements of eye

.162 Binocular vision Convergence

For perception see 152.13721 Binocular and monocular perception

.163 Action of 3d cranial or oculomoto nerv

.164 u " 4th " " trochlear "

.166 " " 6th " « abducent

.168 Strabismus Diplopia

.17 Palpebral and lacrimal apparatus

. 1 8 Tests of visual perception

.2 Hearing Auditory sensations

Divide like 612.85 Physiologic acoustics

.201 Theory

2 Clasification of sounds

22 Tones

23 Vocables

24 Noises

6 Miscellaneous theories of hearing

61 Psychologic theories

66 Physiologic "

661 Resonance or simpathetic vibration theory (Helmholtz)

662 Telefone theory (Rutherford, Lipps)

663 Standing wave theory (Ewald, Lehmann)

665 Propeld 8 " (ter Kuile)

666 Displacement " (Meyer)

.21 External ear: functions

.24 Middle ear

.25 Tympanic membrane or drumhed Tympanum

.26 Eustachian tube

.27 Bones

.28 Internal ear

.281 Conduction of sound in internal ear

.282 Utricle Saccule

.283 Semicircular canals

.284 Cochlea Corti's organ or fibers Spiral orgar

Basilar membrane

.285 Acoustic nerv

.286 Endolymf Perilymf

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

152.287 Acoustic perception Conduction of acoustic exci-

tation in brain

1 Auditory acuteness

12 Tonal gaps and ilands

2 Auditory center in brain

3 Subjectiv sensations

4 Musical psychology

781. 1 Psychology of music

42 Tonal caracteristics

422 Pitch

423 Loudness, strength or volume

424 Caracter, quality, timbre, tone color or brightness
Clang-tint

43 Analisis of tones

432 Simple tones

433 Compound tones or natural harmonics Clang

2 Overtones

3 Partial tones

434 Combination or Tartini's tones

1 1st order

12 Difference or differential tone

13 Summational tone

2 Higher orders

44 Consonance and dissonance: intervals
441 Theories of consonance and dissonance

2 Theory of beats (Helmholtz)

3 " " tonal fusion (Stumpf)

4 Genetic theory (Moore)

45 Melody and rithm

46 Sensitivness to tone Tone preferences

5 Binaural and monaural hearing

51 Localization of sound in space Estimation
and effect of distance

512 Interaural differences of sound intensity

513 Complexity of pitches

514 Movements of hed

6 Sensibility of living beings to sound and vibrations
Otocysts

7 Pathology Defness etc

8 Tests of auditory perception
.288 Auditory reflexes

PHILOSOFY

1 52. 3-4 Chemic senses
152.3 Smel Olfactory sensations Odor

.31 Organs of smel

.37 Olfactory perception Conduction in brain

.371 Olfactory acuteness

.372 " center in brain

Seat of smel, in physiology

.373 Subjectiv odor sensations

.374 Fusion of odors

.377 Pathology

.378 Tests of olfactory perception

.4 Taste Gustatory sensations

.41 Organs of taste

.413 Taste buds and papillae

.415 Function of lingual nerv

.417 Function of chorda tympani

.419 Function of glossopharyngeal nerv

.47 Gustatory perception Conduction in brain

.471 Gustatory acuteness

.472 " center in brain

physiology 612.82557

.473 Subjectiv taste sensations

.474 Fusion of tastes

.475 Contrast of tastes

2 Simultaneous

3 Successiv

.476 Relations of taste and smel

.477 Pathology

.478 Tests of gustatory perception

152.5-.6 Somesthetic senses or qualities
.5 Touch Tactil sensations Cutaneous senses

liaptic sensations

.51 Anatomy and physiology of tactil organs

.57 Tactil perceptions Conduction in brain

•57 1 Tactil acuteness

Epicritic and protopathic sensibility

.572 Tactil center in brain

physiology 612.82559

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

3

152.573 Types of tactil perceptions

2 Temperature

cold

Pressure

Including all related fenomena; e. g. tickiing, itching, contact,
resistance etc

4 Pain
.574 Fusions of tactil sensations

Giving rize to sensations of rufncss, smoothness, dryness, wetness etc

•577 Pathology

.578 Tests of touch perception Esthesiometry

Divide like 152.573

.6 Muscular, articular and organic senses

Equilibrium

.61 Anatomy and physiology

.67 Muscular, articular and organic perceptions

Conduction in brain
.671 Acuteness
.672 Brain centers

physiology 612.82558

.673 Types

5 Muscular and articular senses Power sense

Proprioceptiv senses, tendon and joint senses

52 Kinesthetic sensations; movement, activity

521 Weight 525 Innervation

522 Muscular and ar- 526 Exteriority
ticular movement 527 Stereognostic

523 Effort and power sense
Tendinous strain 528 Electric sense

524 Shock 529 Other

53 Sensations of position or relativ attitude of
limbs, joints and muscles

6 Equilibrium Static sense, balance, labyrinthic
sense

61 Sense of direction and orientation; general
position

62 Seasickness

63 Vertigo Dizziness Giddiness Nystagmus
Past pointing

9 Organic or visceral senses Internal touch

Feelings. May be divided like 612, according to organ experienc-
ing sensation; e. g. 152.673932 Stomach sensations

.677 Pathology

.678 Tests of muscular, articular and organic perceptions

Divide like 152.673

PHILOSOFY

152.7 Perception Perceptual apprehension Pri-
mary incorporations

.72 Elements of perception

.722 Sense presentation

.723 Attention

1 Theories as to nature of attention

12 Pure mental activity

13 Emotion or feeling

14 Change in clearness of ideas

2 Conditions of selection

22 Obrjectiv

222 Vividness or 224 Suddenness 226 Definit form
intensity 225 Novelty 227 Color

223 Duration Repetition

23 Subjectiv

232 Mental attitude 234 Expectancy 236 Psychic

233 Interest 235 Purpose fringe

3 Varieties

32 ' As to origin

322 Innate or instinctiv Primary Natural

323 Acquired or derived Secondary Artificial

33 As to stimuli

332 Sensorial Objectiv Explicit

333 Intellectual Subjectiv Implicit

34 As to development

. 342 Involuntary Passiv Immediate

343 Voluntary Activ

2 Cause theory

3 Effect "

344 Spontaneous or nonvoluntary

4 Physical reactions

41 Vasomotor, circulatory

42 Respiratory

43 Bodily attitude

5 Clearness and strength of attention

52 Clearness

522 Focal 523 Marginal

53 Strength or degree

532 Concentrated 533 Divided

6 Scope and duration

62 Scope, range or span

63 Duration and fluctuation

632 Sustaind 633 Shifting

7 Acquired inattention and pathology of attention

8 Mesurements of attention

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

152.724 Apperception
.725 Preperception

.73 Errors of perception Normal illusions

For abnormal illusions and hallucinations see l.)2.i Insanity, 133.2 Hal-
152.2-.6; e. g. Illusions of touch, Aristotle's illusion 152.735, Illusions of
missing limbs 152.736

.75 Special classes of perceptions

.752 Perception of space and extent Localization of

objects

01 General theory

016 Miscellaneous theories of space perception

3 Nativistic theories

32 Psychic stimulus theories

322 Theory of local signs (Lotze)

323 " " circles of sensitivity (Weber)

324 Kantian theory of intuitiv space

33 Extensity theories (James etc) «

4 Empiric and genetic theories

42 Associationist theories

43 Creatn' synthesis, fusion, 'jn3ntal chemistry' or complex local
signs theories (Herbart, Wundt etc) 1

44 Unconscious inference theory (Helmholtz)

45 Continuous differences " (Lipps)

2 Elements of space perception
2 2 Distance

23 Size

24 Form

2 5 Direction

3 Sensory factors in space perception

distance, size and form, 152.28751 Binaural localization of sound in

space

7 Pathology

8 Mesurements of space perception
.753 Perception of time (duration) and rithm

7 Pathology

8 Mesurements of time and rithm perception
.754 Perception of movement

7 Pathology

8 Mesurements of movement perception

PHILOSOFY

Synesthesia

General theory

Theories of synesthesia derived from the pure
sciences

Divide like 500, e. g. 152.770157 Biologic, atavistic or ontogenetic
theory

Miscellaneous theories
Psychologic theories
Affectiv association theory
Conditiond reflex "
Physiologic theories
Anastomosis theory

Visual Synopsie Photisms

Chromesthesia Pseudochromesthesia Chro-
misms

Colors accompanying visual perceptions of lines,
forms, figures, letters etc
Colord smels
" tastes

" tactil sensations

Temperature 253 Pressure 254 Pain

Colord muscular, articular, and organic sensa-
tions

Figured or geometric audition: geometric forms
accompanying sounds of words
Number forms
Auditory Phonisms
Of visual origin
" olfactory "
" gustatory u
" tactil
Temperature
Pressure
Pain

Of muscular or organic origin
Olfactory

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin

Gustatory

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

'52-775 Tactil

2 Temperature sensations accompanying other
sensations

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin

3 Pressure sensations accompanying other sensations

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to.origin

4 Pain sensations accompanying other sensations

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin

.776 Muscular, articular and organic

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin

.777 Personifications or dramatizations of ideas, letters,

digits or words

08 Psychophysics Psychometry Quantitativ

psychology

.82 Psychophysics
.82 1 Laws

2 Threshold law

3 Weber's law

3 1 Interpretations of Weber's law

312 Physiologic 313 Psychophysical 314 Psychologic

4 Fechner's laws

42 Logarithmic law

43 . Parallel law

5 Breton's (Fullerton and Cattell's) parabolic law

6 Merkel's law
.822 Principal formulas

Including variations and interpretations

2 Fundamental formula

3 Mesurement "

4 Difference mesurement formula
.823 Methods

22 Method of least or just noticeable differences
or minimal changes

23 Method of mean gradation or equal sense
distances

3 Error methods

3 2 Method of average error

33 " " right and wrong (or true and false)

cases or constant stimuli

4 Method of equivalents

PHILOSOFY

152.824 Apparatus

Special apparatus adapted to study of each sense, divided like
152.1-.6

1 Optic : photoesthesimeters, tachistoscopes etc

2 Acoustic : acousimeters etc

3 Olfactory : olfactometers etc

4 Gustatory

5 Haptic or tactil

52 Temperature: thermesthesimetcrs etc

53 Pressure: esthesimeters, weights etc

54 Pain: algometers, algesimeters etc

6 Muscular, articular and organic
.825 General classes of mesurements

2 Stimulus threshold

22 Lower, minimum sensitivity or threshold of
consciousness, limen

23 Upper, maximum sensitivity

24 Range of sensitivity

3 Difference threshold Difference sensitivity

32 Just noticeable differences Units of sensation

33 " not noticeable "

34 More than just noticeable differences
.826 Special fields of mesurement

Maybe divided like 152-159, if one wishes to keep together, e. g. Esthesi-
ometry, mesurement of touch perception, 153.82625; but in general
use better :last with special field, e. g. 152.578 Tests of touch perception

.828 Applications

May be divided like main clasification; e. g. 152.828132 Sensitivity
of the insane

.83 Psychometry Psychochronometry Mental

chronometry
.8309 History

902 Astronomic period : personal equation

903 Physiologic period : velocity of nervous impulse

904 Psychophysical period: duration of simple mental
processes

2 Period of mental tests

905 Psychologic period: analisis of action consciousness

.832 Apparatus

2 Mesuring and recording instruments

Chronoscopes, chronometers, stop watches, chronografs, psycho.
dometers etc

' 3 Control instruments

Gravity chronometers, control pendulums, control hammers, etc

1 4 Stimulators

Special instruments adapted to stimulation of each sense organ
Divide like 152.1-.6

5 Reaction instruments

Reaction keys, etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

152-833 Methods

2 Observation methods

3 Recording "

32 Visual

33 Mechanic Chronografic

4 Statistical

.834 Classes of reaction time

2 Physiologic or reflex reaction time

3 Psychophysical reaction time

32 Simple

322 Sensorial

323 Muscular or motor

324 Psychologic, central or reduced

33 Compound or complex

332 Discernment, cognition or perception time

333 Discrimination time

334 Choice time

335 Association time

2 Free

3 Controld or constraind

32 Partly

33 Wholly

.835 Elements of reaction time

2 Excitation of sensory nerv

3 Centripetal conduction

32 In sensory nerv

33 " spinal cord

4 Transformation of sensory into motor impulse

5 Centrifugal conduction

52 In spinal cord

53 " motor nerv

6 Releasing of muscular movement

PHILOSOFY

Conditions affecting reaction time

Objectiv

Sense organ stimulated
Caracter of stimulus

Intensity 233 Quality 234 Duration

Caracter of reaction

Complexity 244 Accuracy

Rapidity 245 Extent

Caracter of instructions
Environmental influences

Physical: temperature, atmosferic pressure, etc

Social
Subjectiv
Age
Sex

General attitude

Concentration and expectation

Practis

Helth

Fatigue

Drugs

Other

Special fields of mesurement

May be divided like 152-159, if one wishes to keep together, e. g.
152.83724 Degree of taste, 152.837434 Mesure of recognition; but in
general use better clastwith special field, e. g. Degree of taste 152.478,
Mesure of recognition 154.834

Applications

Divide like main clasification; e. g.

152.838132 Reaction time of insane
.83852 " " in astronomy

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

53 Understanding Cognition Knowledge

Comprehension

Activ or thinking faculty or functions Intellection

Ideation. Comprehensiv function or thinking about

.1 Conception Concept or notion, idea, meaning

Relations to other psychologic topics may be exprest by using colon to indicate
relation, e. g.

153.1 :i52.7 Conception and perception

153. 1 :iS3-4 * " reflection

153. 1 :iss " " imagination

or, if preferd, use 153.10005 divided like iso, e. g. Conception and perception
153.1000527

.101 General theory

6 Miscellaneous theories of conception

62 Nominalist

63 , Conceptualist

64 Sensationist

66 Physiologic

662 Kinesthetic or ideomotor

. 1 1 Origin
.112 Innate
.113 Acquired

. 1 2 Forms
.122 Simple
.123 Complex

.13 Types

.132 Of individuals or particulars, concrete

.133 " generals or universals, abstract

.14 Growth or development

. 1 7 Pathology

.18 Mesurements

PHILOSOFY

153.2 Association

Association of ideas. Psychologic connections. Secondary and mixt incorpo-

.21 Laws of association

.211 Primary

2 Contiguity or continuity in time and space

External association

2 2 Simultaneous
23 Successiv

3 Similarity

4 Contrast
.212 Secondary

2 Primacy

3 Frequency or repetition

4 Recency

5 Vividness

6 Emotional congruity

7 Interest

8 Rithm

9 Other

.22 Physiologic mechanism

.23 Types

.232 Redintegrativ, compound or impartial

Redintegration

.233 Ordinary or mixt

.234 Similar

.235 Dynamic

.236 Serial

.27 Pathology

.28 Mesurements

.3 Abstraction Selection Comparison

.301 General theory of abstraction

6 Miscellaneous theories

62 Generic image theories

63 Comparison or distinction of reason theories

Law of dissociation by varying concomitants

64 Attention and apperception theories

65 Motor theories

.32 Determining factors

.322 Formulation of problem

.323 Fixt trend of reproductiv tendencies

.324 Effectivness or vividness of stimulus

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Types

Discrimination of differences

Recognition of similarities
Products

Topics: aspect topics

Exemplifying images, simbols, recepts

Classes or concepts : generalizing topics
Pathology
Mesurements
Reflection

Indicatory transfers, flashes, attitudes, postures, awareness, cortical set
(All these ar terms used to describe what goes on during process of reflec-

Pathology
Mesurements
Judgment

Clasification Types
As to form
Existential

Attributiv or predicativ
Hypothetic or conditional
Categoric
Disjunctiv
As to method
Analitic
Synthetic
As to nature of response
Implicit
Orientiv
Predictiv
Formation of judgments
Immediate apprehension
Communication
Reasoning or thought
Pathology
Mesurements

PHILOSOFY

153.6 Reasoning Induction and deduction Infer*
ence

.62 Elements

.623 Elaboration

.624 Solution

.63 Types

.632 Elementary

Reasoning from 2 particulars to a 3d particular

.633 Inductiv

.634 Deductiv

.64 Processes

.642 Mental

.643 Physical

.65 Use of simbols or secondary meanings

.652 Thought and language Imageless thought

.66 Products or results

.662 Knowledge of reality

.663 Beliefs

2 Faith

3 Dout

4 Disbelief

.664 Values Worth

.665 Meanings

.67 Pathology

.68 Mesurements

.7 Consciousness Personality

Doctrin

.72 Development or emergence of personality

Self consciousness. The ego. Self and not-self, self and body, inner self,
self as person, self and society. See also 132. 1523 Dissociation of personality,
depersonalization, dual and multiple personality

.77 Pathology
.78 Mesurements

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

i53«8 Unconsciousness Depth psychology

Psychology of the unconscious, coconscious, foreconscious, subconscious.
130.16322 Mind-body relations, 133.32 Divination, 133.93 Spiritism,
158.4 Automatic movements

.82 Sistems or schools of depth psychology

.822 Psychologic school

Prince, Rivers, McDougall etc

.87 Pathology
.88 Mesurements

1 54 Memory and lerning Reproductiv power
Mnemonic apprehension

.01 General theory

.015 Theories of memory based on the pure sciences

Divide like 500, e. g. 154.0157 Biologic theories

.016 Miscellaneous theories

1 Metaphysical theories

3 Representation "

32 Image theories

33 Assimilation theories

4 Presentation theories

42 Physical or physiologic theories

43 Objectiv "

5 Subjectiv or function theories

52 Psychophysical function theories

53 Psychic " "

532 Mental habit theories

533 " disposition theories

534 Motor and emotion "

2 Synergy theories 4 Self-recognition theories

3 Attention " 5 Psychoanalitic "

.07 Study of memory

.072 Experimental study

5 Methods

58 Special methods

581 Lerning method

582 Saving "

583 Method of paird associates, of hits and misses or scoring
method

584 Memory span method

585 Method of retaind members

586 Reproduction

2 By description

4 " drawing

587 Identification or recognition

588 Comparison and selection

589 Other

.078 Materials or apparatus

Nonsense sillables, objects etc

PHILOSOFY

1 54. i Mnemonics Methods of aiding memory

Mnemotechny: memory training, mnemonic devices, memory sistems,
mnemonic technic

.12 Ingenious or artificial methods

.122 Metric

.123 Topical or local

.124 Pictorial

.125 Figure-alfabet

.126 Progressiv suggestion or intermediate associa-
tions

.13 Mechanic or repetition methods

.14 Judicious or logical methods

.2 Types of memory

.22 Sensimaginal Memory images

.221 Visual .224 Gustatory

.222 Auditory .225 Tactil

.223 Olfactory .226 Motor

.23 Organic

.24 Affectiv or emotional

.25 Abstract

.3 Memory processes

.32 Retention Retentivness

.321 Basis of retention

2 Mental state

3 Physiologic or neural trace; disposition

.33 Reproduction and representation Recall
Revival

Remembering

.331 Conditions or causes

2 Perseveration

3 Interest

4 Association Suggestion
•333 Types

2 Free or spontaneous

3 Determind or voluntary

Recollection, reminiscence

32 Empiric

33 Logical

DECIMAL CLASIFICAT10N

1 54-334 Kinds of stimuli

2 Perceptions

3 Images

4 Ideas

5 Emotional complexes
.335 Degrees of recall

2 Partial or selectiv

3 Complete

.336 Interferences in recall
34 Recognition or identification

.342 Factors in recognition

2 Mental associations

22 Past reference

23 Localization

24 Personal ownership

3 Affectiv associations or feelings

32 Of familiarity or unfamiliarity

33 " correctness or incorrectness

34 " certainty or dout

4 Kinesthetic or motor associations
.343 Types of recognition

2 Explicit or perceptual, direct or immediate

3 Implicit or ideational, indirect or mediate
•344 Forms of recognition

1 Individual identity 6 Self recognition

2 Material " 7 Relativ recognition

3 Imaginal recognition 8 Absolute "

4 Clas " 9 Other

5 Formal or logical
recognition

PHILOSOFY

154.4 Lerning or acquisition

.42 Methods
.423 Mechanic

2 Practis and repetition

3 Trial and error

4 Imitation
.424 Logical

2 Association

3 Discrimination
•43 Types

.432 Memorizing or rote lerning

2 By parts

3 " wholes
,44 Aids to lerning

.441 General questions .446 Rest periods

.442 Attention and concentra- .447 Number and

tion frequency of

.443 Interest repetitions

.444 Wil to lern .448 Recitation

.445 Rithmic presentation .449 Other

.45 Types of lerners

personality

.451 Visual .455 Tactil

.452 Auditory -456 Motor

.46 Rate and curv of lerning

.462 Effect of rate of lerning on memory

.4,7 Transference of lerning

Cros education

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

154.5 Forgetting and lapses of memory

.51 Causes

.512 Inhibition

.513 Selection

.514 Weak associations

.515 "or disturbd neural paths and centers

.53 Rate and curv of forgetting

.54 Degree of forgetting

.55 Value " "

.7 Pathology of special memory processes

.73 Pathology of memory processes Divide like 154-3

.74 " " leming "

.75 " " forgetting "

.8 Mesurements of memory

Divide like 154.7

155 Imagination Creativ power Imaginal
apprehension

.1 Fancy Imaging power Free or uncontrold

imagination

.2 Imagery

.22 Physiology of imagery

.23 Types Sensimaginal qualities

155231-.236 may be divided like IS2.I-.6

.237 Verbal .238 Eidetic

.24 Images and sense perceptions compared

.25 Localization of images

.3 Forms of imagination

.32 Reproductiv or representativ

.33 Productiv or anticipatory

.332 Constructiv .333 Creativ

.4 Limits of imaginativ process

.6 Applications

Divide like main clasification. e. g.
155 65 Imagination in science
155-67 " " art

155.68 " " literature

.7 Pathology
.8 Mesurements

PHILOSOFY

156 Intuitiv faculty or power Innate reason

alism, 153.6 Reasoning, 153 8 Unconsciousness

.2 Intellectual or speculativ intuition

.22 Direct cognition

.222 Of the self (internal sense)

.223 " " not-self (common sense)

.23 Direct judgment

.3 Sense intuition

.32 Direct perception

.33 " apprehension

.4 Motor intuition

.7 Pathology

.8 Mesurements

EXECUTIV FUNCTIONS

157 Emotions Affections Sensibility

topics use colon to indicate relation, e. g. Emotion and memory 157 1154, Emotion
and instinct 157 1158 or, if preferd, use 157.0005 divided like 150, e. g. Emotion
and memory 157.00054

.01 General theory

.016 Miscellaneous theories of sensibility and emotions

2 Intellectualistic theories

Associationist etc

3 Psychomechanic theories

Dynamic, struggle among mental processes, etc

4 Psychophysical theories

42 Biogenetic

Affectiv aspect of instincts, etc

43 Identified with desire
6 Physiologic theories

62 Pathologic

63 Sensationist

632 James-Lange, peripheral or vasomotor

633 Identified with organic sense

64 Cerebral or central

Resistance in neural processes, etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

157.07 Study of feelings and emotions

.072 Experimental study

5 Methods

53 Objectiv methods

532 Method of impression

533 " " expression
58 Special methods

582 Genetic method

583 Questioning method

584 Grafic "

585 Association "

586 Psychogalvanic "

.1 Emotional states

. 1 2 Sentiments

e. g. Psychology of the beautiful, esthetics; better in 701.17

.13 Moods

.2 Expression of emotions

.21 Principles of expression

.212 Law of utility or serviceable associated actions

.213 " " analogous feeling stimuli

.214 " " antithesis

.215 " " direct nervous discharge

.22 Forms of expression

.222 Glandular

2 External

3 Internal
.223 Vascular

2 Circulatory

3 Respiratory
.224 Muscular

Laughter, gesture etc

023 Recognition of emotions

PHILOSOFY

157-3 Varieties of emotions

As no authoritativ scheme {or clasifying emotions has yet been devized the
individual emotions may be arranged alfabcticly

.4 Passions or uncontrold emotions

.5 Properties of sensibility

.52 Affectiv quality or tone, feeling tone
.521 One-dimensional theory

Plesure-pain (hedonic tone), plesant-unplesant, agreeable-disagreeable
or positiv-negativ

.322 Bidimensional theory

2 Plesure-pain (hedonic tone)

3 Restlessness-quiescence
.523 Tridimensional theory

2 Plesure-pain (hedonic tone)

3 Excitement-depression (calm)

4 Strain-relaxation or tension-relief
.53 Strength, intensity or vividness
.54 Rithm and duration

•55 Content

.7 Pathology

.8 Mesurements

158 Conation and movement Instincts Ap
petites Motor functions

Action. Drives

.1 Conation and feeling

.12 Hedonic view: feeling precedes conation

. 1 3 Hormic " : conation " feeling

.2 Physiology of movement

.22 Organs

.23 Functional laws

.232 Dynamogenesis

2 Law of diffusion

3 " " inhibition

4 " " specific motricity
.3 Types of movement

.4 Automatic or involuntary movements

.42 Innate

.422 Tropisms

.423 Reflexes

Conditiond reflexes, etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

158.424 Instincts

1 Theories of instinct

1 1 Philosofic

12 Theologic

13 Mechanistic

14 Hormic

2 Laws of instinct

22 Law of individualization of instincts

23 " " transitoriness " "

24 " " survival " "

25 " " convergence " tendencies

26 " " inhibition " "

3 Physiology of instincts

4 Appetites and impulses, tendencies, dispositions,
desires

41 Purpose or basis

42 Form

43 Degree or intensity

5 Varieties

Arrange alfabcticly. Combativness, imitation, mating, sociability
etc. For play see 790.1

7 Pathology

8 Mesurements of instinct
.43 Acquired Habits

.432 Physiology of habit Law of habit

.433 Motor lerning Acquirement of skil

3 Methods

32 Repetition Exercise Dril Practis

33 Neural association Ligation (dynamic association)

4 Results

42 Simplification of movements

422 Emfasis and fixation of useful or necessary movements

423 Elimination and inhibition of useless or unnecessary
movements

43 Diminution of conscious attention

.434 Forms of habituation

2 Central

3 Contributory

4 Independent or bifurcate
.435 Right- and left-handedness
• 437 Pathology

.438 Mesurements of habit

PHILOSOFY

158.5

•57
.58

•7

.72

.721
.722

•723
.724

•725
•73
.731
.732
•733
•734
•735

•74
.741

•742

•743
•744

•77
.78
.8

.82

•83
.84

Voluntary or consciously controld movements

Pathology
Mesurements
Work and fatigue

Work or fatigue curv

Initial spurt
Warming up

Plateaus Breathing places

Decline

End spurt

Factors affecting efficiency

•736
•737
.738
•739

•745
.746

•747

Food and fasting
Loss of sleep
Climatic conditions
Other

Interference
Refractory period
Diurnal variations

Rest periods

Change of work

Distractions

Incentivs

Drugs
Elements in fatigue

Metabolic fatigue

Transferd metabolic

fatigue

Fatigue sensations

Pathology
Mesurements
Special motor functions
Locomotion

Vocal expression

Speech, singing, whistling etc; dumness. Prefer 401 Philology for
psychology of language, 784.001 Vocal music

Grafic expression

372.52 Drawing

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

159 Wil Volition

.01 General theory

.016 Miscellaneous theories

2 Intellectualistic

3 Absolute

4 Heterogenic

42 Associationist

43 Genetic or evolutionary

44 Physiologic

5 Emotional or affectiv
.1 Freedom of wil

. 1 2 Elements of free action

.122 Alternativ

.123 Deliberation

.124 Choice Decision Resolv

2 Effortless

2 2 Reasonable

23 Accidental

232 Determine! from without

233 " " within; explosiv

24 Resulting from change of mood

3 Effortful Resolute Obstructed

power

. 1 3 Responsibility
. 1 4 Determination
.2 Voluntary human action

.22 Types
.222 Ideomotor
.223 Deliberate

.23 Conditions of execution
.232 Kinesthetic ideas

2 Resident

3 Remote

.233 Feeling of innervation

.24 Training of wil Mental self disciplin

Initiativ, effort and accomplishment, self direction, self control

.3 Habitudes Routines Accommodation and

.4 Intentions Motivs Desires

Rationalization

.7 Pathology
.8 Mesurements

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

160 Logic Dialectics

See also 153.6 Reasoning power. For logic of chance, see 519 Probabilities

161 Inductiv

162 Deductiv

163 Assent Faith

164 Symbolic Algebraic

Logical machines

Logical topics

165 Sources of error Fallacies

166 Syllogism Enthymeme

167 Hypotheses

168 Argument and persuasion

169 Analogy Correspondence

170 Ethics: theoretic and applied

Many topics in applied ethics occur also in law, specially in 343 Criminal law

.1 .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals

.6 Societies; Society for ethical culture .7 Study and teaching .8 Polygrafy

.9 History

171 Theories Philosofy of ethics

Theories of the basis of morality

.1 Authority Will of God Christian

For rules of Christian conduct see 241

.2 Intuition Moral sentiment

.3 Perfection

.4 Happiness Hedonism

.5 Utilitarianism

.6 Conscience Casuistry

.7 Evolutionary or educational

.8 Altruism

.9 Egoism

1 72 State ethics

.1 Individuals and the state Duties of citizens Patriotism

.2 Duties of public offisers Official corruption
.3 Relations to church

Duty of etate as to Eupport and protection of church

4 International ethics Peace and war

PHILOSOFV

173 Family ethics

.1 Marriage and divorce s*e a uo 347.6 FamUy i*w

.2 Polygamy and monogamy

.3 Duties of husbands and wives

.4 Infanticide

.5 Duties of parents

.6 Duties of children

,7 Home life

.9

.1 Clergy

.2 Physicians

.3 Lawyers

.5 Speculation Mammonism A vans

.6 Gambling Lotteries

.7 Honor, honesty Dishonesty

Compact, promis; chicanery trickery

.8 Employers and employd
•9

175 Ethics of amusements f<* amusement.. ^ 70 o

.1 Public shows and diversions Rinks, circuses, etc.

.2 Theater Opera Private theatricals

.3 Dancing Balls Round dances

.4 Games of skill: billiards, chess, etc.

.5 Games of chance: cards, dice, etc.

.6 Prize fighting Animal fighting : bull, dog, cock, etc.

.7 Racing: horse, boat, pedestrian, wheel, etc.

.9 Betting Poolselling see 174.6

176 Sexual ethics

.1 Chastity

.3 Continence

.4 Solitary vice

„7 Immoral art

.8 Immoral literature

•9

DECIMAL Cl-ASIFI CATION

177 Social ethics

.1 Curtesy

.2 Conversation Gossip

3 Truth Slander Flatttry
.4 Dress Display Sumptuary legislation
.5 Caste Class feeling Welth and rank

.6 Friendship Courtship Coquetry

.7 Philanthropy Humanity

.8 Solitude vs social obligations
•9

(78 Temperance Stimulants and narcotics

May be divided by form .oi-.oo; sec Index table 2, following Relativ index

Sec also 132.72 Dipsomania, 331.84 Laboring

classes, 613.3 Beverages, 613.8 Nervous system

.1 Use of intoxicating drinks Beer drinking Medicinal use

.2 Total abstinence vs temperance

.3 Social drinking Wine at table Treating

.5 Prohibition

.6 Inebriates

Discussion, reformation. For reformatories and inebriate asylums Bee 362.13

.7 Tobacco

.8 Opium Hashish Chloral Ether and other drugs
.9 Gluttony and other intemperance

179 Other ethical topics

.1 Morals of the press Newspapers

.2 Cruelty

Societies for preventing cruelty to children and also general humane societies
covering work for both children and animals. See also 173 .4 Infanticide; 331.3
Labor of children

.3 Cruelty to animals

.4 Vivisection #

.5 Oaths

.6 Heroism Bravery Cowardis
.7 Life Dueling Suicide

.8 Pride Covetousness Envy Anger Sloth Jelousy Hate
and other vices

.9 Humility Liberality Gentleness Patience Diligence
Charity Modesty, and other virtues

PHILOSOFY

180 Ancient and Oriental philosofers

181 Oriental philosofers

.1 Chinese : Confucius, Mencius

.2 Egyptian

•3 Jewish: kabala; Philo Judaeus, Maimonides

.4 Indian: gymnosophists

.5 Persian Sufism

.6 Chaldaean

.7 Sabeism

.8 Phenician

.9 Syrian

182 Early Greek philosofers

.1 Ionic: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes

Materialistic. Things are as they seem

.2 Italic or Pythagorean Half idealistic

.3 Eleatic : Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus

Idealistic. Existence denied. Thought is the only reality

.4 Heraclitus

.5 Empedocles

.6 Atomistic

.7 Democritus

.8 Anaxagoras

.9 Other early Greek

183 Sophistic and Socratic philosofers

.1 Sophistic: Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias

.2 Socrates

.3 Socratic

.4 Cynic: Antisthenes, Diogenes, Crates, etc.

.5 Cyrenaic : Aristippus, Hegesias, etc.

.6 Megaric : Euclid, Eubulides, Diodorus, etc.

.7 Elian and Eretrian: Phedo, Menedemus, etc.

.1 Plato

Class his works preferably in 888.4, but discussion of his philosofy here

.2 Speusippus

.3 Xenocrates

185 Aristotelian Peripatetic Lyceum

.1 Aristotle

Class his works preferably in 888.5. but discussion of his philosofy here

.2 Theophrastus

.3 Eudemus

.4 Strato

DECIMAL CI.ASIFICATION

1 86 Pyrrhonist New Platonist

.1 Pyrrhonism Skepticism Pyrrho, Timon

See 888.8 Plutarch's works

.3 Eclecticism : Cicero See 875 4

.4 Alexandrian, Neo-Platonic: Philo of Larissa, Plotinus, Pro-

ClUS, Porphyry, IamblkhUS See 239.4 Apologetics; 2 7 J. I Heresies

188 Stoic

.1 Zeno

.2 Cleanthes

.3 Chrysippus

.4 Panaetius

.5 Posidonius

.6 Seneca See 878.5; 873.6

.7 Epictetus

.8 Marcus Aurelius

189 Early Christian and medieval philosofers

.1 Gnosticism See 273.1 Basilides, Marclon. See 273-2 Manichelsm

.2 Patristic : Tertullian, Augustine, Clement, Origen
.3 Arabian: Avicenna, Averroes
.4 Scholastic : Scotus, Aquinas, Anselm, Abelard
.5 Mystic : Reuchlin, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, Servetus,
Bbhme

190 Modern philosofers

See also 921. 1 to 921.8 Biografy •>( philosofy, or lives may be put here with works,
with references only under 920 Biografy. Philosofic works are put here, not under
the School or System to which the author may be thought to belong. See note
under 140

1 9 I American and Canadian philosofers

.1

Jonathan Edwards

1703-58

.2

Orestes A Brownson

1803-76

•3

Ralph Waldo Emerson

1803-82

•4

Laurens P Hickock

1798-1888

•5

James McCosh

1811-94

.6

Noah Porter

1811-92

•7

Francis Bowen

1811-90

.8

William Torrey Harris

1835-1000

•9

Other American philosofic writers

See 814.36

PHILOSOFY

192 British philosofers

English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh

193

194

.1

Bacon

1561-1626

See 144 Empiricism

.2

Locke

1 63 2-1 704

See 145 Sensationalism

•3

Berkeley

1685-1753

See 141 Idealism

•4

Hume

1711-76

See 824.64 English essays

•5

Reid

1710-96

See 143 Intuitionalism

.6

Dugald Stewart

1753-1828

•7

John Stuart Mill

1806-73

.8

Spencer

1820-1903

•9

Other British philosofic

writers

German and Austrian philosofers

.1

Leibnitz

1 646-1 71 6

.2

Kant

1724-1804

See 142 Critical philosofy

•3

Fichte

1762-1814

See 141 Idealism

•4

Schelling

1775-1854

•5

Hegel

1770-1831

.6

Schleiermacher

1768-1834

•7

Schopenhauer

1 788-1 860

See 149.6 Pessimism

.8

Lotze

18 1 7-8 1

•9

Other German philosofic writers

French philosofers

.1

Descartes

1 596-1 650

"See 144 Empiricism

.2

Malebranche

1638-1715

•3

Condillac

1715-80

•4

Rousseau

1712-78

•5

Diderot

1713-84

.6

Lamennais

1782-1854

•7

Cousin

1792-1867

See 148 Eclecticism

.8

Comte

1798-1857

See 146 Positivism

•9

Other French philosofic writers

199

195-198 may be divided like 945-948; e.g. 196.9 Portuguese
philosofers, 198. 5 Swedish

Other modern philosofers

Divided like 940-999, except for those specially provided for in 191-198 and for
modern Oriental philosofers (181); e.g. 199-438 Polish philosofers, 199.492 Dutch,
199.85 Peruvian

The heds of 180-199 are for discussions of the systems of these men and for
their philosofic " works not clearly belonging elsewhere, not for all their works.
Mill's Logic is 160 not 192.7, but his complete works bound together are
192.7. Plato and Aristotle have individual numbers, 888.4 and .5, where
their works are more useful than in 184-S because of their classic prominence

^Religion

200 Religion General works

201 Philosofy, theories, methods

202 Compends, outlines, systems

203 Dictionaries, cyclopedias

205 Periodicals, magazines, reviews

206 Societies: transactions, reports, etc.

General conferences. Societies whose work is 'argely done by pajd offisers, most
members merely contributing money; e. g. Pan-evangelical alliance, Bible and tract
societies. Put history, reports, etc. here, but their publications of course go with
subject

207 Education: theologic seminaries, training

schools Divided like 940-999

208 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc.

Many collections go under a more specific hed; e. g. 240

209 History of religion

Christian religion, and 274-279 for Christian antiquities of special countries.

210 Natural theology

Concerns evidence in nature exclusiv of revelation, also Christian or 6keptic discussion
of specific topics (211-214, 216-218). For general defense of Christian theology, see

2J9 Apologetics, subdivided according to kind of criticism

211 Deism Atheism Theism

Skepticism. Infidelity. Rationalism, etc.

Atheism denies existence of God. Deism accepts existence, but denies revelation
and rejects Christianity. Theism believes in a god supcrnaturally reveald, e. g.
Judaism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, etc. Arguments from nature in 6upport ol

any of these views go here

See also 231 Christian theism; 239 Apologetics; 273.8 Agnostic heresy; 149-7 Agnos-
ticism

212 Pantheism Theosofy See 147 Pantheism; 129.S Origin of soul

213 Creation See 113 Cosmology Evolution See S7S Science

metaphysics, 113 Cosmology; and pure science, 575 Evolution

214 Providence s«e a3 i. s Doctrim Theodicy S^ji^J

Fatalism

RELIGION

215 Religion and science s ee 2 39 .8 A P oiogeti«

Antagonism or reconciliation between science and Bible religion. Pro and con
arguments by scientists. Bridgewaler treatises. For creation, see 213

216 Good Evil Depravity See 149.6 Pessimism; 233.2 Sin

217 Worship Prayer

Tests of efficacy of prayer: prayer gage. See also 264.1 Prayer; 248 Personal religion

218 Future life Immortality Eternity

See 237 Future state; 128 The soul

220 Bible General works

For similar works limited to Old or New Testament, or individual books, 6ce
specific hed below

•i Canon Inspiration Authorship Profecy

.2 Concordances Analyses

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

.4 Original texts and early versions Codices

Heds for old and new testaments are given, as they are also used for 221 and
22s

.42 Chaldee
.43 Syriac
.44 Hebrew
.45 Samaritan

.46 Other Semitic: Ethiopic, Arabic, etc.

.47 Latin, Itala, Vulgate

.48 Greek, Septuagint Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion

Hexapla

.49 Other early versions: Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, etc.

220.4 and 220.5 are pure texts. A Hebrew Bible with commentary goes In

220.7 with reference from 220.44
• 5 Versions Of Bible Polyglots Divide by languages, like 400

These are translations from the original Hebrew and Greek. Translations from
other early texts go with them in 220.4; e. g. an English translation of the Syriac
goes in 220.43

.6 Hermeneutics Exegesis Symbolism Typology
.7 Commentaries on whole Bible, and annotated editions

For notes, etc. on portions of the Bible, see the most specific hed in 221-229

.8 Special topics

Divided like general Classification; e. g. natural science of the Bible in 220.8s

.9 Biblical geografy and history

.91 Biblical geografy, description, etc.

See 915.69, 9I3.33 Palestine

.92 Scriptural biografy

.93 Antiquities, archeology

.94 Chronology
.95 History

See 933 Jews

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

221 Old Testament: texts, introductions, etc.

Divided like 220; e. g. 221.7 Commentaries on Old Testament

222 Historical books

.1

Pentateuch

.11

Genesis

.12

Exodus

•13

Leviticus

.14

Numbers

•15

Deuteronomy

.16

Decalog

.2

Joshua

•3

Judges and Ruth

4

Samuel

•5

Kings

.6

Chronicles

•7

Ezra

.8

Nehemiah

•9

Esther

223 Poetic books

.1 Job

.2 Psalms

.3 Authorship and chronology

.4 Special groups

Messianic; Greater Hallel; Lesser Hallel; Vesper psalms; Penitential, 6, 32,
38, si, 102, 130, 143; Hebraic five books. Psalms I-4XJ 42-72; 73-89; 90-106;
107-150

.5 Liturgic use by Christians Metrical versions

See 264.038 Anglican psalter; 24s Hymnology

.6 Commentaries on psalms

.7 Proverbs

.8 Ecclesiastes

.9 Song of Solomon, or Canticles

224 Profetic books

.1

Isaiah

.2

Jeremiah

•3

Lamentations

•4

Ezekiel

•5

Daniel

.6

Hosea

•7

Joel

.8

Amos

RELIGION

224.9 Other minor prophets

.92 Jonah

.93 Micah

.94 Nahum

.95 Habakkuk

.96 Zephaniah

.97 Haggai

.98 Zechariah

.99 Malachi

225 New Testament: texts, introductions, etc.

Divided like 230

226 Gospels and Acts

.1 Harmonies

.2 Matthew

.3 Mark

.4 Luke

•5 John

.6 Acts of the apostles

.7 Miracles

.8 Parables

.9 Lord's prayer

227 Epistles

.1 Romans

.2 Corinthians j

.3 Corinthians 2

.4 Galatians

.5 Ephesians

.6 Philippians

.7 Colossians

.8 Other Pauline epistlet

.81 Thessalonians 1

.82 Thessalonians 2

.83 Timothy 1

.84 Timothy 2

.85 Titus

.86 Philemon

.87 Hebrews

.9 Catholic epistles

.91 James

.92 Peter 1

.93 Peter 2

.94 John 1

.95 John 2

.96 John 3

.97 Jude

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

228 Apocalypse Revelation

229 Deuterocanonical books Apocryfa

Pseudepigrafa

.1 Esdras 1, 2

.2 Tobit, Judith, Esther

.3 Wisdom

.4 Ecclesiasticus

.5 Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Song of the three children

.6 Story of Susanna, History of Bel and the dragon, Prayer

of Manasses

.7 Maccabees I, 2, 3, 4

.8 Pseudo gospels

.9 Other pseudepigrafa

.9 1 Old Testament

.911 Historical books

.912 Poetic books

.913 Profetic books Jewish apocalypses

Book of Enoch; Assumption of Moses; Epistle of Baruch; Apocalypse of
Baruch; Ascension or vision of Isaiah; 4th book of Esdras; Book of Eldad
and Modad; Apocalypse of Elias; Apocalypse of Zephaniah; Apocalypse

of Daniel

.914 Testaments

Testament of the 12 patriarchs; Testament of Abraham; Testament of Job

.915 Other books by or about the profets

Books of Elias, Jasher, Jesirah, Zorah

.92 Pseudepigrafa of the Acts of the apostles

.93 Pseudepigrafa of the epistles

.94 Pseudepigrafa of New Testament apocalypses

.95 Other recently discovered pseudepigrafa
.951 Sayings of Jesus

230 Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology

General doctrinal works may be subdivided by churches like 280-289. See also 252.3
Clas here polemics either offensiv or defensiv, when distinctly doctrinal; but clas
in 280 history of a sect, even if largely controversial and of a limited period, Clas
controversy about a special doctrin with its subject; e.g. controversy on the atone-
ment 232.3

231 God Unity Trinity

.1 God the Father, Creator

.2 God the Son, Redeemer

Second person of the Trinity, irrespcctiv of his appearance on earth as the
historic Christ

.3 God the Holy Ghost, Giver of Life, Sanctifier

.4 Divine attributes: omniscience, omnipresence, omnipo-

tence

.6 Divine love and wisdom

RELIGION

231.7 Divine law Government of God

.73 Miracles

Supernatural events. Wonders. Thaumaturgy. The miracle as an argu-
ment of faith; belief in miracles. Bible miracles and post-Bible miracles.
Miraculous places. Miraculous objects: relics, statues, images. Miraculous
cures. Stigmata

.74 Revelation, vision and appearing of God

.8 Theodicy

Vindication of God's justis in permitting evil. See also Natural theology, a 14

•9

232 Christology

.1 Incarnation Messiah

.11 Messiah according to the Bible

.12 Messianic profesies

.121 Protevangelium Promis to Adam of a redeemer

.122 Promises to the patriarchs

.123 Profesy of Jacob

.124 Promises to David

.125 Profesies in Psalms

.126 Profesy of Isaiah

.127 " " Daniel

.128 Other profesies: Zechariah, Jeremiah etc.

.129 Apocryfal profesies

.13 Waiting for Messiah

.2 Logos, the Word of God

.3 Atonement

.4 Sacrifice

.5 Resurrection

.7 Judgment

.8 Divine humanity

. Divinity of the man Jesus, pro and con

.9 Lives of Christ

General biografies of Christ: His person, teaching, worka, influence

.91 Annunciation

.92 Infancy

.921 Nativity

.923 The 3 wize men Epiphany

.924 Circumcision

.925 Massacre of innocents

.926 Flight into Egypt

.927 Retired life in Nazareth

.928 Presentation in temple

.929 Jesus among the doctors

.93 Holy family

.931 Mary

.932 Joseph

.933 Parents of Mary : Joachim, Anne

.94 John the Baptist, forerunner of Christ

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

232.95 Public life of Christ

.951 Baptism

.952 Temptation

.953 Calling apostles

.956 Transfiguration

.957 Lord's supper

.958 Last words

.96 ^Passion of Christ

.961 Betrayal by Judas

.962 Trial Condemnation

.963 Crucifixion Deth

.964 Burial Laying in grave

966 Relics of passion

.967 Descent into hell

.97 Resurrection and ascension

.971 Appearances of Christ

.972 Ascension

.98 Agrapha

Christ's words not contained in Gospels

.99 Legendary, apocryfal and imaginativ, accounts of Christ

.991 Poetry .992 Drama .993 Fiction

233 Man

.1 Origin Fall

.12 Primitiv state of innocence Elevation to supernatural

order Theory of supernatural and of state of pure

nature

.14 Fall Nature of original sin Its results Transmission

.2 Sin

.21 Mortal and venial sin

.22 Sins against the Holy Ghost

.3 Moral and spiritual heredity

.4 Accountability

.5 Natural and spiritual body

RELrdON

234 Salvation Soteriology

.1 Grace

. 1 1 Actual grace

.111 Nature and form

.112 Necessity

Doctrin of Pelagians, Socinians, Remonstrants and Rationalists; of
Lutherans, Calvinists, De Bay, Janscn and Quesncl

.113 Free grace

114 Distribution of the graces

.115 Relation between grace and free will Premotion Molinism

. 1 2 Sanctifying grace

.123 Nature of sanctifying grace

.13 Merit

.14 Innate virtues

.15 Gifts of the Holy Ghost

.2 Faith

.21 Nature

Natural elements and natural motivs in exerciie of faith. Formal motiv:
authority of God

.22 Necessity of grace for belief

.23 Relation between faith and science, revelation and reason

.24 Rule of faith Test of truth in theology

.25 Reveald mysteries in general

.26 Religious doubt

.3 Redemption

.4 Regeneration

.5 Repentance

.6 Obedience

.7 Justification

.8 Sanctification

.9 Predestination and freewill Seeeiso 233.7; 113; 150

235 Angels Devils Satan

236 Eschatology Last things

.1 Deth

.2

.3 Millennium

.5 Purgatory

,j Limbo Limbus infantum

.8 Resurrection

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Eternity
Immortality

Conditional immortality
Heven

Hell Gehenna
Retribution Future punishment

Creeds Confessions Covenants Catechisms

Divided more closely if wisht like 280-289; e. g. 238.19 Greek church

Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian creeds
Creed of Pius 4 (Trent) and later Roman

Continental protestant Lutheran Calvinist Dort
Westminster Saybrook Cong'l Cambridge Savoy

.6- 9 Of Other SectS Divided like 286-289

239 Polemic theology Apologetics Evidences
of Christianity

If preferd, courses of apologetic lectures may be kept together; e. g. 239-01 Bamp-
ton; .02 Boyle; .03 Hulscan; .04 Bohlen; .05 Paddock; .08 Miscellaneous. More
usefully each book is clast under the most specific hed that will contain it
See also natural theology 211-218 and doctrins 231-237 for discussion of separate
topics

.1 Apostolic age

.2 Against the Jews

.3 Against the heathen

.4 Against the NeO-PlatOniStS See 2731 Gnostic heresy

.5 Against the English and Scotch deists See2n Deism
.6 Against the French encyclopedists
•7 Against the rationalists

See 211 Natural theology; 273 8 Agnostic heresy; 149-7 Agnosticism
.8 Against the Scientists For nonchristian view, see 21\$

.9 Other special denials

237
.1
.2
•3
•4
•5
.6

•7
238

.1
.2
•3
•4
•5

RELIGION

240 Devotional Practical

241 Didactic

Specifying the Christian's duty to <lo and to avoid. For Catechisms see JjS

242 Meditativ, contemplativ

.1 Thomas a Kempis

243 Hortatory, evangelistic

Urging sinners to Christian repentance

244 Miscellany: religious novels, Sunday school

books, allegories, satires, etc.

But clas Bunyan in 823.42 because of his literary prominence

245 Hymnology Religious poetry

Hymns without music. For hymns with music 9ee 783.9

Divided by languages, like 400. and then, after o. by churches, like 280, if denomi-
nation is clearly markt

246 Ecclesiology Symbolism Religious art

246-7 cover religious bearings. For art side see 704.948

.1 Byzantine and Gothic ecclesiology

See 723 Medieval architecture; 726 Religious architecture

.2 Primitiv church and heathen art

.3 Images in churches Iconoclasts

.4 Protestantism and religious art

.5 Emblematic and cryptografic art : catacomb symbols

.6 Liturgic symbolism: altar, colors, lights

.7 Evangelistic use of music and art, pictorial and plastic:
Delia Robbias

.8 Eucharistic music : Ambrose, Gregory the Great Later

•9

247 Sacred furniture Vestments Vessels Orna-

ments, etc.

.1 Font Baptistery Lectern Pulpit
.2 Tabernacle Rood screen Reredos
.3 Sculpture and mortuary design

See 71S Monuments; 726. S Mortuary bildings; 730 Sculpture

.4 Illumination Mosaics Enamels Staind glass

.6 Pallium Miter Crozier Ring
.7 Vestments and altar cloths

.9 Ornaments, etc : crucifix, banners, thurible, incense

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

248 Personal religion Asceticism

249 Family devotions see 2 e 4 pomc worship

250 Homiletic Pastoral Parochial

251 Homiletics Preaching s C r 2 6 4 6 Pubuc worship

Divided like 252, for matter about special kinds of sermons

252 Sermons

When too varied for any of the subheds . I-.9. may be divided with .0 by churches
and sects, like 280; e. g. protestant episcopal sermons 252.03, but a collection of
bishop's addresses 252 . 1, Sermons on specific topics ar more useful, like other
pamflets, clast with the topics, e. g. a sermon on family devotions is 249, not 252.4;
on strikes, 331 892. Tho the 9 hejs below ar for collections and cross references,
they may be used for separate sermons if preferd

.1 Episcopal charges Pastorals
.2 Controversial Polemic

.4 Practical Devotional

.6 Political Public occasions and duties

Thanksgiving and Fast day

.7 Consecration Ordination Installation

.8 Expository

.9 Memorial Obituary Biografic Historical

Memorial of a special church goes with that church in 280. See also 920 Biografy

253 Pastoral life and duties Celibacy

254 Church finance Cleric support

255 Brotherhoods Sisterhoods

In the parish. For Monastic orders, see 271

256 Societies for parish work: gilds, sodalities

Local societies. Discussion of desirability of such work. For general societies
see 206 and 267

257 Parish educational work

258 Parish welfare work

Work for sick, fallen, afflicted etc. See also 265.8 Ministry of sick; 176.5 Social

evil

259 Other ministrations and work

RELIGION

260 Christian church: institutions and

work

261 The church

Its influence on morals, civilization, etc. Relation to social questions, laboring
classes, etc.

.1

.2

.3 Church vs barbarism

.4 Church and morals

.6 Church and civilization

.7 Church and civil government

See 172.3 State ethics; 322 Church and state
Their relations: religious liberty; tolerant e and intolerance; state religion;
patronage of church by civil government, suppression; disestablishment; union
of church and state; concordat; etc.

.73 Power of church over temporal power of princes Theocracy

.75 The church and modern freedom

Papal syllabus of Pius 10

.8 National churches vs organic unity

•9

262 Ecclesiastic polity

.1 Ministry

. 1 1 Apostolic succession

.12 Episcopate

. 1 3 Papacy Primacy Papal supremacy

.131 Caracteristics of the papacy

Primacy of see of St Peter and pontifical infallibility

.132 Temporal power of pope Pontifical states

.135 Conclave Election of pope

,136 Organization of the pontifical curia

.14 Priest Presbyter Minister Lay ministry

.15 Deacon Deaconess Evangelist

.16 Orders Ordination See 265.4 Sacraments; 252.7 Sermons

.17 Episcopal
.18 Presbyterian
. 1 9 Congregational

.2 Parish Congregation See 250 'or Parochial work

.3 See Diocese Cathedral system

.4 Council Synod Presbytery Congregation Convention

Polity only, here. Proceedings go with churches, 281-0

.41 National

.6 Canons Decrees

.8 Authority Church and ministerial Private judgment

.9 Disciplin Courts Trials For church law see 348

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

263 Sabbath Lord's day Sunday

.1 Hebraic sabbath

.2 Modern sabbath Seventh day

.3 Lord's day Christian Sunday

.4 Sunday observance

.5 Work

.6 Amusement

.8 Sunday laws
•9

264 Public worship Divine servis Ritual

Liturgy

ar divided with .0 by churches like 280; e. g. Roman catholic prayer book
264 02 . Under various churches the servises may be further divided, as e. g.

.03 Anglican and American P. E. ritual

.032 Lectionary and rubrics

.033 Morning prayer Litany

.034 Evening prayer Vespers Compline

.036 Collects, epistles and gospels

.038 Psalter and Other See 223.5 Psalms; 24s Hymnology

.039 History of successiv prayerbooks

.1 Prayer Extempore Liturgic

.2 Music Singing Instrumental Praise meeting

.5 Confessions of faith Creeds s ee also 238 Creeds

.6 Sermons Exhortations Instructions

.7 Prayer and conference meetings

.8 Clas and covenant meetings Love feasts

265 Sacraments Ordinances

.1 Baptism

.2 Confirmation Church fellowship

.3 Eucharist Holy communion Sacrifice

.6 Penance Confession Absolution

.62 Confession

RELIGION

265.63 Satisfaction

.64 Absolution

.65 Censures: excommunication, suspension, interdiction

.66 Indulgences

.67 Ancient public penance

.68 Reconciliation of heretics

.69 Ministration of the sacrament

.7 Extreme unction Viaticum

.8 Ministry of sick and ded: faith cure, healing, burial

•9 Consecration Dedication See 262.16 Ordination; 252.7 Sermons

266 Missions: home and foren

Subdivided by churches, like 280. See also 269 Parish missions; 377.6 Missionary
schools

Missions in special countries or places covering the work of several sects go under
the geograficly divided Religious history 274-279. The mission of a single sect in a
special country or place may, according to preference, be clast with Missions in
266, subdivided by sect, or with Religious history 274-279

267 Associations

General societies demanding of members activ personal work. For local societies,
see 256. For Bible, tract, and similar general societies see 206

.1 Religious societies of both men and women

.11 U. S. Christian commission

. 1 s Salvation army

.18 Denominational

Divided like 280; e.g. 267.186 Baptist adult union

.2 Religious societies of men

For Y. M. C. A. see 267 .3 ; missionary societies, 266; ministerial education societies
207; Bible societies, 206

.21 17th century or earlier

.22 1 8th century

.23 19th century or later; inter- and undenominational

.231 In educational institutions

Divided like 940-999. If preferd, cancel .231 and put all together In .234-9
For work of Y. M. C. A. see 267.361

.232 Nasmith societies

.233 Young men's Christian unions; i. e. not "evangelic,"

etc.

. 2 3 4-. 239 Others Divided like 940-999

.24 19th century or later; denominational

.241 In educational institutions

Divided like 282-289. If preferd, cancel .241 and put all together in
.242-9. For work of Y. M. C. A. Bee 267.361
.242— .249 Others Divided like 282-289

.3 Young Men's Christian associations

Following subdivisions may also be applied to 267.432 Women's
and 267.5 Young women's Christian associations
.31 General questions

Objects, field, extension. Relation to church. Methods of
local, state, national, international work. For history, reports,
etc. see 267.39
.32 Buildings

Location, plans, provision for special rooms; lighting, heating,

May be divided by countries like 940-999

DECIMAL CLARIFICATION

267.33 Organization

Incorporation, brandies and suborganizations, managers,
trustees, standing committees, membership, etc.
;34 Salaried officers: Duties, qualifications, training

,341 General secretary and assistants

Including international and state secretaries
.342 Librarian and assistants

For library administration see 025 Library economy, 267.353
Library in Education dept
. 143 Phisical director and assistants

gymnastics
.344 Other salaried officers

.345 Training: Need, methods, demand, supply

.346 Training schools

.347 Apprenticeship training

.348 Institutes .349 Conferences

Methods only; for reports see 267.39
.35 Departments

Organization, committees, work, methods, etc. For similar
aspects of work with boys see 267.357 Boys dept
.351 Business dept .352 Religious dept

.353 Education dept: Including library; for librarian see 267.342

.354 Social dept

.355 Phisical dept

hy^u-ne and gymnastics
.356 Dept of information, relief, etc.

Boarding house, employment, savings, etc. buros; visitation of
sick, aid to destitute, etc.
•357 Boys dept

2-6 may be used like 267.^52-356 for such work in Boys
dept; e.g. 267.3575 Phisical work of Boys dept
.359 Janitor's dept: Including safety and police mesurcs

.36 Work among special classes

Limited to Y.M.C.A. ; for other religious societies of men see 267.2
.361 College and school

.363 Commercial travelers

.364 Foren-speaking

May be divided like 400; e.g. 267.3643 German
.365 Negroes .367 Soldiers

.366 Indians .368 Sailors

.369 Other: police, firemen, fishermen, etc.

.39 History, reports, periodicals, etc.

General and international. For methods see 267.31
•394 _ -399 Special countries divided like 940-999

.4 Religious societies of women

.43 19th century or later; inter- and undenominational

.432 Women's Christian associations

Divided like 267.3. To shorten the number, W may be used for 267.432
thruout; e. g. W I would mean ' Objects, field and extension'

.433 King's daughters

.44 19th century or later; denominational Divided like 282-280

•5 Young Women's Christian associations

Activ membership confined to members of ' evangelic ' churches
Divided like 267.3- 390

To shorten the number Y may be used for 267. Si e. g. Y3, Organization, insted

of 267.53

RELIGION

267.6 ReligiOUS SOCietieS Of yOUng people For Sunday nchooli r.ee 108

.61 Interdenominational and undenominational
.613 Young people's society of Christian endevor

1 Reports, etc.

2 Periodicals

.6 j Denominational Divided like 282-289

.7 Religious societies of boys Not Y. M. c. a. Divided like 267.6

.8 ReligiOUS Societies Of girlS Not Y. W. C. A. Divided like ;6?.6

268 Sunday schools Religious education

. 1 2 Constitution Bylaws

.142 Finances

2 Budget

3 Regular subscriptions Sistematic giving Duplex envelop
sistem

4 Soliciting Collecting
6 Disbursements

.144 Printing

Programs, announcements, school paper, school manual

.145 Publicity

Local prcs, concerts, posters, invitation cards, ' go to Sunday school ' button!

146 Bilding up attendance

Entertainments: concerts, socials, picnics, Christmas tree

.15 Branches Missions

.2 Premises Equipment

. 2 1 Grounds

Site; provision for growth

.22 Bildings

.23 Plan and arrangement of rooms

.232 Study, lecture and assembly rooms

.233 Library and museum

.234 Manual work rooms

• 2 35 Social rooms

Parlors, kitchens, pantries etc.

.236 Gymnasium

.237 Sanitation Lavatories

.239 Accessories

Elevators, lifts, telefones etc.

.24 Furnishing Decorating

.241 Furniture

Blackboards, desks, chairs, benches, sand tables , book cases, gtereooticon*
maps, globes
.245 Decoration

.3 Personnel

.32 Trustees Directors

Body responsible for policy, funds, appointments

332 Pastor Associate pastor

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

368-333 Superintendent Associate or assistant superintendents

2 Relation to pastor

3 « u church aims

4 " " congregation

5 " " school

52 Relation as chief executiv

§3" " to teachers

54 " " pupils

55 " " Sunday school exercizes
.334 Secretarial force

2 Registrar

3 General secretary

4 Report secretary

5 Custodian of supplies

6 Superintendent of absentees
•335 Treasurer

.336 Librarian

For library see 027.83: ,

•337 Chorister

For music see 783.7

.338 Director of hand work

.339 Other

.34 Committees

Publicity, reception, welcome, evangelism and home cooperation, social lite

and recreation, special days, music, library

37 Teachers

.371 Qualifications Personality

.372 Need of training ; kind, amount

-373 Examination Certificates

.374 Appointment Organization of teaching force

.376 Promotion Salary Amount of servis

.4 School organization

.42 Membership

.422 Extension department

District plan, permanent visitini; committee, house to house visiting

.423 Welcome committee at church servises

.424 Securing new scholars

Members of school bring new scholars

.43 Teaching departments

•432 Children's division

Cradle roll, birth 3 yrs; beginners dep't, 4-5 yrs; primary, 6-8 yrs; junior,
9-1 a yrs

.433 Young people's division

Intermediate dep t. 13-14 yrs; senior, 15-17 yrs; young people's, 18-24 yrs

Men's dep't; women's dep't; parents training clas

.435 Home departments

Domestics, invalids etc.: i. e. those carrying on regular Sunday school

course but prevented from attending

.436 Correspondence courses

•437 Special classes

Army, navy, special types, races, etc.

.45 Scholarship records Marking sistem

.46 Examinations Promotions

•47 Certificates Diplomas

RELIGION

268.48 Outside activities

^ For discussions of relation of Sunday school to church, community, weekday

schools, fisical activities, clubs etc.

.5 Disciplin Incentivs

. 5 1 Rules

.52 Attendance Tardiness Absence

^ Help of home influence; invitations and reports to parents. Follow-up cardt,

** Attendance charts

.53 Rewards Inducements

Prizes, decorations. Printed honor roll. Cards to be redecmd with reward.
Special holiday or summer plans

.54 Punishment Penalties

.6 Sistems Methods of instruction and study

.61 Lesson sistems

.62 Textbook method Graded subject matter

.63 Lecture method

.635 Visual instruction

2 Stereopticon lantern and slides

3 Motion pictures: travel, missions

4 Pictures

5 Charts

6 Maps

7 Blackboard
.64 Inductiv method

.65 Question and anser method Reviews

.66 Heuristic or source method

Use of Bible, catechism, church doctrin

.67 Dramatic interpretation of Biblical events

See also 244 Religious miscellany; 702. 1 Passion plays; 822.1 Erly English drama

.68 Manual work

.682 Note-book work

Copying or original; titles or verses describing pictures; written ansers to
questions; historical outlines; thesis work

.683 Geografy work

Maps: line work, map marking, modeling in clay and pulp

.684 Illustrativ work

Picture books; simbolic and descriptiv drawings; sand-table picture work;
constructing models of life and customs

.635 Decorativ work

Designing, lettering, illuminating

.6?7 Museum work

Collecting and constructing illustrativ material

.69 Other

.7 Servises

. 7 2 Order of servises

.73 Music and worship

.75 Rallies

Rally day, children's day, parents' day

.76 Anniversaries Special days and festivals

Christmas, Lent, Easter, Thanksgiving

.77 Vacations

.8 Sunday schools of various denominations

Subdivided like 280

269 Revivals Retreats Parish missions

DECIMAL CLASirlCATIOH

270 General history of Christian church

Ancient period: to conversion of Germans

See 281.1-2111.4, for collected works of early theologic writers, etc. 270 is for religious

history of these periods

For religious history of special countries, cither general or for special periods, see country
divisions, 274-270; e. g. English reformation, 274.2

.1 Apostolic Nativity to Constantine

.2 Period of ecumenic councils Centralization 325-787

The Greek church acknowledges these 7 councils as really Ecumenic. Anglicans

.21

First of Nice A.

D. 325

.22

First of Constantinople

381

•23

First of Ephesus

43i

.24

Chalcedon

45i

•25

Second of Constantinople

553

.26

Third of Constantinople

680-81

•27

Second of Nice

787

Medieval period: Charlemagne to Luther
270.3 Charlemagne Papacy vs empire 787-1054

Church planted among the Germans. Feudalism. Great schism, last is west,
I0S4

.4 Hildebrand Roman supremacy 1054-1200

Temporal power. Scholasticism. First 3 crusades

.5 Later medieval Renaissance 1200-15 17

Innocent 3. Papal schism. Avignon. Nominalism vs realism. Greek church
under Moslems. Education. Arts. Inventions Pre-reformation

Modern period: Reformation to present
.6 Reformation Counter reformation 1517-1648

Council of Trent, A. D. 1545-63. Diet of Augsburg. Luther. Melancthon.
In England, etc. 274.2

.7 Peace of Westphalia to French revolution 1648- 1789

Union of church and state. Deism. Materialism

.8 Modern Rationalistic 1789-

Holy alliance. Greek church in Russia. Atheism. Pantheism. Protestant

missions

271 Religious orders

Including monasticism, monastic foundations, monasteries

.1 Benedictines founded 529

.12 Cistercians " 1098

.125 Trappists " 1150

.13 Olivetans

.2 Dominicans " 1170

.3 Franciscans " 1182

.3 1 Original order, not divided

.32 Conventuals

RELIGION

271.33 Observantines
.34 Recollcts
.35 Alcantarines
.36 Capuchins founded 1525

.4 Augustinians " 1256

.5 Jesuits " 1540

.6 Passionists, 1720 Redemptorists, 1732

.7 Lesser Roman orders
.71 Carthusians, founded A. D. 1086

.73 Carmelites 12th century

.75 Sulpicians, 1642

.76 Oblates
.77 Lazarists, 1624

.78 Christian Brothers, 18th century De la Salle

.79 Other lesser Roman orders

.8 Nonroman brotherhoods

Divide like 280 (except 282, which is provided for under 271. 1-. 7)

.9 Sisterhoods

.91 Sisters of Charity Vincent de Paul founded A. D. 1629

.92 Sisters of Mercy Augustinian " " 183 1

.93 Ladies of the Sacred Heart Jesuit " " 1800

,94 Sceurs de bon Secours Nurses

.95 Little Sisters of the Poor

.96 Contemplativ Cloisterd nuns

.97 Other Roman sisterhoods

.971 Carmelites

.972 Second of St Dominic

.973 Franciscans

.974 Ursulines A. D. 1537

.975 Of the Visitation " 1610

.976 Of St Joseph " 1650

.977 Of the Presentation " 1777

.98 Nonroman sisterhoods

Divide like 280 (except 282, which is provided for under 271.91-.97)

.99 Other protestant orders Deaconesses (Kaiserwerth)

272 Persecutions

.1 Apostolic church by imperial Rome ist-4th century
.2 Heretics by Inquisition or Holy Offis Since 1470
.3 Waldenses and Albigenses nth-i2th century

.4 Huguenots French protestants

By Roman church. St Bartholomew, 1572. Edict of Nantes, 1598; revocation
1685

.5 Molinists and Quietists

By Roman catholics. Close of 16th century to destruction of Port Royal, A. D

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

272.6 Marian Anglican reformers by Mary A. D. 1553-58
.7 Elizabethan Later 16th century

Persecution of Roman church by Anglicans

.8 Quakers Baptists Witches Later 17th century

.9 Other persecutions

273 Heresies

For the history of special doctrins see 230-239, Doctrinal theology

.1 Gnostic First 3 centuries

Reaction of pantheism and heathen philosofy on Christianity. See also 189. 1
Gnostic philosofy; 186.4 Neo-Platonism; 239.4 Apologetics

.2 Manichaeism Parsee dualism 3d century

248 Asceticism; 289.8 Shakers, Mystics

,3 Sabellian

That the Trinity is not of persons, but of successiv manifestations. About 23°
A. D.

.4 Arian Denying divinity of Christ 4th century
.5 Pelagian 5th century

Denying original sin and supernatural grace

.6 Antinomian 16th century

Denying force of law, under Gospel dispensation

.7 Molinist and Jansenist Pietists A. D. 1580-1700

Port Royal. Augustine's doctrin of grace vs the Roman doctrin of good works

.8 Agnostic

Denying possibility of revelation. Holding that theology and the supernatural
lie outside the domain of human knowledge. See also 149-7 Philosofy; 211
Atheism; 239 Apologetics

.9 Minor heresies

274-279 General church history by countries

274-279 is divided geograficly like 940-999

280 Christian churches and sects

28 1 . 1 -289.8 may be subdivided where needed like 940-999

281 Primitiv and Oriental churches

.1 Apostolic church, to time of great schism, A. D. 1054

Works of apostolic and Christian fathers here; use 270 for religious history of

.2 Primitiv apostolic, to end of first century

.3 Ante-Nicene, A. D. 100-325 Seeaiso 270.1

.5 Oriental churches

.6 Monophysite Eutychian

.62 Armenian

.63 Jacobite

. 7 Coptic Abyssinian

.8 Nonmonophysite Nestorian

.9 Eastern or Greco-Russian or Holy orthodox church

The great schism, mutual excommunication, A. D. 1054, separates the Catholic
church into Eastern and Western churches, which from this time have separate
hiitoriei

RELIGION

282 Western or Roman catholic church

Divided geograficly like 940-999

283 Anglican and American P. E. church

Divided geograficly, when needed, like 940-999; e. g. the Anglican church in Australia
Is 283.94; in India, 283.54

284 Continental protestant sects Protestantism

. 1 Lutheran

.3 Hussites Anabaptists Leyden See 286.1

.4 Albigenses Waldenses Vaudois see 372.3

■ 5 HugUenOtS See 272.4

.6 Moravian

.7 Scandinavian Swedish

.8 Modern schisms in Catholic church

.81 Old catholic

Here ar clast those denying papal infallibility, or for other cause cut off from
Rome, tho catholic in other respects

.82 Gallican schismatics Constitutional church

.83 Little church of France

Those who do not recognize the concordat (anti-concordataires)

.84 Jansenists

.9 Other

285 Presbyterian Reformd Congregational

Next 2 subdivisions are sectarian, not geografic

.1 Presbyterian church in America

Subdivided geograficly; e. g. 285.173 Presbyterian church in United State*
285.175 Southern presbyterian church

.2 Presbyterian church in Great Britain

.3 Cumberland presbyterian

.4 United presbyterian

.5 Reformd presbyterian

.6 Minor presbyterian sects

.7 Reformd (Dutch) church in America e- g 285.77471, in n. y. dt?

.8 Congregational
.9 Puritanism

286 Baptist Immersionist

.1 Calvinistic or Regular

Including Arminian or general b .ptists, reunited with Calvinistio in 1891

.2 Free wil

.3 Seventh day

4 Old school (Primitiv, Antimission or Hardshel)

.5 Other baptist sects

May be clast if preferd with any of the larger sects which they moit cloiely

resemble or of which they ar offshoots

.6 Disciples (Campbellite or Christian)

.9 Other immersionists

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

287 Methodist

.1 Wesleyan methodist

.2 Calvinistic methodist

.3 Welsh Calvinistic methodist

.4 Primitiv methodist

.5 Primitiv Wesleyan

.6 Methodist episcopal

.7 Methodist protestant

.8 African methodist

.9 Minor methodist sects

288 Unitarian Socinian Antitrinitarian

289 Other Christian sects

.1 Universalist
.2

.3 Mormon

.4 New church or Swedenborgian
.5 Christian science
.6 Quaker Friends Hicksites
.7 Mennonite

.8 Shaker MyStiC For Mystic heresy see J73 »

.9 Other Christian sects

290 Nonchristian religions

Including comparativ religion and general histories of religion where an equal or
minor place is given to Christianity

291 Religious topics of general nature Com-
parativ mythology

Subdivisions given below ar for general works on these topics. Material relating
to a special religion should generally be clast with that religion

.1 General ideas

. 1 2 Religious emotions

Emotions, in psychology

.13 Comparativ mythology

The.myth: its constituent elements, growth and changes in form

.14 Clasification of religions

Monotheistic, polytheistic, mystic, rcveald, etc.

. i s Genealogic connection between religions

.16 Attitude of religions to each other Tolerance

.17 Relations between religion and science, art and morals

.2 Religious doctrins Dogmas Theology

.21 Divinities

Object of religion. Worship of various divinities. Special myths.
Functions of gods. Worlds of gods and spirits.
.311 Animism, spiritism, fetishism, totemism, polydemonism

RELIGION

391.212 Naturism

Adoration of the forces of nature and personified objects and phenomena
Nature myth

1 Mountains and rocks (litholatry)

2 Water (hydrolatry)

3 Plants and trees (dendrolatry)

4 Animals: dog, crocodile, serpent, birds (zoolatry)

5 Atmosferic fenomena: atmosfere, rain, clouds, winds, lightning,
thunder etc. (meteorolatry)

6 Fire (pyrolatry)

7 Celestial bodies: sun, moon, stars etc. (astrolatry)

8 Sky and earth (ouranolatry and chthonism)
.213 Worship of human beings (apotheosis)

Demi-gods, heroes, saints, absolute monarchs

4 Worship of ancestors

Domestic worship, manes, lares, penates

5 Worshio of the ded (necrolatry)
.214 Gods

Personified abstractions and divinities considerd as pure spirit
.215 Hierarchy of gods

Servants and messengers of divinity

.216 Demons and evil spirits

.217 Strife among the gods and between gods and men

.218 Images of divinity Idolatry

.3 Forms of worship Religious practises

Liturgy, etc.

.35 Sacred places

Holy places, altars, temples, pagodas, woods and groves, sacred grottos and
streams, holy cities and villages

.37 Symbolism

General and nonchristian

.6 Religious organization Sacred persons Religious men

.61 Representativs of divinity

Incarnation, priesthood, priests. Ministers of worship and other mediators.
Recruiting of the clergy. Types of priests. Theocracy, hierarchy.
Messiah

.62 Men endowed with supernatural power

Thaumaturgists, sorcerers, magicians, exorcists, charlatans. Relation
between priesthood and sorcery

.63 Divinely inspired men Profets

.64 Interpreters of divinity

Revelation of truth and of divine wil. Sacred writers. Religious law
givers, founders of religions, religious reformers and apostles

.7 Deeds inspired by religious motivs

Religious wars, warlike or peaceful propagandism (see also 172.4 Peace and war,
in ethics). Home and foren missions

.8 Sources of religion

Sacred books; oral traditions; ecclesiastic decisions

292 Greek and Roman religion and mythology

293 Teutonic and Northern religion and my-
thology

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

294 Brahmanism Buddhism

Also religions derived from them. For other Indie religions, let 200.11. See also

891.2 Sanskrit literature; 177.5 Caste

.1 Vedic religion

.2 Prebuddhic Brahmanism

.3 Buddhism

.3 1 Buddhism of the south

.32 Buddhism of the north Lamaism

.4 Jainism Sect of Jainas

.5 Hinduism

Changes introduced into Brahmanism during and after struggle with Buddhism

.55 Various sects of Hinduism

.551 Cakta sect Worship of the Caktis

.552 Brahmo Somaj sect

•553 Sikhism

295 Parseeism Zoroastrianism Mazdaism
Mithraism

For other Iranic religions, see 299.15. See also 891. S2 Zend literature

296 JudaiSITl For other Semitic religions, see 299.2

297 Mohammedanism
298

299 Other nonchristian religions

Subdivided ethnicly like 491-499; e. g. Egyptian religion, 299.31; Afghani religion,
299.158

t

Social Sciences

300 Social sciences Sociology in general

301-309 all hav Sociology in general as their subject, but it is treated in these various
forms. A periodical on Education is 370.5. not 305, which is only for periodicals on
Sociology in general. In Sociology, most works in these forms ar limited to one division;
e. g. to Political economy. Education, Law, etc. All these hav the same subdivision
of General works; i. e. essays on the various divisions ar 310.4, 320.4, 330.4, and so on to
essays on Manners and Customs in general, 390.4. A naught in any clas number shows
the subject to be general, not specific

301 Sociology: philosofy, theories

.1 General conception

Nature and caracter, definition, limits and extent

. 1 5 Social psychology

Individual and group interstimulation, institutions as cultural stimuli, social
136.27 Social influences on mental characteristics, 390 Custom, fashion,
conventionality

.151 Psicologic background

Considerd with relation to social science. Instincts, emotions, intelli-
gence, imitation, suggestion, etc. Divided like 150, e.g. 301.1517 Emotions

.152 Group unity and continuity

2 Group morale

patriotism

3 Group or social cont-rol

Social pressure, control exerted by groups, propaganda; for police

.153 Group activities and changes

2 Conflict

etc. ,

3 Compromize

Modification, accommodation

4 Assimilation

5 Social or institutional progress

Socialization, culturalization. culture, reform, social ideals

6 Disintegration

.154 Public or group opinion

. 1 58 Special groups

2 Crowds Mobs

3 Assemblies

Meetings, committees, audiences, etc.

4 Youth

DECIMAL rj.ASIFICATION

302 Compends, outlines

303 Dictionaries, cyclopedias, etc.

305 Periodicals, magazines, reviews

306 Societies: transactions, reports

307 Study and teaching see ai* 370 Education

308 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc

Put here collected works of Ltatesmen ; e. g. works of Adams, Jefferson, etc.

309 History of social science

.1 Social surveys

Divided like 030-999 and including general works on social conditions in ape 1 il
countries. May, if preferd, be clast in 913-919 or, if strongly historical, in
930-999. For general histories of civilization see 901

310 Statistics

311 Theory, methods Science of statistics

.2 Methods, procedure, technic Preparation of statistics

.21 General questions

.22 Collecting

.23 Analysis Testing Verifying

.24 Arrangement Clasification Tabulation

.25 Correlation

.26 Forms of presentation

Diagrams and cartograms; grafs; frequency tables; index numbers

.3 Organization and direction of official statistics

.39 By country

Subdivided like 930-999

.4 Organization and direction of unofficial statistics

STATISTICS

312 Demografy Population

Distribution and progress of population. General enumeration
and census. Vital statistics (may be clast here or under 614. 1
tion, colonization, 364.42 Crime prevention by control of population

.1 Births and birth rates Natality

616.69 Functional diseases of male generativ organs, 618.17
Gynecology). Limitation of birth rate, Malthusianism, etc.
362.72 Child care)

.2 Deths and deth rates Mortality

Stilbirths (sec also 618.39 Pregnancy) ; infant mortality ; longevity
special causes: disease, accidents, murder, suicide, etc. Mor-
tality and survival tables; determination of mortality rates (see
also 368.31 Life insurance, 519.5 Life contingencies)

.3 Sickness and sick rates Morbidity

.5 Marriages and marriage rates

Celibacy, proportion of unmarrid persons. Separation, divorce

.6 Phisical condition of population

Somatologic statistics: stature, helth, phisical infirmities, etc.

.7 Moral condition of population

.8 Progress of population

Population changes: increase, overpopulation; decrease,
depopulation

.9 Distribution and composition of population

According to origin or nationality, sex, residence, language or
race, age, occupation, social status, education, religion, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

313 Special topics

May be divided like the whole classification. But see note under 314-310 below

'Uzi-^ig General statistics Divided geograficly like 940-999

The statistics of any special matter ar put with the subject, e. g. of Domestic animals
in 636, of Shorthand in 653, of French novels in 843, of Theaters in 792, etc. Statistics
too general to be included in any topic ar divided by countries. Statistics of New
York city would be 317.471. but the statistics of Medidn in New York would be put
with 610 Mcdicin; i. e. the topic outranks the locality

320 Political science

.1 Theory

. 1 1 Origin of the state

.12 Nation and territory

.121 Ethnografic

People of same race comprise the nati n

.124 Geografic

Unity of territory

.126 Expansion Acquisition of terriloi

1 By discovery

3 " occupation and possession

5 " cession Annexation

7 " purchase or exchange
g " conquest or revolution

.127 Alienation of territory

128 Frontiers Boundaries

1 Natural boundaries

a Mountains

4 Rivers

6 Lakes

8 Coast

9 Artificial boundaries

.15 Nature, entity, concept of the state

.151 Juridic theory

.152 Political theory

.153 Social and evolutionary theories

.154 The state as a moral organism

.157 Soverenty

.158 Allegiance Loyalty, etc. Patriotism

.159 National growth and decay

.13 Symbolism, emblems: arms, flag, seal, etc.

Better clast in 929.8 and 929.9 Heraldry

,2 Compends, statecraft

.3 Dictionaries

.4 Essays

.5 Periodicals

.6 Societies

.7 Education

.8 Polygrafy

.9 History of political science, divided like 930-999

321 Form of state

.01 Simple state Soveren state

.02 Mixt state

.021 Federal state Bundestaat Federation

.022 Confederation of states Staatenbund
Union of soveren states Alliance

POLITICAL SCIENCB

321.023 Suzerain states

.025 Semisoveren, dependent and vassal states

.026 Mediatized state

.027 Protected state

Protectorates, spheres of influence
.028 Vassal states

.03 Empire, imperialism

.04 World state

.041 Internationalism
.07 Ideal state Utopias

.09 Change of form of state

.092 Revolution

.094 Coups d'etat

.1 Family Patriarchal age

.2 Tribes Clans Marks Village communities

.3 Feudalism

.4 Democracy Pure; e. g. Athens, town meeting

.5 Aristocracy e. g. Italian republic; medieval German cities

.6 Absolutism Absolute monarchy, dictatorship

.7 Constitutional monarchy

.8 Republic Modern democracy, delegated powers

322 Church and state See aIso v*-*- State ethics ; **-i> The church

Political aspects of combination or separation of state and church affairs

323 Internal relations with groups and individuals

.1 Movement and questions, of nationalities, races and lan-
guages

Divided by country like 930-999; e. g. struggle of nationalities in Austria 333. 1436
For immigrant nationalities in a country see 32s

.2 Political struggles and troubles

.3 Social groups

Classes, orders, estates

.3 1 Nobility, aristocracy ; welthy clas

.32 Middle clas, bourgeoisie

.33 Proletariat, laboring classes, pesantry

.34 Serfs Villenage See 326.3 Serfs and serfdom

.35 Communities

.352 Urban .354 Rural

, Suburban ^ ee a ' so< >30-I Rural life. Clas in 323-354 material

dealing with community life in rural sections, in
630. 1 material dealing with life and interests of in-
dividuals and families

.4 The state and the individual

Natural rights, individual rights, individualism

.41 Equality of individuals, races, etc.

.42 Equality before the law; justis, etc.

.43 Life

.44 Liberty

.441 Freedom of action

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

333.442 Freedom of conscience

.443 " " speech

.444 Academic freedom See 378.121 Freedom of teaching

.445 Freedom of the press

.446 Freedom of drama

.447 " " art

.45 Family

.46 Property

.47 Right of assembly, association

.48 Right of petition

. 49 Limitation and suspension of individual rights and guaranties

.491 Martial law

.492 State of siege

.6 Citizenship

.6l LaWS Divided by country like 030-999 4

.62 Naturalization

.63 Alien races and citizenship

.64 Loss and restoration of citizenship

.65 Duties and obligations of citizens

Scholar as citizen

.67 Rights of aliens

.68 Eligibility to offis

324 Suffrage Elections

.1 Qualifications, conditions and bases

For sex see 324.3 Woman suffrage

. 1 1 Age

.13 Property

Household suffrage

.14 Education Competency Capacity

.15 Nationality Race Religion

.16 Residence, domicil

Length of residence

.162 Voting by soidiers

.164 " " students

.17 - Exclusion from and suspension of suffrage

.171 Incompetency, incapacity

.172 Bankruptcy

.173 Pauperism

.174 Conviction of crime; bribery, selling vote

.177 Government servis

Military servis: soldiers and sailors
Civil servis, police offisers

.178 Other special classes

Students, domestic servants, etc.

.2 Forms of suffrage Systems Voting, etc.

.21 Electoral systems

.211 Universal suffrage

.212 Partial suffrage, limited

,213 , Plural vote

POLITICAL SCIENCE

324.214 Clas vote, clas system

.215 Compulsory voting

.216 Short ballot

Aiming to reduce number of electiv offises

.22 Constituencies and representation of interests

.221 Single member constituency

Scrutin d'arrondissemcnt

.222 Multimember constituency

Scrutin de liste, block vote, general ticket

.223 Minority representation

Single vote, limited vote, cumulativ vote, proxy syatnm

.224 Proportional representation

Preferential: alternativ, contingent, trans erable vote. Quota: simple
Droop, d'Hondt, substitute or Gove method. Graduated aysta.n List

system. For second ballot see 324.248

■ 2 2 7

HrfLOiioiinc duel i>ocidJ groups

• 2 3

Selection of candidates

Declaration and presentation of candidacy

O 1 T
•23 1

•233

.rdriy organization ^omerences

•235

Caucus primary

•237

Direct "

•239

Platfonn

.24

Voting procedure

9 AT

Electoral lists' formation revision

.343

Registration system

Poll lists and tally sheets

.343

Jurisdiction Examination of credentials

Appeal, petition

.244

Open voting

•245

Secret ballot

.246

Voting place

•247

Absent voting Voting by mail

Traveling salesmen, railway employees, mail cier'.

.248

Second ballot

• 249

Indirect voting Electoral college

•25

Ballot

.351

Unofficial

252

Official

253

Party ballots

.254

Blanket ballots

255

Party colums

.256

Offis groups Australian ballot

•257

.258

Voting machines

.26

Results and announcements

Inspectors of election, meeting, etc.

261

Count of ballot

.262

Majority elect* Absolute majority

.263

Plurality " Relativ majority

.268

Announcement of vote

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

324.27 Corruption Electoral fraud

.271 Bribery and undue influence: intimidation, selling votes

.272 Fraud in voting: personation, repeating, illegal voting,

colonizing

.273 Election contributions and expenditures

Limitations on expenditures; publicity. Restriction on contributions;

political assessments

.274

.275 Fraud in counting

Miscount of ballots; certification of false returns

.276

.277 Election contests

.28 Suffrage reform

.3 Woman suffrage
•4-.9 Suffrage by country

Divided like 940-909

325 Migration Colonization

immigration and emigration, 572.3 Migration in Ethnology. For
complete list of form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index

.1 Immigration Immigrants

Under following subdivisions clas material dealing with special
features of human migration in general, as wel as with immigra-
tion. For immigration to a special country see j,2\$.^~.g. See
also 323.6 Citizenship, 364.256 Immigration and crime

.11 General questions
.12 Types of migration

Intercontinental, interracial; international, internal; from
country to city, rural depopulation; from city to country,
rural rehabilitation. Permanent, temporary, seasonal. Indi-
vidual or family; collectiv, transfer of populations, group
migration. Voluntary; involuntary, exiles, refugees, deported
prisoners of war,, deported criminals; etc.

.13 Causes Purpose

Phisiografic; climatic; economic, food supplies, commercial
relations, overpopulation; political; religious; social; hostil
invasions, conquests; disasters, fires, epidemics, floods, etc.

.14 Effects of immigration

Effect of colonization on country colonized

.15 Regulation Control

For general discussions of immigration and the state, official
organization of immigrant service and official treatment of
immigrants. For official immigration buros and departments
use 325.1061

.152 Inspection Registration

.153 Fees, capitation, hed tax, etc.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

325.154 Restriction Exclusion Selection

Quota system, etc. Tests and bases of exclusion or selec-
tion; deportation

.16 Promotion and assistance Protection
Abuses

Information, sanitary and medical services; exploitation.
For manuals of general information needed by immigrants use
325.102, for commercial immigration agencies use 325.1065.

. 1 7 Distribution Transportation

Migration routes, natural aids and barriers to migratory
movements. Control of distribution, official or unofficial.
Means of distribution

.18 Assimilation of immigrants Amalgamation

For assimilation in special countries see 325.4-.9, e.g. 325.73

.19 Other topics

.2 Emigration Emigrants

Divided only geografically by country of origin like 930-999, thus
bringing together material on emigrants of a special country or
race, e.g. Chinese emigrants 325.251. May be further subdivided
after 09 by country of settlement, e.g. Chinese emigrants in
Mexico 325.2510972. Material on emigrants is usually most
important in respect to country of origin, so is best clast in 325.2.
Most libraries wil hav little except on immigrants to their own
country, hence in United States 325.2 wil relate almost wholly to
specific nationalities in United States, e.g. 325.26 Negro question.
For immigrants in a special country irrespectiv of origin see
3254-9

.21 General questions

May be divided like 325.1 (see examples below). For types of
migration see 325.12; for causes see 325.13

.214 Effects of emigration

On country of origin ; for effects on emigrant and on country
of settlement see 325.14

.215 Regulation Control Restriction

Emigration and the state. For official emigration buros
and departments use 325.2061

.216 Promotion and assistance Protection

Abuses

For commercial emigration agencies use 325.2065, manuals
of general information needed by emigrants 325.202. See
also 325.102 for manuals for immigrants

.3 Colonization Colonies

•Activ promotion and establishment of colonies or settlement of
foren possessions, also discussions of special aspects of groups of
colonies. Divided only geografically by mother country like
930-999, e.g. 325.342 British colonies. This brings together
colonies planted by a special country. May be further subdivided
after 09 by country of settlement, e.g. 325.342096 British colonies
in Africa. For colonies in a special country irrespectiv of origin
see 325.4-9

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

325.31 General questions

For types of migration see 325.12; for causes see 325.13

.312 Types of colonies

Colonies of migration, ' swarm colonies '; colonies of expan-
sion; economic colonies, commercial settlements, conces-
sions, establisht by government or by private enterprize,
proprietary colonies; colonies of exploitation, governmental
or private; military colonies, strategic posts; protectorates,
321.027 Form of state); penal colonies, etc.

.314 Effects of colonization

On mother country, on country colonized. For effects on
colonist see 325.14

expansion). Relations with nativ races; nativ autonomy,
chieftainships, nativ councils. Public domain, administra-
tion of vacant lands. Types of colonial government

.316 Promotion and assistance Abuses

For official colonization buros and departments use 325.3061 ;
for commercial colonization agencies use 325.3065

.317 Colonial empire Colonial federation

4-. 9 in special countries

Both immigration and colonization divided like 940-999 by country
of settlement; e.g. 325.73 Foren population of United States;
For ancient countries 325.093 may be used, e.g. 325.0938 Immigra-
tion and colonization in ancient Greece. For source of immigra-
tion see 325.2, of colonization 325.3

326 Slavery Serfdom Emancipation

.2 Coolies and contract slaves

.3 Serfs and serfdom

.4 Antislavery documents

.5 " periodicals

.6 " societies

.7 Proslavery

.8 Emancipation and freedom

• 9 History Of Slavery Divided geograficly like 93°"999

.92 Biografy of slaves

327 Foren relations

Divided like 930-999. May be further subdivided after 09 fef. IcdaMd na4-<Ve£.)
tr <P t-(isra>t other by a second country; a i|i 3^»<Mflt*44- F«tan^MMis

r t ri f „,;n. u — r. „ , |VT r ^^ n f nrrn —i-'- ■■, .r re,., i 1 ,1 n ..

328 Legislation ' Lawmaking Legislativ bodies

Legislativ annals

.1 Parliamentary law

POLITICAL SCIENCE

328.2 Legislation

.21 Interpretation of law

.22 Uniform laws

Uniformity of law on same subject in different states .>r countries

.23 Codification

.24 Policy Tendencies

.241 Overlegislation

.243 Special legislation For private and local bills see 328-378

.25 Legislativ powers
.251 Juridic "

.252 Executiv 8

.253 Implied 8

.26 Direct legislation
.261 Initiativ

Voters by petition originate legislation

.264 Referendum

.27-.2Q Subjects Of legislativ action Divided like 351. 7-351. 9

.3 Legislatures

Summary

328.3 Legislatures

.31 Upper house

.32 Lower "

.33 Membership Election

.34 Prerogativs and powers

.35 Sessions

.36 Internal organization and disciplin

•37 Legislativ procedure

•39 Form of legislature

.31 Upper house

.32 Lower "

.33 Membership Election

.331 Conditions of membership, eligibility

Age, residence, property Membership without voting power

,33a Exofficio members

1 Cabinet and government offisers

2 Expresidents

3 Other exoffisers

4 Clergy, bishops
.333 Compensation

Annual salaries, per diem payment. Milage, traveling expenses. Special

.334 Representation

1 of states

2 territories

3 colonies and dependencies
^ , # 4 . classes

Universities, landowners, Irish and Scotch peers

5 election districts Apportionment

Equalization of representation; unfair apportionment; * rotten boros ' ;
reapportionment

6 Gerrymandering

9 Number of members

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

338.335

3
4

5
6

.338

•339

■34

•341

•342

•343

•344
•345

•346
•347

•348
•349

35
•351

•352
•353

•354
•355
•356
•357
•358

Methods of appointment Election
Appointment by government or crown

For life or for a term

Hereditary right

Election by direct vote : plurality or majority
Length of term

Entire or partial renewal of membership; holdover member

Vacancies, resignations

Method of filling vacancies', special elections

Contested elections

Official membership lists, directories
Unofficial lists or directories
Prerogativs and powers Restrictions
Power over revenue and appropriation

to judge of elections

over members

Power to Investigate or punish members

Power of expulsion

" over nonmembers

Power of investigation for impeachment, see 351.06-.90
" to imprison citizens

Treatymaking power
Privileges

Franking privilege, postage and stationery; railroad passes; free distribution

of books

Immunities

From arrest

Restriction

Offisholding Instructions by electors

Sessions

Method of summoning

Parliamentary writ

Date of session

Fixt or movable

Frequency of sessions

Length of session Life of legislature
Recess

Executiv session: procedure
Special session Extra session

POLITICAL SCIENCE

328.36 Internal organization and disciplin

Verification of powers, credentials

.361 Oath of offis

.362 Offisers: appointment, election

1 Presiding offiser, speaker

3 President protem

3 Secretaries, clerks

Bill clerk Enrolling, engrossing clerks

4 Sergeant at arms

5 Pages, messengers, door keepers

6 Payment of employees: gratuities, fees, extra pay

Unnecessary attendants

7 Committees

Standing, special, joint

8 Special commissions

.363 Records

.364 Supplies: daily papers, postage stamps

Telegraf and telefone bills

•36S

.366 Disciplin: suspension, investigation

.367 Bribery Illegal practises

Graft bills, blackmail

.368 Lobbying

Including that by heds of depts and institutions

•37 Legislativ procedure

.371 Rules, manuals

See 08 under 328. 4-. 9 divided by country

Parliamentary inquiries, commissions
Recommendations from executiv

.373 Bills

Technic: bill drafting, introduction
Printing, enrolling, engrossing

.374 Action by legislature before passage

2 Reference to committees

Committee work or procedure: investigation, hearings, conferences

4 Contest over passage

5 Party caucuses, logrolling
.375 Final passage

Rules committee, ' lifting ' committee, ' steering ' committee

Vote: viva voce, by roll call; by ballot; obligation of voting in person,

pairing

Required majority. Veto, see 353-03

Passing over veto. Bills left in hands of executiv: 30 day bills, pocket
veto

Bills which become law without executiv action
,376 Special bills

Financial, omnibus riders

•377 Joint resolutions

.378 Local and private legislation

.379 Procedure in special cases

I Impeachment

DECIMAL CLARIFICATION

328.39 Form of legislature

.391 One chamber

.392 Two chambers

.393 Other forms

.394 Reform
.395 Abolition

.4-.0 Of special countries

Divided by countries like 940-009, and under each, works may be divided:

01 Jurnals, 02 Debates, 03 Abstracts, 04 Documents, 05 Rules, 08 Legis-
lativ manuals, 09 History of bodies, but It is recommended that American
libraries make an exception for U S and states of U S, by omitting o
and using, for example, 328.739 History of U S congress, 328.7478 N Y
State legislativ manual. For foren countries the o is in some cases needed
(and it is therefore recommended for uniform use and to prevent possible
future, if not present, conflict) because of otherwize conflicting numbers;
e. g. unless o is used 328.469 might mean either a general work on law-
making body of Portugal or a history of the lawmaking body of Spain

329 Political parties Party conventions

i.',ui U. S. presidential campain document! of all parties, arranged by campalna

.1 Federal

.2 Anti-Federal

.3 Democratic

.4 Whig

.5 American Knownothing

.6 Republican

•7

.8 Minor parties

.81 Prohibition, see also 178.5 Ethics; .82 Greenback, sec also 332.52 Paper money;
.83 Woman suffrage, see also 324.3 Woman suffrage; .84 People's; 85 Labor
•9 Parties in Other Countries Divided geograficly like 940-999

ECONOMICS

330 Economics Political economy

Science of welth. For ful list of form divisions see Table 2 after
Relativ index

SUMMARY

331 Labor and laborers

332 Financial economics

333 Land Natural resources

334 Cooperation

335 Socialism Collectivism

336 Public finance

337 Tarif policy Protection and free trade

338 Production Economic organization

330 Capital Distribution and consumption of
welth

.1 Theory

. 1 1 General conception

Economic psicology, needs, personal interest
.15 Economic systems Capitalism

For socialism see 335
.151 Mercantilism

Balance of bargain, balance of trade theories; bullionism,

cameralism
.152 Phisiocracy

Pule of nature, agricultural system
.153 Classicism Individualism

Laissez faire; Manchester school; neoclassicism, Cam-
bridge or Marshallian economics
.154 Historical school

German revolt against classicism
.155 Universalism Neolibcralism

Romantic and institutional schools
.16 Miscellaneous theories

.161 Theories of welth

Economic goods, services
.162 Theories of value and utility

Labor-cost theory; marginal utility theory, Austrian or

.18 Economic methods

.182 Mathematical methods

Mathematical school
.19 Pelations to other subjects

May be divided like the whole classification; e.g. 330.196
Tecnocracy

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

331 Labor and laborers

Employers and capital in relation to labor. For economics of
Capital see 339; for industrial personnel management sec 658.3,
list of form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index

SUMMARY

331.1

Relations of capital and labor

.2

Remuneration for work

•3

Labor of children

•4

" " women

•5

Work under certain unfavorable conditions

.6

Pauper labor Cheap foren labor

•7

Different classes of workers Skild and

unskild labor

.8

Laboring classes: working conditions,

organization, etc.

•9

Other questions

Theory

.oil General conception Nature and character of labor

Psicology

.013 Importance, utility, dignity of labor

.016 Miscellaneous theories

Commodity, humanistic, etc. theories

.1 Relations of capital and labor

.11 Labor contracts in general Employment (i.e.
engaging workers)

Office workers

.112 Labor supply Agencies

Employment buros

.113 Classification of work and workers

abnormal, unfortunate: apprentice, handicapt, etc. (See
also 331.5 Work under certain unfavorable conditions);

.114 Equipment of workers

Mental and phisical qualifications. Personality, char-
acter, natural ability, general and professional or tecnical
education, experience, tastes, helth, etc.

.115 Selecting workers

testimonials) ; interviews ; character analisis ; tests : mental

i Securing applicants

Employment buros or agencies, labor exchanges;
advertizing for workers. For general labor supply
agencies see 33 1 . 1 1 2

.116 Engaging workers

Bargaining: individual, collectiv

LABOR

331.12 Department organization

.123 Service records Testimonials

. 1 24 Staf Grades Titles and duties

Officers; employes: clerks, stenografcrs, laborers, etc.
Material on positions more prominently provided for
elsewhere is better clast under the other number, e.g.
bookkeepers 657

.125 Labor maintenance

Follow-up, transfers, promotions, rating of workers

.126 Turnover

Causes, calculations, cost, statistics

.13 Termination of labor Unemployment
Reemployment

Causes of termination, warnings, indemnities; cancelation of
contract: by employer, layoff, discharge; by employe,

.137 Unemployment

Causes, effects, distribution and incidence. Reduction of
unemployment rolls without reemployment ; elimination of
Social insurance); elimination of young people, prolonga-
Labor of women). Irregular or seasonal employment,
crime

7 Unemployment relief

Financial aid; aid thru necessaries; furnishing worth-
while employment for idle time, e.g. recreational,
educational, etc.; struggle against demoralization and
paupers by furnishing work

8 By industry

82-899 may be divided like 620-699 with 81 divided
like the whole classification for other industries;
e -?- 33 T - T 378 22 Unemployment in mining, 331.1378177
Unemployment in photografy

9 By country

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.137972 Unemployment
in Mexico

.138 Reemployment

.14 Rules for workshop and office employes
Incentivs Disciplin

Conversation; personal calls or work; soliciting money,
subscriptions, contributions; respect and care for property
(tools, etc.); personal appearance, dres, uniforms; courtesy,
indifference; suggestion systems; fines, stoppage of privileges
Encouragements to work, offerd by government, etc., medals,
decorations, rewards to workers

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

33 1 . 1 5 Labor relations within the plant

331.89 Disagreements between capital and labor

.151 General questions

.152 Cooperativ management Industrial

democracy Representation in industry

Joint board of control, works council, works or shop
ism, corporatism

. 1 53 Conciliation
. 1 54 Mediation

Official or unofficial

. 1 55 Arbitration

.156 Joint conferences

.158 Investigation

. 1 59 Other topics

.16 Jurisdiction over work Industrial and pro-
fessional tribunals

.17 Patronal institutions favoring the personnel

Clas here only general works, either on patronal institutions
as a whole, or on such institutions as a whole of the same
establishment. Clas publications on an individual patronal
institution in the number for such institution. Funds for
pensions and for aid in general; employe stockownership.
Payment in shares, 331.24 Profitsharing

.18 Relations of capital and labor by industry

.182-. 1 899 may be divided like 620-699 with .181 divided like the whole classi-
fication for other industries; e.g. 331.1822 Relations of capital and
labor in mining, 331.18177 in photografy

.19 By country

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.1972 Relations of capital and
labor in Mexico

.2 Remuneration for work

651.38 Salary, etc. in office economy

.21 General questions
.211 Payment of wages

Payrolls; mode, place, time or frequency of payment, etc.

.212 Stoppage Deduction Withholding

.213 Preferd claims for wages due

LABOR

Wage theories

Statistical data: collection, compilation, use, value, etc.
as bases for theoretic study of wages. Wage fund doctrin,
residual claimant theory, normal value or exchange

Fixing wage rates

Wage fluctuations, raising and lowering wages; relation of
wages to supply and demand, to competition; relation of
wages to bargaining power, bargaining theory of wages;
general

Relation of wages to production

Marginal productivity or final utility theory of wages
Relation of wages to cost of living

Living wage; money wages v. real wages; minimum
cost of subsistence theory of wages, iron or brazen law

Minimum and maximum wage

Plurality or cumulation of wages

331.65 Abuse of plurality of offices); by earnings of
various members of family, wages of husband and wife

Wage scales Scale contracts

Sliding scale; extra pay or wages, efficiency bonus, subsidies,
bounties; progressiv wage; family allowance systems. For
deductions, stoppage, fines, etc. see 331.14 and 331.212

Bases of wages and kinds of payment

By work done: job, task, piece; by time: hour, day, week,
month, year; kinds of payment: truck system, store orders,
in kind; intervention of middleman: farming out, sub-
able conditions, 331.794 Home workers), commissions

Payment by other than employer

Fees, gratuities, tips

Profitsharing

systems in farming

Pensions Insurance Benefit agencies

General questions

Voluntary v. compulsory insurance. State or national v.
private insurance

Pensions

Sickness, old age, invalidity pensions

Group insurance

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Individual insurance

Life insurance, etc.
Social insurance

Accident, sickness, etc. May be divided like 368.4,
331 -!37 Unemployment, 331.82 Working conditions,

accidents, etc.

Homes for the aged

By industry

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with I divided like the
whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.25822
Pensions and insurance in mining, 331.258177 in
photografy

State and wages

Legislation Laws

Divided by country like 930-999, e.g. 331.26171 Wage

Wages for state labor

Professional remuneration
Wages divided by industry

.282-2899 ma y be divided like 620-699 with .281 divided like
the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.2822
Wages in mining, 331.28177 in photografy

Wages divided by country like 930-999

E.g. 331.2942 Wages in England

Labor of children

Including adolescents up to 1 8 yrs, or thru period of compulsory
children, 331. 1 13 Age of workers, 331.137 Prolongation of
schooling as unemployment mesure, 331.86 Apprenticeship,
362.7 Child welfare, 364.26 Child labor and crime, 379.14 Work-
ing permits in public education

General questions

Wages

Hours

331.81 Duration of work in general

According to age
Working conditions

Safety, accidents, sanitation, etc.

In special industries

.382-3899 may be divided like 620-699 with .381 divided like
the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.387
Child labor in factories, 331.381792 Child actors

LABOR

Labor of women

Include here discussions covering both labor of children and of
Sex of workers, 331.137 Elimination of women as unemployment
mesurc, 396.5 Women

Hours

Length of day, night work, overtime, holidays, etc. See
also 331.81 Duration of work in general

Wages

Work of marrid women

Of women with child

Work of young women
Working conditions

Safety, accidents, sanitation, etc.

Unemployment

In special industries

.482-4899 may be divided like 620-699 with -48i divided
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.487
Women in factories, 331.48177 in photografy

Work under certain unfavorable conditions

classes of workers, 331.23 Sweting system

Prisons Convict labor

Reformatories

Convents Charity workshops (Ouvroirs)

Paying beneficiaries nominal wages and marketing products
at prices so small as to lower wages of self supporting workers

Contract labor

Apprentice labor

Peonage Serfs

Compulsory labor Corvee

Slave labor

Handicapt

Blind, crippld, injured in war, mentally defectiv, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

331.6 Pauper labor Cheap foren labor Emergency
labor

.61 Aid by furnishing work

National workshops; public works; spred of work; coloniza-
workmen's colonics); systems for producing by pauper labor
331-1377 Unemployment relief, 331.9 Right to work, 351.8
Public works administration, 352.5 Municipal public works

.62 Foren workers Immigrant labor

Competition of foren labor, protection of nativ labor. Divided
geografically like 930-999; e.g. 331.625 Manual Asiatic labor,
331. 1 13 Alien classes of workers, 331.54 Contract labor

.64 Emergency labor

labor), rescue work, use of labor in times of disaster (see also
361.5 Charitable aid in disasters)

.65 Abuse of volunteer service, supernumerary time
or service, plurality of offices

.7 Different classes of workers Skild and unskild
labor

Work and workers according to the different occupations, objects
of work and economic situation

.71 Intellectual or mental work

Liberal professions; artistic workers (those whose work is
not regarded as belonging to the fine arts, i.e. 700, but which
is artistic in its character). Clas works on a special profes-

.76 In special industries

.762-.7699 may be divided like 620-699 with .761 divided
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.763
Agricultural labor, 331.76137 Teachers

.77 Employes

Clas here material too general to go under a more specific
number

.79 Miscellaneous workers

.794 Home workers Artisans

•795 Public service employes: nation, state, city

Wages for state labor

.796 Migrant labor
.798 Unskild workers

LABOR

331.8 Laboring classes

Working conditions, organization, etc.

.81 Duration of work Rest

hours for women

.811 Length of day

8-hour day, 10-hour day, etc. Shifts of work

.812 Night work

.813 Sunday work

.814 Overtime Supplementary hours

.816 Vacation Leav of absence
.817 Holidays

Weekly rest, Sundays, labor festivals, May I, festivals of
patron saints

.818 In special industries

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the
whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.81822
Duration of work in mining, 331.818177 in photografy

.819 In special countries

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.8198 Duration of work in
South America

.82 Working conditions Places of labor

Protection of life, 622.8 Mining hazards

.821 Dangerous, uncomfortable, unhelthful
quarters

.822 Industrial hygiene Medical supervision
Prevention of occupational diseases

Phisical examination, hospitals, nursing, surgical aid,
first aid (better clast under 614.8), dental work; in special
conditions in factories, stores, offices, etc.

.823 Safety Accidents Occupational hazards

Causes of accidents, safety committees; preventiv and
protectiv safety mesures (better clast under 614.8):
education, safety devices, etc. Responsibility and lpgal
liability, reparation). Aid by public or private charity
or workers associations (better clast under 361-362).
Fires (better clast under 614.84): causes, preventiv and
protectiv mesures, etc. Safety and accidents in special
Protection of human life from accidents

.824 Industrial fatigue

.825 Employer's liability Reparation

insurance, 331.823 Responsibility for accidents

1

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

331.827 Improvement of working conditions in facto-

ries, stores, offices, etc.

Sanitation, baths, lavatories, toilet rooms, lighting, heat-
ing, ventilating; comfort, coat, rest and lunch rooms,
Industrial hygiene

.828 By industry

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the
whole classification; e.g. 331.82822 Working conditions in
mining, 331.828177 in photografy

.83 Material needs

Shelter, food, clothes. Sec also 640 Home economics

.831 Cost of living

Workmen's budgets. Sec also 331.2154 Relation of wages
to cost of living, 364.26 Struggle for existence and crime,
647.1 Household accounts

.832 Consumptiv organizations

Cooperativ consumptiv associations, stores

.833 Dwellings Lodgings

643 Shelter: house, home; City planning 711.13 Housing;
Architecture 728.13 Workmen's tenements, 728.68 Work-
men's cottages

.834 Food

.835 Restaurants Cafeterias

Domestic economy 647.95 Cooperativ and collectiv
housekeeping

.836 Clothing

.84 Morals and habits

170 Ethics, 263.6 Sunday amusement, 790 Amusements

.845 Use of leisure

.85 Intellectual life Education

027.64 Workmen's libraries, 027.9 F fee reading rooms, 263.7
Sunday opening), lectures, dramatics, musicals, continuation
tion in general

LABOR

331.86 Industrial education Training

Labor of children, 331.55 Apprentice labor); factory, vestibule
and corporation schools; journeyman's service; cooperativ
education; scholarships for study, for travel; study abroad;
325.73 Americanization of immigrants; for schools for the
foren born see 371.98); training managers and foremen. For
general industrial training see 607

.87 Organization of labor

For organization from standpoint of production see 338.018
Division and combination of labor

.88 Trade unions and other labor societies

For collected works on trade unions use 331.88049 divided
like 08 in Table of form divisions following Relativ index.

.8808 Special questions relating to trade unions

Union labels, labor racketeering, etc.
9 By country

91 International unions

93-99 divided like 930-999

E.g. 331.880942 Trade unions in England

.881 By classes of workers

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like
the whole classification for other industries; e.g.
331.88122 Miners unions, 331.881 177 Photografers
unions

.882 Unions of managers

.883 Mixt unions of managers and workers

.886 Revolutionary unions

Syndicalism, Fascism, Bolshevism, Industrial Workers
munism

.887 Unions of child workers

.888 " " women "

.889 Compulsory unions

Open v. closed shop

.89 Disagreements between capital and labor

Combinations of workmen. Retaliation by employers. For
disputes and strikes and crime

.891 Attacks on freedom of work

Picketing, methods of intimidation. For scabs see 331.896

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

331.892 Strikes

Causes; types: the general strike; union, sympathetic,
unorganized or outlaw, etc. (For sit down strikes see
331.8934). Strike maintenance, financial assistance and
nation of labor by employe

8 In special industries

82-899 may be divided like 620-699 with 81 divided
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g.
331.892822 Strikes in mining, 331.8928177 in photografy

9 By country-

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 33 1. 89297 1 Strikes in Canada

.893 Other methods of workmen

Poor work, fair and unfair lists, etc.

1 Violent

Sabotage

2 Mild

3 Boycotting

4 Idling Sit downs

7 Injunctions

8 Political action Lobbying, etc.
.894 Methods of employers

2 Blacklisting Laying under interdict

3 Whitelisting

7 Injunctions

8 Political action Lobbying, etc.
.895 Lockouts

.896 Strikebreaking

Combating directly consequences of strikes; strike-
breakers, scabs. Reorganization of remaining person-
nel, bringing in paid workers from outside, replacing
strikers by volunteer workers
.897 Strike benefits for employers

Financial assistance, etc.

.898 Use of troops in labor disputes
.899 Other questions
.9 Other labor questions

331.61 Aiding paupers by furnishing work); encouragements
to work offerd by general government or general societies:
general). Intervention of public powers in general; freedom
and regulation of work; protection of workers; credit and contri-
butions to workers and workers associations; transport of
workers, workmen's trains

FINANCE

332 Financial economics Private finance

For public finance see 336. For full list of form divisions see Table 2
after Relativ index

SUMMARY

332.1 Banks and banking Commercial banks

2 Savings banks

3 Loan institutions

4 Money Monetary systems Coinage

5 * Nonmetallic money Nonmetallic standards

6 Investment finance Financial markets

7 Credit system

8 Interest Discount

9 Counterfiting Forgery Alteration

,1 Banks and banking Commercial banks

banks

, 1 1 Central banks National banks

Bankers' banks, reserv banks, banks of issue or circulation,
federal banks; regional banks, Federal reserv system of U. S.
For international central banks see 332.15

.12 State or provincial banks Joint-stock banks

Cantonal and communal banks, country banks, locally
charterd banks

. 1 3 Private banks Partnership banks

Banking partnerships

.14 Trust companies Investment banking

Trusteeship; investment trusts, banks or dealers, bond houses;
custodianships, customers' securities departments, including

.15 International banking Foren banking

Institutions and departments organized to conduct banking
operations with or in countries other than those in which
their parent establishments ar located; including their foren
agents, correspondents, branches and similar affiliates. Inter-
national central banks. Foren banking corporations, e.g.
foren currency exchange

• I 53~- I 59 Geograflc subdivision according to location of
parent institution

Divided only geografically like 9.30-999. May be further
subdivided after 09 like 930-999 according to country in
which affiliate is located or with which foren business is
conducted; e.g. American foren banking 332.1573, Ameri-
can banks in France 332.15730944, French banks in U.S.
332.15440973. But clas general discussions of banks or
banking operations of foren countries in a special country
in 332.1509 divided like 930-999; e.g. banks of foren
countries in U.S. 332.150973

.16 Multiple banking

Branch banking (sec also 332.15 Foren branches); group
banking, chain banking, banking syndicates

Organization, functions, methods, etc. Deposits, reservs.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

332.2 Savings banks

362.62 l'ensions, 368 Insurance

.21 Official savings institutions

National, state, municipal

.22 Postal, express and railway savings banks

.23 School savings banks Home or personal

savings

Home savings banks, savings boxes

24 According to type of organization

Mutual or non-stock savings banks, savings associations
savings banks; savings departments of general or com-
mercial banks, thrift, compound interest and Christmas
fund departments, etc.

.25 Management of savings bank funds •

.27 Safe deposit companies

Safe deposit departments, boxes, vaults

.28 Free savings institutions

.3 Loan institutions

.3 1 Credit institutions

.311 Agricultural banks and credit institutions

Land banks, morgage banks and companies, cattle or
morgage companies, 332.71 Agricultural credit, 631.16
Agricultural finance

.312 Industrial credit institutions

Manufacturers and mercantil credit institutions;
commercial and investment credit institutions, equip-
ment trusts, etc.; credit institutions for special indus-
tries. For agricultural credit institutions see 332.311.

.313 Chattel loan institutions

Morgage companies in general, cattle loan companies

.314 Institutions for loaning on salaries

.315 " " " " wages

Morris plan banks, workmen's banks

.316 Institutions for loaning on personal qualities

Personal loan institutions making loans based on char-
security

.317 Stock exchange banks

.32 Building and loan associations

Savings and loan associations, cooperativ loan associations.
societies, 334.2 Cooperativ banks

.33 Monts de piete Government pawnshops

.34 Private pawnshops

FINANCE

332.4 Money Monetary systems Coinage

For design and manufacture see 737 Numismatics
.401 Theory

6 Miscellaneous monetary theories

Commodity, cost of production, quantity, etc. theories.

.41 General questions
.41 1 Functions

Medium of exchange; measure or standard of value;
standard of deferd payments, loan medium; storcr of value,
reservs; guarantor of solvency; gift medium

.412 Characteristics Qualities

Acceptability, stability of value, portability, durability,
uniformity, divisibility, cognizability

.413 Value

Money and prices; determination of value, valuation
(valorization), stabilization, fluctuation, appreciation, de-
preciation, debasement, devaluation (devalorization).

.414 Stock Supply

Variation, elastic or flexible currency; inflation, reflation,
deflation, contraction. Circulation, currency fluctuations,
forst circulation

.415 Denomination system

Monetary unit, money of account

.4 1 6 Legal tender Lawful money

For legal tender qualities of specific types of money see
those types

.418 Coinage or monetary metals

Bullion, ingots; production, value, supply, etc.; nationali-
zation. GolcH electrum; silver, billon; platinum; etc.

.419 Coins Specie Metallic money

Ful-bodid coins; ful-weight, ful-value, standard coins;
short-weight coins, token money, subsidiary or fractional
coins. Abrasion, coins reduced in weight thru circulation
or sweting, circulation tolerance; mutilation, defaced
coins, clipping, filing, punching, trimming, etc.

.42 Monetary standards Metallic standards

For nonmetallic standards sec 332.5

.421 General questions

Establishment, maintenance, suspension or abandonment
of standard; monctization, demonetization

.422 Monometalism Single standard

Gold standard, gold coin or gold exchange standard,
maintenance of value in gold, gold clause; silver standard;
limping or halting standard

.423 Bimetalism Double standard

Gresham's law, silver question, mint ratio v. market ratio;
parallel and alternating standards; symmetalism

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

332.43 International standards International coin-
age

International monetary agreements or conventions, e.g. Latin
union, Scandinavian union

.44 International monetary congresses

.45 Comparativ value of moneys Exchange of
foren currencies Cambistry

Rates of exchange, mint par of exchange, gold or specie points,
agiotage, etc. For instruments of foren exchange see 332.77.
security operations

.46 Mints and mint practises Coinage

Coinage restrictions; private v. government coinage. Coinage
mint price of bullion; gratuitous coinage; brassage, seignorage,
profit funds. Mint tolerance, mint remedy, trial of the pix,
standard weight, mint wastage. Recoinage. For design and

.47 Coinage laws

May be divided geografically and by period like 930-999, e.g.
332.474405 Napoleonic coinage laws, 332.47732 Coinage laws
in colonial America

.48 Other coinage topics
.49 In special countries

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 332.4937 Money and coinage in
ancient Rome

.5 Nonmetallic money Nonmetallic standards
.51 General questions

.52 Convertibility- Redeemability

Specie payments. Tho following topics ar also applicable
to non-standard metallic money, it seems best to collect
such material here. Rcpresentativ money, having metallic
rcservs equal to its ful face value. Credit or fiduciary
money, having metallic rcservs equal to only part of its
face value; banking and currency theories, unrestricted v.
restricted issue. Inconvertible or fiat money, printing
pres money in Public finance

.53 Paper money Paper standard

Government or public notes: gold and silver certificates;
currency notes (England); assignats, mandats (France).
Bank notes, cither public or private according to official
status of issuing bank. Private notes intended primarily
for general circulation as money: Chamber of commerce
notes (France), Loan buro notes (Germany), for notes
representing individual transactions, promissory notes, etc.
see 332.77. Fractional paper money; e.g. shinplasters,
scrip, stamp or postage stamp money. Sec also 329.82
Greenback party

FINANCE

332.54 Other nonmetallic moneys

Bearing printed or stampt statements of their monetary
value. Clay tablets, sheets or tokens of lether, wood, etc.

.55 Mediums of exchange other than money

Primitiv mediums of exchange, commodities as mediums
of exchange. Skins, cattle, cowrie shels, wampum, grain,
tobacco, etc. as mediums of exchange

.56 Monetary standards based on value of com-

modities and service ' Scientific money '

Composit or multiple standards, index number standards,
commodity dollar, etc. Standard for prices, for dets
or deferd payments. Stable consumption v. stable
income standard. Tabular standard (W.S.Jevons). Com-
pensated monetary unit; compensated or stabilized
dollar (Irving Fisher). Managed currency (J.M.Keynes).
Social credit money, etc.

.6 Investment finance Financial markets

Bourses, brokers' boards, stock and security exchanges, com-
modity security exchanges, etc.

.61 General questions

Organization, administration, membership, ' seats,' officers,
trading posts, functions, etc. Exchanges according to function
(financial, stock, commodity, etc.) Stock exchange com-
mission houses and branch offices, wire houses; stock exchange
clearing houses (for bank clearing houses see 332.78). Stock
exchange quotations, security price lists; security averages or
indexes; quotation ticker and ticker services, tape and tape
prices. Outside exchanges or markets, over the counter
markets, unorganized exchanges; curb or street exchanges,
coulisses; auction exchanges; bucket shops, illegitimate ex-
changes

.62 Security brokers and dealers

Agents de change. Brokers' agents and messengers, brokers'
clerks, remisiers, runners, touts. Jobbers, traders, operators,
professionals. Specialists, brokers and dealers in special
classes of securities. Coulissiers, curb or street brokers,
bucketeers, tipsters, illegitimate brokers and dealers

.63 Investment securities

Negotiable or transferable securities. Stocks (or shares) and
bonds from economic and financial viewpoint. Capitaliza-
tion, total amount of securities issued by an organization.
Regulations for listing; wildcat securities, 'cats and dogs',
speculativ, fraudulent or worthless securities. Corporation
debentures; rights; certificates, corporation warrants; etc.
financing

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

332.64 Security exchange operations Speculation

Stock jobbing, agiotage. Spcculativ cycle, financial panics
General trading methods: for cash; regular way, for the
account ; for future settlement ; with option. Orders. Credit
transactions: margins, borrowing and lending securities, etc.
Trading positions: long interests, buls, stags; short interests,
bears; lambs; hedging. Settlement, clearing; daily v. term
settlements; backwardation, contango, etc. Dealing in
privileges, calls, puts, spreds, straddles. Averaging, pyramid-
ing. Manipulation, cliques, rings, pools, wash sales, corners,
bucketing, etc. Chart and tape reading.

.65 International security operations

Arbitrage transactions, comparison of commercial parities.

.66 Public issue of transferable securities
.67 Investment

General investment principles and practises, investment dis-
banking

.68 Lotteries

.69 Other questions
.7 Credit system

Theory and forms of credit, credit operations, credit instruments.
For loan and credit institutions see 332.3, for public credit see
credit methods

.71 Agricultural credit

For promoting agricultural operations. Crop loans, live stock
Agricultural banks and credit institutions, 631.16 Agricultural

finance

.72 Landed credit Real estate credit

Morgage loans, farm morgage credit, etc. Federal farm
loan system. For morgage banks see 332.311, for morgages

.73 Popular credit Loans without interest

.74 Other types of credit

.742 Commercial credit Industrial credit

Productiv, capital or investment credit. Credit for
special industries; maritim credit, etc. For agricultural
332.312 Industrial credit institutions

.743 Consumptiv credit

Individual or personal credit; i.e. credit extended to
individuals

FINANCE

332.744 According to time of maturity

Short term, intermediate and long term credit

.745 According to security or risk

Personal security, loans based on character, moral risk; or
security, loans based on capital, property risk. Unsecured
Morgage loans

.748 International credit

.75 Credit collapse Credit restrictions

Moratoriums; failure, insolvency, bankruptcy

.76 Deposit transfer instruments

Checks; interbank transfer accounts and clearings, French
transfer system, German giro system; telegrafic and cable
transfers; bank, express and postal money orders; travelers
checks

.77 Other credit instruments

Credit instruments in general, commercial paper, etc.
Promises to pay: notes, acceptances, open or book accounts;
orders to pay: bils of exchange, drafts, letters of credit;
collateral or documentary instruments: mortgages, etc. See
also 332.63 Investment securities, 332.72 Morgage loans

.78 Clearing houses

For stock exchange clearing houses see 332.61

.79 Other questions
.8 Interest Discount

.81 General questions
.82 Interest
.83 Usury

Excessiv interest

.84 Discount

Discounting and rediscounting

.9 Counterfiting Forgery Alteration

.91 General questions

.92 Coins

.93 Paper money Currency

.94 Securities Credit instruments

Check raising, etc.

.98 Protectiv mesures Safety devices

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

333 Land Natural resources Real estate

Ownership, rights, rent, policies. For other relations see Land in
duction, 339 National resources in general. For form divisions see
Table 2 after Relativ index

.1 Government ownership and control

of revenue

. 1 1 General questions

. 1 2 According to government units

.122 International

.123 National

.124 State Provincial Cantonal
.125 County
. 1 26 Municipal

.13 Expropriation Eminent domain

.14 Nationalization Socialization
.2 Community ownership

Communism, 335.9 Socialist communities

.3 Private ownership

.301 Theory

Occupation or seizure theory; ownership as natural right;
property

.31 General questions
.32 Types of tenure

Feudal, manorial; family; individual, personal, allodium;

corporate, collectiv, cooperativ

.33 Real estate transactions

Alienation or transfer of real property rights, inalienability,
land investments and speculation, buying and selling real

estate

.332 Valuation

.34 Registration systems Land titles

Torrens system, etc.

•35 Rights of succession

Inheritance, primogeniture, fideicommissum, mortmain, etc.

.37 Large holdings

Latifundia

.38 Small holdings

Land division and allotment, parcelation, etc.

.4 Absentee or alien owners

LAND ECONOMICS

333-5 Rent and renting Rural or agricultural rent

Landrent, rent of land for cultivation

.51 General questions

Economic theories of rent, land income, etc.

.52 Rental systems

economics.

.53 Tenancy
.54 Landlordism

Relations of landlord and tenant

.6 Urban rent
.62 Ground rent

Rent of land for building, industrial development, etc.

.63 Building rents

Rent of buildings, apartments, etc.

.7 Utilization Land classification

.71 General questions

Policies of utilization, settlement, etc. Limits of utilization

.72 Conservation of natural resources

.73 Waste lands

.74 Pasture and grazing lands

.75 Forests

.76 Cultivated lands Agricultural lands
.77 Urban lands Industrial lands

Lands for building, housing, industrial development, public
utilities, transportation, etc.

.78 Recreational lands

.79 Other surface utilization
.8 Subsurface utilization

Mineral lands, mines

.9 Other forms of utilization and rights
.91 Water rights

Riparian or litoral rights, shore lands; land under water;
water utilization, for consumption, navigation, water
power, irrigation; rights in oceans, lakes, streams, fisheries,
etc.

.92 Air rights

DECIMAL CLAS1FICATI0N

334 Cooperation

Works on cooperation applied to other subjects ar generally better
clast with those subjects, but may be kept together here by using
334.0001 followd by number for other subject; e.g. Cooperation in
agriculture 334.000163, in business 334.0001658. For ful list of form
338.018 Cooperation in economic organization

.1 Building societies Cooperativ housing

Building and loan associations

. 1 1 General questions
. 1 2 For lease

Ownership remaining with society

. 1 3 For sale

Ownership passing to individual members

.2 Cooperativ banking Credit societies

.21 General questions
.22 Urban

Schulze-Delitsch system, etc.

.23 Rural

Raiffeisen system, etc.

.24 Banking and credit operations of general co-
operativ societies
.3 Cooperativ insurance

.4 Cooperativ housekeeping

keeping methods

.5 Consumers cooperation Cooperativ stores

Distributiv cooperation, Rochdale system. For production
Consumptiv organizations among laborers

.51 General questions

.52 Wholesale societies

.53 Retail societies

.54 Women's cooperativ gilds

.6 Producers cooperation

.61 General questions

.62 Supply societies

For securing seed, implements, fertilizer, etc.

.63 Machinery owning societies

For joint use of threshing machines, tractors, etc.

.64 Production societies Cooperativ factories

Workers cooperativs

COOPERATION SOCIALISM

334.65 Marketing or sale societies

.68 By industry

.682-6899 ma y be divided like 620-699 with .681 divided like the whole classifi-
cation for other industries; e.g. 334.683 Cooperativ agricultural
production, 334.68177 Cooperativ production in photografy

.7 Frendly societies Benefit societies

Savings banks, 368 Insurance

.8 Burial societies

.9 Other
335 Socialism Collectivism

Clas here economic and theoretic discussions only. The correspond-
ing political systems ar clast in 321. For political parties see
329, for broad political and historical aspects see 930-999. See
also 331.886 Revolutionary labor unions, 333.3 Private ownership,
334 Cooperation, 338.91 State and production control, 339.25
State and distribution control. For form divisions see Table 2
after Relativ index

.1 Utopian socialism Humanitarian socialism

Philosofic, idealistic, pre-Marxian socialism; reformism. See
also 321.07 Ideal state, Utopias

. 1 1 General questions

. 1 2 English Utopian socialism

.14 Fabianism

.15 Gild socialism Communal socialism

.2 Early French Utopian socialism

Clas here also works on French utopianism in general

.21 General questions

.22 Babouvism (Babeuf)

.23 Icarianism (Cabet)

.25 Saint Simonism

.3 Later French Utopian and humanitarian

socialism
.31 General questions

.32 Fourierism Phalansterianism

Clas here also American utopianism, largely derived from

.34 Rational socialism (Colins)

.35 Integral "

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

335.4 Marxian socialism Communism

Scientific socialism, revolutionary socialism. For Utopian com-
natural resources

.41 General questions

.42 Marxian socialist internationals

.421 1st or Old international, 1864-76

International workingmen's association, Communist mani-
festo of Marx and Engels

.422 2d international, 1 889-191 6

International socialist buro

.423 2}/2 or Vienna international, 192 1-3

International working union of socialist parties

.43 Post-Marxian communistic socialism

.44 Communist internationals

.441 Communist international association, 19 19-

3d, Fed or Moscow international, Comintern. Fus-
sian socialism, Bolshevism, Leninism. Communist
manifesto of 3d international. For Fed international
of trade unions, Profintern, 1921- see 331.886
Bolshevist labor unionism

2 Communist youth international

.5 Social democracy Evolutionary socialism

German post-Marxian socialism, revizionism, gradualism. See
also 335.14 Fabianism

.51 General questions

.52 Post-Marxian moderate socialist internationals
.522 Labor and socialist international, 1923-

New international

2 Young socialists' international, 1923-

.6 Socialism of the chair State socialism

.62 Socialism of the chair Professorial socialism
.63 State socialism

.64 Nationalist socialism Fascism Naziism

.7 Christian socialism Catholic socialism
.8 Syndicalism Anarchism

.82 Syndicalism Corporatism

Syndicalist international, International workers of the world
(I.W.W.), International association of workers (syndicalist).
trade unions, 335.15 Gild socialism, 335.25 Saint Simonism

.83 Anarchism Nihilism
.831 General questions

.832 Individualistic and philosofic anarchism
•833 Communist and syndicalist anarchism

Violent anarchism

.9 Socialist communities

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 335.97446 Brook Farm community.
Fourierism

PUBLIC FINANCE

336 Public finance

National and state. Cameralistic science. Government income or
revenue, budget, source of income, etc. For financial administra-
tion and budget making see 351.71-.72; for local finances in general
finance. For form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index

SUMMARY

336.1 Non-tax revenues State domain and properties

.2 Taxation

.21 Direct taxes General and classified property taxes

.22 Real property tax

.23 Personal property tax

.24 Income tax

.25 Other direct taxes

.26 Customs Tarif duties

.27 Other taxes

.28 Local "

.29 Other questions

.3 Public borrowing Public dets

.39 " expenditure

•4~.9 Finance of special countries

.1 Non-tax revenues State domain and properties

333.1 Public land in general

.11 Management and income from rents and

franchizes
.12 Disposal Sale

Sale of public land, buildings, equipment and supplies as
sources of revenue only

.13 Free disposal Grants

For development, cultivation, extraction of minerals, etc.
Land claims, preemption, homesteding

.14 For encouragement and aid of special enterprizes

Land grants to railroads, canal cos., etc.; in support
grants in Education, 385.133 Railroad subsidies

.15 Income from public moneys Interest

From deposits, investments, loans

.18 Sovren and regalian revenues

Tributes, indemnities, war reparations, etc.; recievd from
conquerd, vassal or dependent states. Subsidies: from
other nations in return for aid in war, etc.; from higher
government units in aid of internal improvements or coopera-
tiv development of public enterprizes, federal and state
Criminal law). Gratuities, gifts, bequests to government,
' conscience fund ', tresure trove

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

336.19 State industries and monopolies

Revenue farming (for tax farming see 336.292). For dis-
cussions of revenues from special state industries 336.1982-
.19899 may be divided like 620-699 with 336.1981 divided
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 336.19879
State tobacco monopoly, 336.198107 State monopoly of

.2 Taxation

.21 Direct taxes
.211 General questions
.212 " property tax

.213 Classified property tax
.22 Real property tax

Taxes on real eetate, land, buildings

.221 General questions

.223 According to location

Urban, suburban, rural

.224 Taxes on buildings and fixt improvements

House taxes

.226 Single tax Land value tax

System of Henry George. Tax confined to site and
natural fertility values of land, unearnd increment tax.
For single v. multiple tax system see 336.291

.228 Taxes on special classes of realty

Mineral lands, subsurface realty; surface realty, etc.

.23 Personal property tax

Tangible and intangible. For taxes on special objects
see 336.278

.24 Income tax

.241 General questions

.242 Personal income

.243 Corporation income Business and industrial

profits

Clas here general discussions of corporation taxes.
Surplus and excess profits taxes

.244 Income from capital and investments

Taxation of interest, of income from government

securities, etc.

.245 Income from rent

.246 " " wages and salaries

Taxation of labor and professional inoome
.247 Income of nonresidents

.248 Foren income

.249 Other questions

PUBLIC FINANCE

336.25 Other direct taxes

For inheritance taxes see 336.276

.251 Poll or capitation tax

Hed taxes, taxes on persons as persons. Taxes on
qualifications

.252 Direct consumption taxes

336.271 for general works on consumption taxes

.253 Capital levy

.26 Customs Tarif duties

.261 General questions

.263 Types of duties

Import, export, transit, national and state tolls

.264 Methods of levy

Ad valorem, specific, combination, tarif valuation system.

.265 Schedules

.266 Rates on special commodities

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g.
336.266677 Tarif schedules on textils

.268 Smuggling Fraud Evasion
.27 Other taxes

For local taxes see 336.28

.271 Excise Internal revenue

Internal commodity taxes. Clas here general works on
commodity and consumption taxes, also indirect taxes.
May be divided like 336.26 except .266 (see examples
below). For direct consumption taxes only see 336.252;
for excises on special objects see 336.278

3 Types of excise

On raw materials, severance and output taxes; on
manufacture and production, process taxes; on sales,
general sales and turnover taxes; on necessities,
purpose mainly fiscal; on luxuries, sumptuary taxes,
purpose part fiscal, part regulatory

8 Fraud Evasion Bootlegging

,272 Stamp duties or taxes Revenue stamps
.273 Fees

Charges for performance of certain governmental acts
conferring special benefits on particular individuals;
legalization of various acts, documents, instruments, etc.;
organization, registration, court, inspection, etc. fees

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Business and occupation taxes, corporation organization
and entrance taxes; taxes on operation of various indus-
tries, exercize of various professions, etc. For other
relations see License in Rclativ index following Tables

.276 Deth and transfer taxes

Estate; inheritance, legacy or succession; gift taxes

.278 Special taxes

Special tax bases, taxes on special objects or articles. May
be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 336.27875
Taxes on paintings

.279 Taxes for special purposes

Cleric support, highway taxes, etc. May be divided like
the whole classification, e.g. 336.27937 Taxes for education

.28 Local taxes

General discussions and works on special taxes mainly or
cxclusivly local. Sec also 352.1 Local taxation, 379.13 School
funds

.282 Octroi

Entrance taxes, import octrois; exit taxes, export octrois;

.283 Special assessments Betterment taxes

Levies against property to defray costs of public
improvements

.29 Other questions

.291 General principles of taxation

Canons of taxation: equality, certainty, productivity,
etc. Single v. multiple tax system (for ' Single tax '
see 336.226). Taxable capacity

333 -33 2 Real estate valuation in general), estimates, tax
lists, equalization; apportionment among government
units: national, state or provincial, local. Collection:
industries), retention at source, composition, etc; payment
in cash, produce, labor; evidences of payment, tax reciets;
delinquencies, tax sales. Restitution, drawbacks

.293 Mesure of tax Tax rates

Ad valorem; specific; fixt, lump sum; proportional:
tenths or tithes, per centages, mils, etc.; graduated:
progressiv, degressiv, regressiv

.294 Distribution of tax burden

Justice in taxation; incidence, shifting; double taxation;
alien and nonresident taxation. Exemptions: minimum,
continuing, vanishing, social, etc. exemptions; deductions.
Exemptions as subsidies, used to attract certain classes
of commercial and industrial enterprises. Tax evasion,
avoidance, fraud

.295 Effects of taxation

Economic: on production, on distribution of welth, on
stediness of employment. Social: taxation and social
reform, repressiv aspects of taxation. Political

PUBLIC FINANCE

336.3 Public borrowing Public dets

332.7 Credit system in general

.31 Public securities Funding system

Interest bearing government securities, public funds, rentes,
funded or bonded det. Government bonds, etc. Interest
securities, consols, etc. Intermediate securities. Callable
and serial bonds. Credit bonds

.32 Short term securities Floating det

Maturing within a year. Unfunded or current det.
pres money in general finance

.33 Sinking fund Amortization

Sinking fund ' raids ', etc.

.34 Public credit

.341 General questions

.342 Character and bases of public credit

.343 Forms of public det

According to borrowing unit: national, state, local.
According to source of loan: internal, domestic; external,
foren; private loans. According to productivity: pro-
ductiv; unproductiv, dedweight, war dets, etc.

.344 Det flotation

« Forst or compulsory, and voluntary loans; bids, sub-
scriptions, allotment; marketability: at par, premium,
discount

.345 Burden and economic effects of public
borrowing

.346 Control and limitation of public credit

Increase of public indettedness, ' pay-as-you-go ' policy

.35 Annuities

Contingent, deferd or reversionary, life, tontine, etc.

.36 Repayment Repudiation

Liquidation; retirement, redemption, payment in ful, either
immediate or gradual; moratorium; cancelation, by mutual
agreement, without payment: partial, reduction, scaling
down, complete

.368 Public insolvency Bankruptcy

Default, token payments; repudiation: partial, by infla-

.37 Refunding Consolidation Conversion

.38 Other questions

.39 Public expenditure

Character, principles, classification and objects, justification,
economic aspects of public expenditure. For administrativ
aspects and budget making see 351.71-.72

•4-.9 Finance of special countries

Divided like 940-999, e.g. 336.51 Chinese public finance. For
ancient countries 336.093 may be used, e.g. 336.0937 Public
finance in ancient Rome

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

337 Tarif policy Protection and free trade

For customs as source of revenue, tarif administration, schedules of

see Table 2 after Relativ index

.1 Absolute free trade No tarif

Tarif for revenue only, fiscal tarifs

.3 Protection

Protectiv and prohibitiv tarifs

.31 General questions

.32 Ad valorem v. specific duties

customs

.33 Export duties and restrictions

Export licenses and embargoes; rationing of exports, export
quotas; temporary or permanent prohibition of exportation

.34 Import duties and restrictions

Licenses, embargoes, quotas, marks of origin, prohibition of
importation

.35 Transit duties and restrictions

.36 Tarif systems

Clas here general discussions of autonomous tarifs. Single
schedule, general or unilinear; multiple schedule or multi-
linear tarifs. Maximum and minimum, bilinear or double
schedule ; general and conventional ; intermediate ; preferential
337.91 Tarif treaties, 337.92 Colonial preferential policies

.38 Customs reprisals Tarif wars

Discriminatory and retaliatory duties, protection against
unfair foren competition; countervailing and antidumping

.4 Subsidies Drawbacks

.5 Protection applied to special articles

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 337.563 Protec-
tion of agricultural products. But clas protection of intellectual
products (books, art objects) under 337.7

.6 Protection applied to raw materials

General discussions only. For special articles or groups of

articles see 337.5

.7 Protection applied to intellectual products

Books, works of art, etc.

.71 General questions

.72 Books Literary works

• 73 Works of art

May be divided like 700, e.g. 337.735 Protection applied to
paintings

TARIFF POLICY PRODUCTION

337.8 Free importation of dutiable article*

.8 1 General questions

.82 Exemption from customs duties

Personal; institutional: colleges, libraries, museumi, etc.

.83 Customs permit Acquit a caution

.87 Entrepot rights Free ports and zones

Bonded areas and warehouses

.9 Other questions

.91 Tarif treaties

Customs unions, zollverein, conventional tarif s; reciprocity
concession and penalty systems

.92 Colonial tarif policies

Customs relations between mother country and colonies,
imperial protectionism; tarif assimilation, preferential policy
door ' policy

338 Production Economic organization and
condition

Industrial economics, economic cycles. For ful list of form divisions
see Table 2 after Relativ index

SUMMARY

338.1

Agricultural products

.2

Mining products

•3

Water

•4

Manufactured products Machinery in industry

Intellectual production

•5

.6

Systems of productiv activity

•7

Organization and concentration of production

Entrepren eurship

.8

Integration of production Mergers

•9

Industrial legislation

•oi Theory Philosofy of production

.01 1 General conception and field of production

Definition, nature and character, forms

.012 Classification

Of elements of production: land, labor, capital, entre-
preneurship ; relativ importance, interrelations. General
discussions only ; material on special element clas with that
element: e.g. 333 Land, 331 Labor, 339 Capital, 33».7
Entrepreneurship

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

338.016 Miscellaneous principles and theories

Economic laws of production : laws of diminishing returns,
marginal utility, increasing and decreasing costs, com-
parativ advantage, etc. Principle of combination of agents
of production. Expanding v. mature economy

.018 Scientific and tecnical methods

Specialization, diversification, division and combination of
labor, distribution of labor (for organization of labor in
general see 331.87). Change from one economic state to
another, industrialization, agronomization. Shift within
fields; e.g. change of a country from production of one-
commodity or group of commodities to another because of
action of law of comparativ advantage. Cooperation,
Control and distribution of production, supply and demand
(for general theory of supply and demand see 380.11)

.019 History of production theory

By school and by country. 3-9 may be divided like
93° _ 999, e -g- 33 8 - OI 943 Theory of production in Germany

•06 Organizations

.062 Employers associations

.1 Agricultural products

.II General questions

Relativ contributions of various agents of production

. 1 2 Organization

Form: one-man, corporate, etc. Size and type: large and
362.57 Land privilege for paupers). Competition, coopera-
a farm

.13 Financial questions

Costs, opportunity cost, etc. Prices, supply and demand,

.15 Agricultural crises

Maladjustment of production and consumption, overpro-
duction, surpluses, underproduction, crop failures, famins,
underconsumption

.17 Special products

Divided like 630, e.g. 338.1731 Economics of grain production;
but for fish see 338.372 Water products

.18 Relation to other subjects

Divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.1867 Relation
of agricultural production to manufactures

PRODUCTION

338.2 Mining products

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.24 Marketing mining products. See
also 332.418 Coinage metals, 553 Economic geology, 622 Mining

.27 Special products

Divided like 553, e.g. 338.273 Economics of iron production;
but clas mineral waters under 338.374

.3 Water products

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.34 Marketing water products

•37 Special products

For aquatic vegetable products see 338.1 Agricultural pro-
ducts

.372 Fish and other aquatic animal products

Divided like 590, e.g. 338.37234 Economics of sponge

•373 Ice

.374 Potable water

towns, 628.7 Rural water supply); mineral waters, car-
663.6 Manufacture of artificial mineral waters)

•377 Water power

.4 Manufactured products Machinery in industry
Intellectual production

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.44 Marketing manufactured pro-
ducts. But manufacturing crises ar clast under 338.53-.58.

.45 Machinery in industry

Mas production, machinery in special industries; .4562-45699
may be divided like 620-699 with .4561 divided like the whole
classification for other industries; e.g. 338.45622 Machinery
in mining, 338.456177 in photografy

.46 Intellectual production

.47 Special products

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.47677
Economics of textil production

.52 Prices and values

Commercial theory of supply and demand). Calculation of
price: cost of production and marketing, profits, losses. Price
under various conditions: monopoly and competitiv price.
Real prices, price indexes

.526 Price fixing Government regulation

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

338.527 Prices for various articles

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.5277

Prices in the fine arts

.528 Prices in relation to other subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.52832
Prices in relation to political science

crises, 380.124 Trade cycles, commercial fluctuations

Maladjustment of production and consumption, over-
production, underproduction, underconsumption as phases

.548 Relation to various subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g.
338.54815 Business cycles in relation to psicology

.55 Crises

.558 In relation to various subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g.
338.558331 Crises in relation to labor

,559 General crises

1 International
3-9 By country

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 338.5598 South American
industrial crises
Each of following, 338.56-.58, may be divided like
338.55, e.g. 338.5691 International industrial panics

.56 Panics

Prefer 332.64 for banking and financial panics

.57 Depressions Recessions

.58 Booms

.6 Systems of productiv activity

For Cooperativ systems see 334., Socialist systems see 335

.61 General questions
.62 Primitiv production

Clas system

.63 Family system

Production by family for family consumption, self-sufficing
or isolated production. By members of family only: single
family; family groups, village and manorial systems. Slave
system; help or hire system

PRODUCTION

338.64 Handicraft system Custom system

Trade or commercial production; small industry. Unorgan-
divided like 620-699 with 338.6461 divided like the whole
classification for other trades; e.g. 338.64677 Handicraft* in

.65 Capitalistic or industrial production

Domestic system, house industry; sweting system; factory
system, large industry

.7 Organization and concentration of production
Entrepreneurship

.71 General questions

.72 Individual entrepreneur or proprietor

.73 Partnership Companies

.74 Industrial corporations
.76 By industry

.762-.J69 may be divided like 620-699, using .761 divided
like the whole classification for other industries, e.g. 338.767
Entrepreneurship in manufactures, 338.76177 in photografy

.78 Corporations in relation to various subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.7832
Corporations in relation to political science

.8 Integration of production Mergers

.81 General questions

Horizontal and vertical combination

.82 Monopolies

Ethics; methods of obtaining monopoly, agreements, etc.;
State monopolies).

.826 Monopolies in special industries

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the
whole classification for other industries, e.g. 338.82622
Monopolies in mining, 338.826177 in photografy

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

Industrial pools

For restricting and alloting output. Output and money pools;
selling buros or agencies, cartels

Rings Cliques
Industrial trusts

Methods of formation and operation, financial questions;
relations to industrial progress, public welfare, special indus-
tries and various questions; .8562-99 may be divided like
620-699 with .8561 divided like the whole classification for
other industries; e.g. 338.85622 Mining trusts, 338.8561332
Financial trusts

Holding concerns
International combinations

.882-886 may be used like 338.82-.86 for special types of
international combinations, e.g. 338.885 International trusts

Industrial legislation

For labor legislation see 331

General questions

Intervention of state in production, state and production
mercial law). Official representation of production interests,
sentation in suffrage, 331.155 Industrial arbitration, 380.126
Commercial arbitration). Authorization, control, regulation,
inspection. Methods of encouragement of commerce and
industry: grants, subsidies, guarantees of interest, premiums,
etc. Industrial planning, production plans, pland economy:
international and world planning; national, state, local and
335.6 State and nationalist socialism, 339.25 Organized v.
unorganized distribution of welth, 339.49 Conservation of
national resources)

By subject

May be divided like 338, e.g. 338.921 Legislation applied to
agricultural production.

99 By country

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 338.937 Industrial legislation in
ancient Rome

CAPITAL AND DISTRIBUTION

339 Capital Distribution and consumption of
welth

National resources in general. For natural resources see 333. See
also Capital, Pauper, Pauperism, Welth, in Relativ index following
Tables. For form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index

. i Comfort and poverty

Pauperism, life and condition of poor. Causes of poverty.
Absolute and relativ poverty; destitution, penury. Prevention
Economic status and crime

.14 Mendicancy Vagrancy

Beggars, hobos, tramps, vagabonds

.16 Poor relief

Indoor v. outdoor relief, almshouses, poorhouses. Private,
individual or institutional v. public relief; poor laws.
Economic aspects only; for general discussions, methods, etc.
see 362.5

,18 Comfort

For luxury see 339.45

.2 Division and distribution of welth

Modes and principles of distribution

.21 General questions

.22 Inequalities in distribution

.23 Distributiv shares

Respectiv incomes or rewards of agents of production, proceeds
of production falling to each. Gross v. net proceeds (produit
net). Share of labor: wages, salaries (for general discussions,
of wages see 331.2); share of land: rent (for general discussions
of rent see 333.5); share of capital: interest (for general dis-
cussions of interest see 332.8); share of entrepreneurship-
profits, surplus (for general discussions of entrepreneurship
see 338.7, for profits in relation to price 338.52)

.24 Accumulation of welth Riches

Individual shares, individual welth

.25 Organized v. unorganized distribution

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Appraisal of welth Capital and income

Estimated value of national welth. Principles of mesurement;
income valuation, benefit and money income; capital valuation,
capitalization of income. May be divided like 930-999, e.g.
339.373 Appraisal of American welth

Consumption Use of welth

and crime

General questions

Productiv consumption, utilization of capital; unproductiv or

final consumption

Standards of living Wants

Economic or beneficial consumption

Economy, thrift, saving, frugality, liberality

Uneconomic or harmful consumption

Parsimony, stinginess; prodigality, waste, idleness, dissi-
pation, extravagance

Luxury-

Avarice Miserliness Hoarding
Control of consumption

Freedom of consumption. Personal and social control.
Public or government control: restrictiv, sumptuary laws;

protectiv, consumer protection

Special items of consumption

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 339.4863
Agricultural consumption

Conservation of national resources

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 339.4973 Conservation of American
resources, 338.91 Pland economy

LAW

340 Law

General WOrkS Most periodicals belong in Private law, 347. OS

.1 Philosofy Theories Law of nature

.3 Antiquities: torture, trial by ordeal, duel, etc.

.4 Trial by jury

.5 Comparativ legislation

.7 Education Law school Offis training

.8 Polygrafy Collections

.9 Legal anecdotes and miscellany

Public law

341 International law

.01 Philosofy; 02 Compends, etc. like 300

.1 International congresses and associations

Of diplomatic agents for settling international relations; Hague tribunal, Leag
of Nations. Congresses on special topics go with their subjects; e. g. 332.44 on
Coinage

.2 Treaties: texts and history

Clas with most important country, dividing like 930-009,

.3 Law of war Captivs Neutrals

.4 International criminal law

.5 International private law May be divided like 347

.6 Arbitration

.7 Diplomacy

.8 Consular systems

342 Constitutional law and history

Divided by countries like 930-999. Under each, works may be divided: 01 Texts of
constitution; 02 Conventions; 03 Systems, commentaries; 04 Essays; 08 Polygrafy;
09 History, bjt it is recommended that American libraries make an exception for
U. S. by omitting 0, using, for example, for commentary on U.S. constitution
342 733

343 Criminal law

.09 History and local treatment

Divided like 930-999. Under each country, works may be divided: 01 Penal
codes; 02 Reports; 03 Criminal procedure: 04 Text books and manuals. For
exception recommended for American libraries sec note under 342'

.1 Criminal trials
.2 Punishments

Corporal. Deth penalty. Hard labor. Confinement

344 Martial law

Private law

345 United States statutes and cases

Divide each of the sections .1-.5, using 1 U. S.; 2 Individual states arranged atfa-
beticly; e. g. Statutes at large of U. S. 34s.11; Acts and resolvs of Mass. 345-12

.1 Session laws

DIM IMA I. CLASH' I CATION'

Codes Revised statutes
Law digests (of statutes)
Reports

Use .4 U. S. supreme court; .41 U. S. circuit and district courts; .415 Periodical
collections of various states; e. g. Eastern Reporter, etc; .42 Reports of individual

states

Digests of cases

British statutes and cases

Divided like 345. Includes all reports in English language except U. S. reports

General works Treatises

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals
.06 Societies, bar associations .08 Polygrafy .09 History

Put law of special topics with subject; e. g. Insurance law, 368. Divisions
.1-8 may be disregarded and all English law textbooks arranged in one alfabot by

authors

.1 Persons Legal capacity
.2 Realty

.3 Chattels Movables
.4 Contracts
.5 Torts

.6 Family law and inheritance
.7 Commercial and maritime
.8 Equity

.9 Civil trials Procedure Courts Judiciary

.91 Civil trials

.93 Forms

.94 Evidence Testimony in general not limited to civil trials

.95 Remedies

.96 Justises of the peace Notaries Sheriff

.97 Organization of courts

.98 Jurisdictions

.99 History of special courts

348 Church law

349 Law other than American and British

Divided like 930-909, and under each modern state divided after a o like 34s with
071—079 used for Treatises like 347; e. g. 349.44075 is French law of torts,
349.4402 is French code; or, if preferd, 347 may be used to include treatises on
law in any country and 071-079 be disregarded after country subdivisions of 349-
Roman law is divided:

.37 Roman law

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals
.06 Societies .07 Education .08 Polygrafy .09 History

.371 Sources: Ante- Justinian

.372 " Justinian

.373 History and criticism of sources

.374 Institutes: ancient Roman law

.375 Pandects: modern " "

•377 Treatises on special topics Divided like 347

345-2
•3
•4

346

347

Including Military science. .1 Theory; .2 Compends; .3 Dictionaries; .4 Essays; .5 Peri-
odicals; .6 Societies; .7 Education; .8 Polygrafy; .9 History

A large number of the questions properly placed under Administration ar clast with
related topics elsewhere. Some of these ar repeated here, both to show the scope of
the subject ' Administration ' and to provide for cross references by those specially

.1 Organization of civil servis

Ofisers Method of selection: election or appointment Official functions and
powers Mutual relations

.2 Civil lists
.3 Examination

•4 Tenure Of OffiS DiSCipUn See 3SI.92 Power of removal

.5 Pensions

.6 Reform Spoils system vs offisholding clas

See 336 Public finance, public prop Tty, taxation

.72 Budget Public accounts

.74 Police mesures

•75 Public safety and ordsr See also 3S2.2 Police; 36s Prisons, etc.

.751 Press

.752 Reunion and associati on

•753 Wepons

.76 Vice and good manners

.761 Liquor regulation See 178 Temperance

.762 Public gaming See 174 6 Ethics

.763 Public begging See 339. 1 Pauperism

.764 Prostitution See 176.S Ethics

.77 Sanitary police

See 3S2.4 Boards of helth; 614 Public helth, etc

.78 Accidents See 614.8 Public helth

.781 Bildings See 614.85

.782 Fires See 614.84

•79 Other

•79 1 Policing waterways

.792 U. S. Coast guard

.8 Promotion of public welfare

.81 Means of communication

See 380 Commerce, communication
.8ll Highways See 388; 352.7 Local government

.812 Railways See 385

.813 Waterways See 386; 387

.814 Ferries

.815 Bridges See 352-7 Local government

.816 Postoffis See 383

.817 Telegrafs See 384.1

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION,

.82 1 Weights and mesures See 389 Commerce

.822 Coinage and money See 332 Banks, money

.823 Landed industry

Agriculture See 630 Useful arts; 338.1 Production

Forests See 634.9 Forestry; 333-7 Land

Mines See 622 Mining; 338.2 Production; 333-75 Land

.824 Commercial and manufacturing industry

See 380 Commerce; 338 Production

.825 Institutions of credit See 332 Banks, credit

Savings banks See 332.2
Mutual benefit societies See 334 Cooperation
Insurance See 368; 334-3 Cooperativ insurance
Monts de pi6t6 See 332.33

.83 Labor See 331 Capital, Labor, Wages

.84 Public charity

See 339.1 Pauperism; 360 Associations and Institution!

.85 Education and worship

.851 Public education See 379 Education

.852 Public libraries See 027. 4 Library economy

.853 Art museums See 708 Art

.857 Worship See 322 Church and state

Military and naval See 35S-3S9 Army and Navy
Justis See 340 Law

Foren affairs See 341 International law; 327 Political aclanc*

.91 Administrativ Control By superior offisera

.92 Disciplinary power

.93 Supervision

Power to annul or amend specific acts

.94 Judicial control

.941 Ordinary courts See 347.5 Law of torts

•945 Criminal COUrtS See 343 Criminal law

.96 Parliamentary control

.98 Investigations
.99 Impeachment

352 Local government: county, town, city

.001 Growth and importance of cities

.002 Cities and state control

.003 City as a juristic person, a corporation

.004 City organization, municipal elections

.005 Municipal civil servis

Commission, manager etc.

Local administration of special countries and citits

.03-.09 divided by countries like 930-990

352 042 Local government in England

Arrange matter relating to special citiei alfabeticly by name of city and juV
divide the remaining works as follows:

01 County

02 Municipal boro

03 Parish

04 Union See 339 .1 Pauperism

05 Sanitary districts See 614 Public helth

06 School districts See 379 Education

07 Highway areas See 352.7

.043 Local government in Germany Special cities like 352.04*

01 Province: landtag, provincial committee, director
02

03 Circle Circle diet Circle committee Landrat

04 Commune

05 Towns

06 Township

.044 Local government in France Special cities like 353 04a

01 Department

02 General council

03 Departmental commission

04 Prefect

05 Arrondissement

06 Commune

07 Mayor

08 Municipal council

.1 Finances: city property and local taxation

.2 Police

.5 Public bildings and works

.7 Streets Highways Bridges Parks

.8 Licenses : hack, huckster, entertainment, etc.

.9 Other topics

353 United States and state government

Operation of executiv branch of government. For U. S. congress and state legislatures
see 328.73-. 798, where also ar department reports in sets of congressional and state
documents. Clas separates of such reports with their subjects or with their respectiv
departments in 353. 1-. 97988 when they hav no definit place elsewhere in the clasification;
but report of office of education 379.73, of agriculture dep't 630.6

.02 Separation of powers

.03 President

.04 Departments

.05 Cabinet

.1 State department
.2 Tresury department

Laws and rules governing tresury; but clas reports 33°-73 U. S. flnanc*

.3 Interior department

.4 PostoffiS department See postal servis 383.4973

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

353 5 Justice department For judiciary branch see 347-9

.6 War department

.7 Navy department

.8 Other departments

.9 State government Divided like 974-979

Apply same decimals for state governments. For departments not here speci-
fied use .8 and .9 and any of above numbers left blank; e. g. for a state having
no navy, .7 is free for some local use. Judiciary dep't of D. C. 353-97535-
J53-9 includes history of regiments, unless covering a particular period of national

history; e. g. the " history of the N. Y. 7*h regiment in the civil war is attracted
to 973-74, but a general history of the same regiment is 353-97476. Prefer 355-359;
see note under 355

354 Organization of central government Countries
other than United States

Divided geograficly by countries like 930-999- Under each country (except where
existing country divisions conflict; e. g. 943 Germany, 943.6 Austria) the U. S. divi-
sions, I State, 2 Tresury, etc. may be used; e. g. State department of Great Britain,
354.42 1 ; or, for sake of uniformity and because of possible future division of countries
(and this is advized for libraries which hav not alredy added the department numbers
directly to the country number) these numbers may be added to 06 affixt to country
number (see Germany below); e. g. 061 State department, etc. But do not use these
divisions where a single number is at present used for 2 or more countries (e. g. 989
Paraguay, Uruguay) and for which more specific provision wil eventually be made.

.42 Administration of England Central government

02 Separation of powers

03 Monarch

04 Privy council
os Cabinet

.43 Administration of Germany Central government

01 A Jministrativ centralization
oa Separation of powers

03 Empire

032 Bundesrat

033 Emperor

034 Ministry

04 Republic

06 Departments

Divided like 353; e. g. 354.43062 Tresury department of Germany

07 States Monarchs

072 Landtag Ministers Council of state

08 Free cities

.44 Administration of France Central government

02 Separation of powers

03 President

04 Ministers

os Council of state

MILITARY SCIENCE

355 Military science

Military in broad sense of land and sea forces; but limited to mili-
tary science, tactics, strategy, etc. For War department of U. S.
see 353.6, of other countries use 066 following appropriate geografic
subdivisions of 354, e.g. 354.42066 War dcpt of England. Clas
general histories of military units covering several wars and inter-
mediate periods under appropriate subdivisions of 355-359; e.g.
History of 2d U. S. Cavalry 357.0973, general history of a N. Y.
subdivision 4 under special wars in 973? e.g. Mexican war being
Ethics of war, 341. 3 War in International law, 344 Martial law,
399 War customs, 623 Military engineering. For form divisions
see Table 2 after Relativ index

SUMMARY

355.1 General questions Military life

.2 Military resources Recruitment and requisitions

.3 Organization of military forces Classification

.4 Tactics Strategy History of campains

.5 Training maneuvers and services

.7 " establishments

.8 " equipment and supplies Materiel

.9 Other topics

356 Infantry Foot troops 357 Cavalry Mounted services

358 Other arms and services: artillery, engineers, special technical
services, air services

359 Naval science Sea forces Marines, Coast guards, etc.

.1 General questions Military life

. 1 1 Servis periods and retirement

.111 Length of activ service Training periods

Recall, allotment of various army classes, etc.

.112 Promotion

.113 Inactiv periods

Leavs, furlos; in reserv status, availability; non-activ
periods, periods on half -pay; sick leavs (undergoing
treatment in hospitals, sanitariums, etc.) ; during captivity,
Penal institutions) ; during imprisonment, etc.

.114 Termination of servis Resulting status

Retirement, resignation; discharge (honorable or dis-
honorable), reinstatement proceedings; desertion, deth,
suicide, etc. Cancelation of commission, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

355.115 Veterans Former combattants

Old and disabld soldiers. Provision for ex-soldiers,
civil employment, colonization, rehabilitation, etc. See
also 351.1-.6 Civil service and pensions, 362.65 Aid in
cases of infirmity

.12 Military life in peace and war

Living conditions, etc. under various military situations:
in garrison or camp, in the field, on the march, during
641.573 Military cookery

.13 Military honor Disciplin Remuneration

Military ethics and etiquet

.131 General questions

Ceremonies; breaches of honor; courts of honor and
inquiry, judgments, penalties, disgrace, etc.

.132 Military duels

of dueling, 394.8 Dueling customs

. 1 33 Military disciplin Offenses

Military authority and obedience. Military crimes,
mutiny, looting, malingering, etc. Disciplinary organiza-
tion: military police, gendarmes, provost marshals;
administration of military justice. Military punishments:
corporal punishment, flogging, etc.

.134 Military rewards, privileges and advantages

Special privileges; salutes; honorary insignia, brevets,
decorations, medals, badges, orders, etc. (For insignia
designating function and identity see 355.81) Rolls of
honor (Rolls of honor of a particular war ar clast with
Promotion, 929.7 Military orders and nobility

.135 Remuneration

Military pay, salary. For methods and records see 355.64,
pensions 351.5

. 1 4 Uniforms

As costume. System, distinguishing rank; stile, color, esthetic
considerations. Etiquet of uniforms, regulations as to what
to wear under various circumstances. For administrativ
aspects see 355.66, description and use 355.81

.15 Colors and standards

Flags, color guards. Limited strictly to military regulations.
Heraldry

.16 Military celebrations

Commemorations, anniversaries, jubilees. Celebrations relat-
ing to a particular war ar clast with history of that war

.17 Military ceremonials

MILITARY SCIENCE

355.2 Military resources Recruitment and requisitions

Discussions of value and availability of peace time national
resources if needed for defense and in time of war. Legislation
providing for militarization of national resources in case of need
for war or defense. For administration after being taken over
by the military see 355.6

.21 General questions

Preparedness, rediness of resources for mobilization; conscrip-
tion of welth and property; economic preparedness; military
tax; sabotage of military resources, etc.

.22 Men Recruitment

Obligations of citizens with respect to national defense;
militia system, national guard. (For relations of govern-
ment to maintenance of public order see 351.74 Government
police mesurcs) Voluntary and compulsory enlistment, con-
scription, drafting, universal service; recruits from military
schools, commissioning of officers. Foren enlistments.
Exemptions, bounties, evasion of service, conscientious
objectors, etc. Administration of recruiting, quota system,
etc. Medical, phisical and mental examination of recruits.
diagnosis

.23 Civilian mobilization

Maintenance of war morale, information service and propa-
ganda, censorship. Protection of civilians, feeding, remunera-
tion for damages, etc. Duties of civilian employes, provision
for civil officials. Internment of civilians and enemy aliens,
civil concentration camps. For military prisons see 355.71;

.24 Raw materials

Unprocest materials, availability, etc. for military use.
Agricultural, mineral, etc.; food stufs, fuel, etc. Economic
resources in general

.26 Industrial resources and mobilization

Procest materials, manufactures, provisions, etc. Availability
and conscription of private enterprise, commercial and
financial mobilization

.27 Transportation facilities

623.63 Military railways), vehicles, canals, ships, merchant
for naval use, 387.8 Merchant marine in general transporta-
tion). Routes of travel, distances, strategic importance, etc.
Limited to peace time systems of transportation and their
lines and bases

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

355.28 EfYectiv mobilization Military requisitions

Declaration of imminence of war, application of emergency
powers, calls to arms, order of call. Commandeering of
animals, vehicles, forage, real property, etc. Establishment
of military zones, closing frontier, etc.

.3 Organization of military forces

Classification of personnel

.31 Army units and organization

Constituent divisions for administrate purposes. Armies,
corps, divisions, regiments, army posts, companies, platoons,
squads, etc. Special and incidental units and formations,
guards, foren legion, detachments, parade and inspection
units, etc. For classification according to military obliga-
tion and field of service see 355.35. For special arms see
numbers for those arms, e.g. 356 Infantry, 357 Cavalry, 358
Tecnical services, artillery, etc.

.33 Officers Military hierarchy

Ranks and grades of personnel, military commissions. Com-
mander-in-chief, hedquarters staf, inspectors, commanders,

.331 General questions General command

General principles of command, whether of large or
smaller units. Leadership and command of troops;
preparation of orders, field correspondence, passes, etc.

.338 Enlisted men Privates

For functional classification see numbers for various
arms and services, e.g. 356 Infantry

.34 Special services

Outside and independent of the regular arm or grade. Officers
or men detaild outside their regular grade as instructors,
paymasters, quartermasters, commisary officers, color bearers,
etc. Various functions common to all arms including work
not strictly military. Signal and intelligence services, dis-
patch carriers, postal service, scouts, orderlies, drummers,
buglers, etc.; spies, attaches. Accountants, carpenters,
machinists, chauffeurs, tailors, cooks, librarians, etc.

.35 Armies General stafs

Clast according to military obligation and field of service.
For military units see 355.31

.351 Continental or home armies

1st or front line; 2d line, reservs; 3d line, territorials,
frontier troops or guards, etc.

.352 Colonial armies

Expeditionary forces, nativ troops, auxiliaries, etc.

.356 Allied forces

United forces of coalitions or alliances

.357 International armies

.358 Secret or conceald arms and armaments

MILITARY SCIENCE

355.4 Tactics Strategy History of campains

Plans for attack and defense. Tactics and strategy of a special
arm should be clast with that arm. See also under 355.5 Practis
maneuvers

.41 Logistics and field service

General details of movement and supply of armies in activ
service

.41 1 March tactics

Tactics of troops on the move

.412 Encampment tactics

Tactics during halts, guard duty, outposts, etc.

.413 Scouting Reconnaissance Patrols

.415 General tactical services

Establishing and maintaining lines of communication,
Military roads and bridges in Military engineering).
Maintenance of supply service, magazines, arsenals, etc.
Tactics of camp organization and safety; of medical
service, evacuation of wounded, etc. Establishment of
aspects of military signaling). Handling prisoners of war,
etc.

.42 General tactics

Offensiv and defensiv tactics in time of battle. Tactics of
combined arms, land and sea forces, when working together.
See each arm for its peculiar tactics

.421 General questions

Command and troop liaison, tactical rides, general staf
journeys, etc.

.422 General battle tactics

Offensiv and defensiv. Debarkation and landing ma-
neuvers; skirmishing, night attacks, counter attacks,
retreats; destruction of works, factories, supply depots, etc.

.423 Influence of terrain on operations

Tactics in wooded areas, inhabited regions, in the moun-
tains, along water courses, etc. Stream crossing, etc.

.424 Use of various auxiliary means

Temporary fortifications, trenches, bridges, special means
of communication, balloons, dogs, pigeons, etc.

.425 Guerrilla warfare

Indian fighting, etc.

.426 Riot duty Street fighting

Civil warfare

.427 Colonial tactics

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Strategy-
General military planning. Plan of concentration, arrange-
ment and deployment of troops. Strategic lines and bases
of offensiv and defensiv operations, means of diverting attack
of enemy, smoke screens, camouflage, etc. Evaluation of
forces, study of terrain, influence of morale, determining
proper moment to strike, calculating duration of war, etc.

Siege warfare

Attack and defense of towns, fortified places, etc. Invest-
ment, blockade, bombardment, assault, mine warfare, etc.
For engineering aspects see 623.2-3

National defense

Fortified defensiv positions and zones, barrier forts, etc.
Military division of territory; distribution, location and
placement of troops, garrisons. Defense of industrial areas,
fronters, coasts; provision of zones of inundation, flooding, etc.

Military geografy

Geografic works written from military point of view and
works on strategic conditions in particular theaters of opera-
tion. Preservation of military charts, etc. Divided like
930-999, e.g. 3554773 Military geografy of U. S.

Military history

Tecnical accounts and analises of special wars, campains,
battles and military events; including similar discussions of
imaginary wars and battles. In general preferably clast
with wars to which they belong in 930-999

Training maneuvers and services

Instruction of troops and subaltern grades, military practis and

games

General questions

General garrison and field service, mobilization maneuvers,
demobilization, etc.

Grand maneuvers Instruction camps

War games with 2 ' armies ', maneuvers of combined arms.
Maneuver and dril grounds, field exercises. Concentration
tests, fortress maneuvers, etc.

Special formations and maneuvers common to
various units

Tactical exercizes in the field or over irregular terrain. General
formations: march, assembly, combat, parade, bivouac, etc.
formations. Embarkation, marching, halting, etc. maneu-
vers. Safety and reconnaissance practis. Offensiv and
defensiv maneuvers: pursuit, retreat, renewal of supplies,
etc.

MILITARY SCIENCE

355.54 Elementary training of units Tactical exer-
cizes for recruits

.541 Foot maneuvers

With or without arms, executing the manual of arms,
623.44 Small arms in Military engineering, 796 Athletic
sports and games

.542 Mounted and motorized maneuvers

With or without arms, manual of arms for mounted
troops, practis with saber, lance, etc.

.543 Artillery maneuvers

Artillery and Gunnery in Military engineering

.544 Camp and fortification operations

623.613 Military establishments in Military engineering).
Temporary fortifications, accessory defenses, batteries,
obstacles, demolition and repair. Field kitchens, etc.

.55 Officers' maneuvers and exercizes

Staf field exercizes. Theoretic problems, map and chart
maneuvers; military operations workt out with miniature
apparatus, counters, colord disks, etc.

.58 Maneuvers involving the civil population

Safety activities, warning and intelligence service, blackout,
rescue maneuvers, demonstrations, etc.

Clas here only the workings and direction of central administrativ
services. For personnel and organization of these services for
special arms see appropriate subdivisions under each arm in
356-359

.61 General questions

Record keeping, filing systems, paper work in general. Gen-
eral correspondence, issuance of orders, authorization of

Contracts, accounting (financial, materials)

.63 Control and supervizion

General administrativ inspection service and organization.
Intendance and commissariat in general

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

355.64 Paymaster's department

Administration of pay, allowances, pensions, etc. For
pension systems see 351.5, pay systems 355.135

.65 Subsistance department

Administration of food supply service, marketing, rationing,
distribution, etc.

.66 Clothing and equipment department

For uniforms as costume see 355.14, description and use 355.81

Provision of quarters, maintenance and upkeep, heating,
lighting, ventilation, etc.

.68 Animals

Transportation maintenance, etc.

.7 Military establishments

Organization and service of permanent and quasi-permanent
building groups as military units; including private establish-
358.36 Military construction services, 359.7 Naval establish-
ments, 623.6 Military establishments in Engineering, 725.18
Architecture of military buildings

.71 Cantonments Lodgings for troops

Barracks, military hedquarters, posts, school groups, camps,
billeting arrangements, military prisons, lodging equipment,
etc. For civil concentration and internment camps see

.72 Sanitary and medical establishments

Hospitals, infirmaries, sanitariums, etc.

.73 Artillery establishments

Arsenals, military foundries and workshops, munitions
factories, materiel depots, powder factories and magazines,
target ranges and proving grounds, artillery schools, etc.

.74 Engineering establishments

General shops and factories, depots and testing grounds for
engineering materials

Subsistance and general equipment establishments; bakeries,
kitchens, provision and fodder storehouses, supply farms,
water supply, clothing manufacture and repair establishments,
etc.

MILITARY SCIENCE'

355.8 Military equipment and supplies Materiel

Military stores, description, issue and use; quartermaster's
dept, etc. For equipment of a particular arm see number
for that arm in 356-359

.81 Clothing Camp equipment

Uniforms and other wearing apparel, hed coverings, buttons,
shoes, leggings, underwear, functional insignia, etc. (for
Uniforms as costume, etiquet of uniforms, 355.66 Administra-
tiv aspects). Accouterments, canteen, knapsacks, baggage,
etc. Camp equipage, everything necessary for camping,
tentage, field kits, bedding, rations, stoves, cooking and mes
355- 1 5 Flag regulations)

.82 Arms and ammunition

Administrate questions; working and reserv supply, storage,
issue, etc. For mecanism and relativ efficiency of different
kinds see 623.4

.83 Transport equipment

Wagons and other vehicles, harness and other accessories.
Packing and shipment of goods. Transport trains, sled and
pack trains, etc. Railroads, troop ships, transport planes,
etc. Mecanical transportation, motor transportation, tract-
ors, etc. Artillery vehicles, including the guns themselvs.
Pontoons, boats, ambulances, etc. Skates, skis, snowshoes,
etc. Transport animals, horses, mules, camels, elefants,
dogs, etc.

.84 Pioneering tools

Digging and intrenching tools. Tools for preparing road-
ways, cutting thru forests, etc.

.85 Nonpioneering tools and instruments

Communications equipment, etc.

.8^ Recreational equipment

Athletic equipment, musical instruments, etc.

.87 Archival and documentary materials

Materials for record keeping, printed forms, etc.

.9 Other topics

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Infantry Foot troops

General questions

Personnel and organization

Main infantry units

Infantry of the line; light, mounted, cyclist, etc. infantry;

foot chasseurs; shock, etc. units; mccanized infantry

Colonial infantry

Organizations eventually subject to mobiliza-
tion

Firemen, customs officials, foresters and other government
services specially liable to infantry service. Reservs,
national guard infantry, etc.

Volunteer corps
Irregular troops

1 Corps francs ' existing only during war; self-organized
infantry; guerillas, brigand troops, etc.

Infantry units performing special functions

scouts, etc. Alpin, parachute, ski, etc. units

Tactics and maneuvers Equipment

Dril regulations, infantry manual of arms. Marching,
stream crossing; firing, musketry, small arms practis and
inspection, etc. Infantry equipment, clothing, arms,
equipment and supplies in general)

Staf and special services

Personnel and organization. Staf officers, adjutants, assist-
ants, aides, etc. Staf clerks, secretaries, etc. Intelligence
services, espionage, information, records, etc. Special tecnical
and scientific services, cifcrs, etc. Staf activities during
maneuvers, field service, etc. Chancery and protocol services,

Personnel and organization. Intendancc, sanitary service,

Cavalry Mounted services

Special mounted troops outside the other regular arms and gen-
eral questions concerning animals in army service ar included
here

General questions

Personnel and organization

Main cavalry units

Cavalry of the line; hevy, reserv, light, etc. cavalry.
For mccanized cavalry see 357.5

MILITARY SCIENCE

Colonial cavalry-
Volunteer cavalry
Irregular "

Guerilla, brigand, etc. cavalry

Cavalry units performing special functions

Cuirassiers, carbineers, lancers, hussars, mounted chas-
seurs, dragoons, cavalry pioneers, etc.

Cavalry and draft animals

Horses, mules, oxen, camels, elefants, etc. For adminis-
trate functions see 355.68, remount service and training
357-2

Tactics and maneuvers Equipment

Cavalry manual of arms. Stream crossing; cavalry out-
posts, reconnaissance; cavalry field service; firing instruc-
tions, cavalry sword exercizes, etc. Cavalry equipment,
and supplies in general)

Remount and training services Breeding
establishments

Personnel and organization. Securing and training cavalry
mounts; training camps, equitation; remount depots, breed-
ing, care, etc.

Army equipment train

Personnel, organization, establishments; provision and muni-
tion columns, etc.

Mecanized cavalry

Cyclist, motorcicle, automobile, etc. cavalry. Tecnical corps ;
etc.

Cavalry staf and special services
Other arms and services

Artillery, engineers, tecnical services, etc. Personnel, organiza-
tion, equipment, tactics, etc.

Artillery

Types of artillery units: field, mountain, coast, antiaircraft,
357-5 Mecanized cavalry). Artillery tenders and auxiliary
services. Artillery animals, motorized artillery, etc. For
ordnance, gunnery, etc. see 623.4-.5 Military engineering

Engineers

units, torpedo units, etc. Communications services: tele-
grafists, signalers, radio operators, searchlight engineers,

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

358.3 Special tecnical services

Military artisans; services connected with manufacture of
war materiel, munitions, powder, etc.; with construction of
military buildings, camouflage service, etc. 358.3 1-.37 may
be divided like 623 for services not otherwize specially pro-
vided for, e.g. 358.36 Military construction services, 358.377
Camouflage services. In general prefer 623 Military engi-

.4 Air service

As separate service, or connected with army or navy. Person-
nel, organization, equipment, tactics, etc. Aeronautic
aeronautics, 629.13 Aeronautic engineering

359 Naval science Sea forces

For Navy dept of U. S. see 353.7, of other countries use 067 fol-
lowing appropriate geografic subdivisions of 354, e.g. 354.42067
wars in 973; e.g. naval units in Mexican war 973.625. For
naval affairs considerd in conjunction with general military
Naval architecture. For form divisions see Table 2 after
Relativ index

.1-.8 may be divided so far as applicable Uke 355.1-.8; e.g.
359-3 Organization of naval forces

.31 Naval units: Fleets, squadrons, flotillas, etc. Crews,

divisions, gun crews, etc.
.32 Special types of ships

•33 Naval hierarchy, officers: Fleet commander, admirals, rear
admirals, captains, lieutenants, ensigns, midshipmen, war-
rant officers, boatswains, petty officers, etc.

.338 Enlisted sailors

.35 Navies: Clast according to military obligation and service.

Main fleets; reserv, auxiliary and colonial fleets; coast

defense, landing forces, etc.
.5 Naval training maneuvers
.54 Training ships

.9 Other topics Special services
.96 Marines Naval infantry

.97 Coast guards

In time of war. For Coast guards in general see 351.792

.98 Special tecnical services

.981 Naval artillery

.982 " engineers

ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

o Welfare and social associations and
institutions

This covers what is best known as " Charities and corrections," and ,i
works on this topic go in 360. Under each section .9 is used as in 363.9, foi
grouping by location; e. g. Clubs of London ar 367.9421

Clas under 360 all which concerns welfare work, insurance, and associations having a
social caracter and not devoted to some special field. Those devoted to some special
field (religious, commercial, scientific, art, sporting, literary etc.) ar clast under their

)i Charitable

.01 Principles of welfare work

Responsibility, charity, philanthropy, mutual aid

.1 Medical aid in general

Medicin for poor; free medicin; medical and pharamceutic aid

.2 Aid according to place where given

In country or city, at home or in institutions

.3 Aid according to person resieving

.4 Aid according to kind

Funeral expenses

.5 Certain exceptional cases

Calamities, disasters, plagues

. 5 1 Earthquakes
.52 Floods
• 53 War
. 54 Epidemics
.55 Famine
.56 Fire

.6 Official or public aid in general

.7 Private aid in general

.7,5 Contributions Charity entertainments

.8 Charity organization

United work; cooperation and association of charitable works: charity
information bureaus

>2 Hospitals, asylums, and allied societies

.01 Discussions of purpose, nature and caracter

.1 Sick and wounded

.11 General hospitals Contagious wards, pesthouses

Infirmaries

Treatment at hospitals

. 1 2 Dispensaries

.13 Sanitariums and bath establishments

Special sanitariums: for incurables, cancer patients, lepers, epileptics, con-
sumptivs, inebriates. Sanitariums at high altitudes. Baths and watarcurea.
Establishments for sea baths

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

362.14 Medical cases treated at home

.145 Distribution of medians

. 1 5 Maternity hospitals

Institutions for women in confinement and (or infants

.16 Convalescents

.18 Wounded and disabled City ambulances

.19 Other

.196-.108 divided like 616-618

E.g. 362.1973 Orthopedic hospitals

.2 Insane

For other relations see Insane, Insanity in Relativ index following Table*

.3 Idiotic Imbeciles Feebleminded

For other relations see Idiocy. Idiots, in Relativ index

.4 Blind Def Dum

.5 Paupers Poor

For other relations see Pauperism, Paupers, in Relativ index >

51 Beggary Vagrancy Poorhouses

.52 Lodgings for poor

Dormitories, warm halls. Work in return for lodgingi

. 53 Money aid

Charity bureaus. Right of poor to be helpt. Savings funds

.535 Taxation of poor

.536 Loans Loan funds for the needy

. 54 Aid thru necessaries and conveniences

Distribution of food, clothing and fuel. Cooperativ kitchent, ovem, stove*

.55 Marriage Dowry Legitimation

. 56 Free colonies : pauper or workmen's

.57 Land privilege

Lots for cultivation

.6 Aged Infirm Bereft

.61 Homes for the aged

.62 Retiring pensions

Funds for retirement and aid. Mutual aid fund*

.625 For widows and orfans

.65 Infirm Aid in case of infirmity

.67 Deth: aid to survivors; widows, dependents

See also 362.62s Pensions for windows and orfans, 362.7 Aid to children

.7 Childhood and youth : aid, protection, support

. 7 1 Nurslings

Giving over nurslings to 3d party. CrAches. Protection of infants

.72 Natural children Foundlings

.73 Orfans Orfan asylums Adoption and help

.74 Children neglected, ill treated, perverted

• 75 Various classes of children

Children of soldiers, sailors, public offisers

ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

362.76 School enterprizes

.761 Distribution of food at school

Cooperativ children's kitchens; pupijs' lunch rooms; soup for pupili

.764 Distribution of books and school supplies

.766 School patronage

. 7 7 Distribution of clothing

.78 Sick and crippld children

Special hospitals and sanitariums for children

.8 Other

.9 Special countries •

Divided like 930-999; e. g. 362.94a Hospitals of England

363 Political

Tammany, Primrose leag, Ku Klux, etc.

364 Reformatory organizations and activities
Criminology

criminal trials and procedure; 347.9 General and civil courts; 351.74
Police mesures; 352.2 Local police. For form divisions see Table 2
after Relativ index

SUMMARY

.1 General questions

.2 Crime: nature, character, causes

.3 Criminal classes Offenders Delinquents

.4 Crime prevention

.5 Reformatory and correctional courts

.6 " mesures Parole Probation

.7 " institutions

.8 Discharged convicts

.9 In special countries

.1 General questions
.2 Crime

Nature, character, causes, definitions of crime. Popular and
Criminal responsibility

.21 General questions

Increase of crime, crime waves, lawlessness, etc.

.22 Phisical environment and crime

Ecology of crime. Crime and topografy, climate, seasons,
time of day, light and darkness, etc.

.23 Heredity and crime

Atavism and hereditary degeneration, family degeneration and
Evolution, 613.9 Hygiene and heredity

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

364.24 Individual factors and crime
.241 General questions

.242 Phisical factors and crime

Stigmata of crime. Influence of anatomic, phisiologic and
anatomy). Crime and age, sex, disease and deformity, etc.

.243 Abnormal mental factors and crime

Mental superiority, genius and crime; mental inferiority,
insanity, feeblemindedness and crime. Crime and hypno-
psicology, mental derangements; 134 Hypnotism; 135.5
Somnambulism; 157.4 Passions - 364.34 Criminal psicology

.25 Social factors and crime

.251 General questions

.252 Social progress and crime

Civilization and crime, influence of simple v. complex
cultures. Legislation and crime, attitude of public, defectiv
administration of criminal justice, special types of laws and
crime

.253 Social environment and crime

Density of population. Conditions in home and family:
housing, overcrowded homes, size of family; degenerate
status and relation of parents, broken homes; employd
mothers, dependent children, lack of parental control,
illegitimacy, etc. Conditions in neighborhood, community
364.7648 Effects of reformatories, 365.648 Effects of prisons
and jails)

.254 Cultural factors and crime

Religion and crime. Education and crime: literacy,
illiteracy; school retardation; lack of character training in

.255 Leisure and recreation and crime

Influence of playgrounds, sports, amusement and public
parks; public dance halls, cabarets, etc.; pool-rooms, school
stores, automobiles; absence of places of recreation, public
and commercial. For theater and crime see 364.254

.256 Social conflicts and crime

Individual social maladjustments; immigration and crime
323.1 Racial groups, 364.335 Race and crime)

CRIMINOLOGY

364.257 Influence of war and militarism

Post-war effects

.258 Politics and crime

and penal institutions

.259 Other social factors

.26 Economic factors and crime

Influence of mode of production: capitalistic, socialistic, etc.;
of occupation: special industries, child labor and crime (see
also 331.3 Labor of children); of business cycles and economic
ments between capital and labor); of unemployment (see
also 331.137 Unemployment); of economic status: poverty,
of standards and cost of living, wages, struggle for existence
etc.

.28 Cost of crime

.3 Criminal classes Offenders Delinquents

Studies of inmates of correctional institutions. For criminals clast
by cause see 364.2, kinds of penal institutions see 365.3
.301 Theory

4 Language Nomenclature

Including language of criminal classes, criminal argot, slang,
etc.

8 Scientific methods of studying offenders

mesurements, 364.34 Criminal psicology), psichiatric and
Pathology). Social case or autobiografic method, individual
case study. Anthropologic, biologic or eugenic, ecologic
(environmental studies), statistical, etc. methods

.31 General questions

.32 " types of criminals

Recidivists, repeaters, habitual and professional criminals.
Occasional criminals, single offenders (1 crime). Criminals
by accident. Evolutiv criminals, persons conscientiously at
variance with prevailing opinion or custom

•33 Criminal anthropology

.331 General questions

.332 The criminal type

•333 Criminal phisiognomy and anatomy

•334 Criminal anthropometry

.335 Criminal ethnografy Race Nationality

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

364.34 Criminal psicology

Psicology of a specific type of criminal is best clast with that
type. Criminal responsibility, social accountability, freedom
character, causes). Growth of idea of committing crime.
Psicologic effect of treatment, effect of punishment, reformatory
mesures, etc. Criminal personality, traits: intellectual, moral,
Psicology; 364.243 Abnormal mental factors and crime; 364.3018
Psicologic methods of studying offenders

.35 Predelinquents Predelinquency

Potential, near and quasidelinquents

.36 Juvenil delinquents and delinquency
Incorrigibility

Jails and juvenil offenders, studies of juvenil inmates of cor-
Juvenil courts, 364.624 Parole for juvenil offenders, 364.634
Probation for juvenil offenders, 364.722 Reformatory institu-
tions for juvenils, 365.42 Prisons for juvenil offenders

.361 General questions

.362 Truants Truancy

Prefer 371.52 Truancy, from point of view of education.

.363 Boys Gangs

136.77 Childstudy

.364 Girls Gangs

I36-775 Childstudy

.371 General questions

.372 Men offenders

Studies of men inmates of correctional and penal institutions

•373 Women offenders

Studies of women inmates of correctional and penal institu-

.374 Groups of offenders

Organized, criminal gangs (for boy gangs see 364.363, girl
gangs 364.364); unorganized, crowds, mobs

.38 Offenders by type of crime committed

.39 Other topics

CRIMINOLOGY

364.4 Crime prevention

.41 General questions
.42 Control of population

Control of number of people: size of family, birth control
(for birth control see 173. 3 Ethics, 612.63 Phisiology,
613.94 Eugenics); control of immigration and emigration
quality of people: thru negativ or positiv eugenics (see
Phisiology 612.6161 and 612.621 1); thru segregation. See
also 312 Demografy

.43 Control of economic conditions

Thru amelioration of unemployment, provision against absolute
need, vocational guidance for children, etc.

.44 Socialization of fundamental institutions

Home and family; school and education, provision for normal
children and those handicapt phisically, mentally, socially,
etc.; church and religion; community and neighborhood; play-
ground and amusements; the pres; government and law, law
on crime), control of drugs and alcohol, scientific legislation

.45 Social adjustment of children Child guidance

Thru work of clinics, visiting teachers, family case work, etc.

.46 Preventiv police work

.47 Rational treatment of offenders

.48 Cooperation of public

Enlightend public opinion; crime prevention by employers

.49 Other

.5 Reformatory and correctional courts

Activities, procedures, etc. For criminal court activities see 343.

.51 General questions

.52 Juvenil or children's courts

juvenil offenders

.521 General questions

.522 Functions Powers Jurisdiction

Organization, personnel: judges, referees, social workers,
clinicians (phisicians, psichiatrists, etc.) ; supervizion, stand-
ards. For probation officers see 364.632

.524 Laws and legislation

.525 Practis and procedure

Process before hearing, treatment by police; detention of
365.34 Detention houses); clinic treatment of offenders;
hearing and disposition of case

.526 Records

Systems, forms, record writing

.527 Results Defects Reforms

.528 Relations with other agencies

With the home, foster homes, children's homes; school,
church, community, social agencies, police, other courts,
etc.

.529 Other topics

.53 Domestic relations courts Family courts

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Reformatory mesures Clemency

General questions
Personnel

Boards, commissions, departments, etc. Agents, officers,

etc.

Legal basis, rules and regulations, terms; standards and
standardization; preliminary work; selection and assign-
ment of beneficiaries, diagnosis of offenders, grading systems;
supervizion of beneficiaries, state and local; records and
reports; violation, revocation, etc. of privileges; etc.

For special classes

Juvenils: boys, girls; adults: men, women; 1st offenders

Beneficiaries

Studies of, etc.

Cooperation with public and private social
agencies
Results
Defects
Other topics
Parole Indeterminate sentence

Ticket of leav

General questions
629 divided like 364.612-.619

E.g. 364.623 Administration of parole system

Probation Suspended sentence Repriev

General questions
639 divided like 634.612-.619

Clas parental control in 364.634 Probation for juvenils

Pardon Amnesty
Commutation of sentence
Reformatory and correctional institutions

General questions
Types

Institutions for juvenils

Houses of refuge; reform, industrial or training scnools.
truancy; 371.52 Truancy in Education). Junior republics,
juvenil delinquents

Houses of correction

CRIMINOLOGY PRISONS

364.75 Reformatory plant: grounds, buildings, equip-
ment

Divided like 365.5, e.g. 364.753 Types of reformatory buildings.
For Reformatory architecture see 725.63-.64

Divided like 365.6, e.g. 364.765 Employment of inmates. See
also 331.52 Reformatory labor in Labor economics, 364.253
Influence of correctional institutions on crime

.77 Reformatory reform

.78 Relations to other subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 364.788
Reformatories in literature

.8 Discharged convicts and delinquents

Aftercare, postprison treatment. For release from prison see
365-647

.9 In special countries

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 364.932 Criminology in ancient Egypt

365 Penal institutions Prisoners

and correctional institutions. For form divisions see Table 2 after
Relativ index

SUMMARY

.1 General questions

.2 Prison systems

.3 Kinds of penal institutions

.4 Prisons for special classes

.5 Prison plant

.7 " reform

.8 Relations to other subjects

.9 In special countries

.1 General questions

.2 Prison systems

buildings

.21 General questions

.22 Penal servitude Galleys

.23 Congregate system

.24 Solitary or separate confinement (Pennsylvania)
system

Dungeon, cellular, etc. systems

.25 Silent or Auburn system

Congregate for work, cellular for lodging

.26 Progressiv or intermediate stage system

Irish or Crofton system

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Kinds of penal institutions

Prisons Penitentiaries

For commitment of major offenders

Jails

For commitment of minor offenders and confinement pending
trial

Detention and station houses

juvenil offenders

Workhouses

Penal or prison farms Penal colonies
Prisons for special classes of offenders

assignment of prisoners

Juvenil offenders

Juvenil offenders in general

Women offenders

Insane and mentally defectiv criminals
Prisoners of war

Combatants; noncombatants, civilians; internment camps.
tration camps, 355.71 Military prisons

Political prisoners
Dettors

Prison plant: grounds, buildings, equipment

For prison architecture see 725.6

General questions
Location Site

Urban, suburban, rural

Types of buildings

Congregate or Auburn type; solitary confinement plan; circular
eel block; army barracks, dormitory and cottage types; etc.

PRISONS

365.54 Special rooms and separate buildings

Administrativ units: Offices, receiving rooms, classification
rooms, etc. Housing quarters for slaf and for prisoners.
Dining rooms, mes halls. Welfare units: school, chapel,
hospital, recreation rooms, social service offices, etc. Factories,
industrial buildings. Farm buildings. Utility rooms, etc.

.55 Heating and ventilation Air conditioning

.56 Lighting

.57 Prison hygiene Sanitation

.58 Equipment: furnishings, fixtures, etc.

.59 Other topics

Control and supervizion of correctional institutions

.61 General questions

.62 " supervizory and control agencies

Inspectors
.63 Prison organization

Personnel (training, selection, salary, etc.): superintendent,
stewards, guards, etc.; phisicians, etc.; office force, clerks,
messengers, etc.; kitchen and dining room employes; janitorial
force, etc. Management, economic aspects, cost of institutional

.64 Prisoners

.641 General questions

Institutional treatment in general, individualization of
treatment

.642 Transportation and reception of prisoners

Classification

Registration, photografing, fingerprinting, etc.; assignment
offenders

.643 Disciplin

Rules and regulations, laws, prison routine. Rights of
convicts; hours for rizing, meals, work, etc.; permissible
articles, restrictions, etc.; privileges; merit systems, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

365.644 Punishments of refractory prisoners

Deprivations, los of privileges; confinement; corporal

.645 Spy system ' Stool pigeon '

.646 Inmate self-government

.647 Release and discharge from prison

For aftercare see 364.8 Discharged convicts

.648 Effects of prisons

crime

.649 Other topics

.65 Employment of inmates Convict labor
Prison labor

Organization, foremen. Unproductiv or punitiv labor (see
also 365.22 Galleys, 365.644 Tredmil). Productiv labor:
special industries, economic aspects, convict v. free labor,
interstate commerce in prison products. Systems -of prison
labor: lease system, chain gangs; contract, etc.; use on
public works and ways. Remuneration, arguments for (sup-
port of families, etc.), against. Convict-labor laws and legisla-

.66 Welfare work Socializing activities
.661 General questions

Prison welfare or social workers in general

.662 Prison educational work Prison schools

374.4 Correspondence teaching), etc. Academic, voca-

.663 Religious and character training in prison

.664 Helth and care of inmates

Diet; clothing, uniforms; personal hygiene of inmates, etc.
Prison clinics and laboratories; medical and hospital service.
Care of special patients: drug addicts, tuberculous, mental

.665 Recreation

Recreation directors; sports: baseball, tennis, etc.; enter-
tainments: theatricals, drama, motion pictures, music,
prison bands, etc.

.7 Prison reform

.8 Relations to other subjects

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 365.88 Prisons in

.9 In special countries

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 365.42 Prisons in England

ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

Secret societies

.1 Masons .3 Knights of Pythias .3 Odd Fellows .4 Rosicruciana

Social clubs
Insurance

01 Theory Scientific basis of insurance

Probabilities. Statistics. Tables: value, use

i Fire

.2 Marine Transportation

3 Life

3 1 Rates

3 7 Annuities

4 Social insurance Workmen's insurance

41 Accident Liability

42 Sickness

424 Maternity insurance

.43 Old age Invalidity

44 Involuntary unemployment

45 Burial

46 Child insurance

.47 Marriage endowment

.5 Casualty

Agricultural

DECIMAL CLASIFITATION

368.6 Against breakage or damage

Glas

.7 Boiler

.8 Other risks

.81 Financial losses

Depreciation of values or rights; mortgages; land titles; transferable securities;

credit; insolvency; civil responsibility; etc.

.82 Burglary Theft

.86 Reinsurance Counterinsurance

.91 Government control Commissioners

.93 _ .99 divided geograficly like 930-999; e. g. Insurance in New York

(including state reports, etc.) is 368.9747

369 Other associations and institutions

.1 Hereditary and patriotic societies (American)

.11 General associations

.111 Regular army and navy union

.112 Society of veterans of the regular army and navy

.113 Military and naval order of the United States

.114 Medal of honor legion

.115 Military order of foren wars of the United States

.116 Order of the old gard

Incorporated 31 Jan. 1896; organized 15 Oct. 1896

.117 Naval order of the United States

.118 Society of American wars
.119

.12 Colonial societies

.121 Society of colonial wars

.122 Society of colonial dames of America

A New York society with chapters in other states; known also merely

as Colonial dames of America

.123 National society of colonial dames of America

A federation of separately incorporated societies in about 40 different

states

.124 Society of the Mayflower descendants

.125 Order of the founders and patriots of America

.126 Colonial order of the acorn

.127 " society of Pennsylvania

.128 " daughters of the 17th century

.129

.13 Revolutionary societies

.131 Society of the Cincinnati

.132 Society of the daughters of the Cincinnati

.133 Sons of the American revolution

.134 Sons of the revolution

.135 Daughters of the American revolution

.136 Daughters of the revolution

.137 Children of the American revolution

.14

.141 Society of the wa> of 181 2

.142 United States d* ighters of 1776-1812

.143 Military societv of the war of 181 2

.144 Society of the second war with Great Britain in the state of

New York

ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

369.145 Aztec club of 1847

.146 National association of veterans of the Mexican war

.147
.148
.149

.15 Civil war societies, Union

.151 G. A. R. (Grand army of the republic)

.152 Military order of the Loyal leg.on

.153 Society of loyal volunteers

.154 Union veterans union

.155 Union prisoners of war association

.156 Society of the army and navy of the Gulf

.157 National association of naval veterans

.158 Society of the army of the Cumberland

•159

.16

.161 Woman's relief corps

.162 Woman's veteran relief union

.163

.164

.165 Sons of union veterans of the civil war

Formerly called Sons of veterans of the United States of America

J

.17 Civil war associations, Confederate

.171 Confederate survivors association

.172 Confederate veterans association

.173 United sons of confederate veterans

.174 " confederate veterans

.175 Daughters of the confederacy
.18

.181 Spanish war veterans

.182 Society of the army of Santiago de Cuba

.183 Naval and military order of the Spanish American war

.184

.185

.186 Societies arising from World war of 1914-19

1 American legion
.2 Hereditary and patriotic societies other than American

,2i International

.23-.29 By country

Divided like 930-999

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

369.4 Young peoples societies

For religious societies see 267.6

.41 Mizt: boys and girls

.42 Boys

.43 Boy scouts

.46 Girls
.47 Campfire girls

EDUCATION

Education

SUMMARY

371 Teachers Methods Disciplin

.2 School organization, administration and superviaion School records

.3 Methods of instruction and study

.4 Sistems of education

.5 Government Disciplin Authority

.6 School premises and equipment

.7 " hygiene Physical welfare of students

.8 Student life and customs

.9 Education of special classes

372 Elementary education

373 Secondary Preparatory

375 Curriculum Course of study

376 Education of women

377 Religious, ethical and secular education

378 Colleges and universities

379 Public schools Relation of state to education

.X Theory of education Meaning Aim Value

Including philosofy of education, science of education and general discussions of
the means by which education is advanst. Not limited to any curriculum, school
or clas of schools. For specific methods, pedagogics, see 371

.109 History of educational theory

Divided like 930-999

.15 Psychology applied to education

Imitation, suggestion, play etc. Divided like 150

e.g. function of memory in education 370.154

.16 Miscellaneous theories

.19 Special aspects .193 Educational sociology

-2 Compends

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

.5 Periodicals

General. For periodicals limited to a special topic see that topic; e.g.
.58 Annuals Directories Catalogs

General; including discussions as to form and content of such publications.
When devoted to a special topic clas with that topic, e. g. an annual devoted
to kindergartens 372.2058. A catalog of a specific school is clast under number
for that school

..59 Educational almanacs and kalendars for teachers

.6 Organizations Conventions

.61

.6a Associations Clubs

Permanent societies, their meetings and reports. Divided like 930—999

.62 1 International

.63 Congresses Conventions

Occasional congresses and conferences: international or interstate

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

370.7 Study of education Institutions and organizations for training

teachers, supervizors, superintendents etc

Means and methods, including teachers colleges, normal schools, institutes

etc. For need of training, kind and amount, see 371.12

.7 1 Teachers meetings

Clas meetings of teachers of a single institution (faculty meetings) with the
institution; see table for school and college publications under 378. 4-.©

.711 Plan and organization

Frequency, time, place, control, coit etc

.712 Courses of study Programs

-7*3-9 I n special places

Divided geograficly like 930-999

.72 Teachers institutes

Divided like 370.71 above

.73 Teachers colleges Normal schools

Institutions primarily for training teachers; e. g. state normal schools. Teachers
college of Columbia university; often with attacht ' model ', practis or demon-
stration schools, in which students teach under supervizion of their instructors.
For training classes or courses attacht to schools not conducted primarily for
training teachers etc see 370.7s

.731 Plan and organization Aims and functions Scope

Length and time of terms. Support: public, private,
.732 Courses Programs Credentials

2 Courses and programs

4 Credentials

Diplomas, degrees etc
6 Training for special grades of schools

Uze as general number. Each of following grades may be divided by
2 and 4 like .7322-4 above

62 Elementary schools

63 Secondary schools

64 Colleges and universities

65 Professional and teknical schools

•733 Adjuncts: practis, model or demonstration schools

•734~9 Special countries and schools

Divided geograficly like 940-999
.74 Education museums

Including exhibits at international expositions, state and county fairs, etc
.75 Training classes

Clas here teachers classes or courses attacht to schools conducted primarily
for another purpose than training teachers. For institutions conducted
primarily for training teachers see 370.73

.753 In secondary schools

.754 " colleges and universities

.755 " professional and teknical schools

Mainly courses in teaching special professional and teknical subjects

.76 Schools of education (also courses) for training supervizors, super-

.766 Training for special grades of schools

Divided like 370.7326

.77 Special pedagogic methods

Professionalization of subject matter

.78 Reserch in education

Educational reserch organizations. Reserch on special subject is clast with

subject

EDUCATION

370.8 •■ Polygrafy

.81 Collected writings of a single author

If not limited to a definit topic; e.g. Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, etc

.82 Collected writings of several authors

.9 History Description

General works covering both ancient and modern history, and including history

The child among uncivilized and semicivilized

peoples

.901 Ancient
.902 Medieval
.903 Modern

.904 30th century

.92 Educational biografy

Preferably clast in 923.7

•93 _ -99 History of education in special countries

Divided like 930-999
.9401 Medieval Europe

.9402 Modern Europe

371 Teachers Methods Disciplin

Practical methods. See 370.1 for theories of education. The following divisions

Teachers, professors, masters, instructors; administrativ and supervizory offisers
370.7 Training of teachers, 371.2 School administration, 379.15 Governmental
school supervizion. For discussions relating specificly to men vs women see 371.18

.101 Duties and responsibilities Mission

Team work. Students rights

.102 Personal influence

.103 Relations to parents

Mutual duties of parents and teachers. Parent-teacher associations

.104 Relations to community Public status

.105 Social status

. 1 1 Qualifications Personality

.12 Need of training; kind and amount

General discussions of special preparation of teachers and professors for their
vocation, including experience and growth or improvement while in servis.
For training of teachers etc, defined in degrees, courses etc see 370.733

.13 Examination Certification Rating

.132 Examination

.133 Certification Registration

.134 Rating Rating scales Standards

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

371.14 Appointment Organization of teaching force

.142 Appointment Contracts Tenure Transfer

Discharge

2 Appointment Election

3 Contracts

4 Tenure

5 Transfer Exchange

6 Ending servis

62 . Discharge Dismissal

63 Resignation

64 Retirement
.143 Appointing body

Board, committee, principal

.145 Agencies

Bureaus and associations for supplying teachers

.147 Organization of teaching force

2 Supervizors Principals Superintendents
Hedmasters

For principals and superintendents as appointing offisers see 371 .143
for supervizors as governmental offisers, state and comfy super-
intendents, etc see 379.15

3 Clas teachers Instructors Professors Masters

For private instruction, tutors, governesses etc see 373.1; for college
and university faculty, professors etc see 378.1

.15 Professional status

Permanent profession vs steppingstone theory

.16 Salary and promotion Compensation Amount

of servis

For pensions and insurance see 371.17

.161 Salary

2 Increases

4 Bonuses
.162 Fees

.163 Allowance for expenses

.164 Residence Living expenses

For salary promotion see 371.161

.166 Hours Daily or weekly servis

.167 Vacation Yearly servis

.168 Sabbatic year

. 1 7 Pensions and insurance for teachers

Carnegie pension tund

EDUCATION

371.18 Men vs women as teachers
.182 Men as teachers

Need and place of men on teaching force

1 General considerations

2 Personal relations Qualifications Personality-

Subdivisions 1-5 may be added, corresponding to 371.101-.105

3 By grades and types of schools

31 In primary schools and kindergartens

32 " grammar or intermediate schools

33 " secondary or high schools

34 " colleges and universities

35 " professional and teknical schools

36 " girls schools

37 " boys "

38 " evening schools
.183 Women as teachers

Feminization of teaching force. Divided like 371.182

.19 Other topics

.2 School organization, administration and super-
vizion School records

Statistics. Publicity. Diary. 'Logbook.' Progress book. For general dis-
cussions; records of an individual school ar clast with that school. For
administrativ and supervizory personnel other than governmental see 371.1472 .
For government of students, disciplin, see 371.5. For government supervizior"
see 379.15

For college entrance requirements see 371.214. Standards of an
individual school ar clast with that school

.211 Primary school and kindergarten standards

Divided like 930—999

.212 Grammar or intermediate school admission standards

Including standards of German burgerschulen. Divided like 930-999

.213 Highschool standards

Including standards of German gymnasia, French colleges and lyc6es.
Divided like 930-999

.214 College standards

universities. Divided like 930—999

.215 Professional and teknical school standards

Divided like 930-999

.22 Tuition fees Free tuition Scholarships

pupils in public schools; 378.34 College scholarships

.221 Free tuition

.222 Scholarship funds Student endowments

Student scholarships

.223 Traveling scholarships

.226 Student income and expenses

For income and expenses of college students see 378.36

DECIMAL CLASIFICATIOtf

371.23 Terms Semesters Quarters Vacations
Holidays Breaking up

diseases 371.713

.232 Summer or vacation schools

summer schools

.234 Terms in 2 or more places

For floating schools see 371.39a

.24 Sessions Hours Recess

For exercize see 371.73 Care of body

For general discussions of size of clas, ungraded classes, provision for indi-
vidual differences by special classes or groups. For individual instruction see
371.394. For psychology of individual differences see 136.7

Childstudy. For grading of schools, see 379.17

.253 Length of school courses ; e. g. 6 year course

.26 Marking sistems Educational mesufements

and tests

Credit sistem: meaning and value of unit, semester, hour etc. For intelli-
gence tests see 151.2

.27 Examinations: oral, written Cramming

For competitiv examinations see 371-535

.28 Promotions Demotions Retardation
.29 Other topics

.391 Ending student connection

3 Student mortality Dropping out

.3 Methods of instruction and study

Under the heds below clas discussion of pedagogic value of these methods.
For methods of teaching specific subjects see those subjects; for their educa-
tional value see 375 Curriculum, e. g. teaching of mathematics 510.7, place of
mathematics in curriculum 375.51

.3 1 Rote or concert teaching
.32 Textbooks Recitations

Collateral reading. Assignments. Home work. Discussion of use of text-
books and desirable qualities of textbooks in general. Textbooks themselvs

and discussions of textbooks on special subjects ar clast with those subjects.
Recitation as method in which pupil lerns and recites an assigna lesson; for
broad sense as including all types of clasroom activity see 371.3

EDUCATION

371.33 Lectures Oral and visual instruction

.332 Assemblies Opening exercizes Dramatization

As methods of instruction

2 Assemblies Opening exercizes

Student assemblies

5 Dramatization

•333 Mecanical oral instruction

8 Applications and relations

Divided like the whole clasification

•335 Visual instruction Lantern slides Moving pic-
tures

1 General questions

2 Pictures

22 Stereopticon lantern and slides

23 Motion pictures

3 Charts

4 Maps

5 Blackboard
8 Television

.34 Developing or inductiv method

.35 Art of questioning Catechetic method Socratic
method

.36 Project method Topical method

.363 Correlation

.365 Special days Special weeks

Celebrations. Programs. Historical days: Discovery day. Flag day.
Memorial day, Constitution day. Independence day. Birthday*:
authors and other noted persons; Washington's birthday. Nature:
Arbor day. Bird day. Other: Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter etc

.37 Seminary method Seminar Discussion

.38 Laboratory method

.39 Other

.391 International schools Exchange of pupils

.392 Floating schools or colleges

Combining travel and shipboard instruction

.393 Trips Excursions Visits

.394 Individual instruction

By regular teacher or tutor, at home or at school. Baf.avia sistem.
instruction

.395 Small classes

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

371-4

.41
.42

.421
.422
•4 2 5

.426

1
2

3
4

s

8

9

•43
•44

•45
.46

•47
•5

•51
52

•53
•535

Sistems of education

For Frobel's sistem see 372.2 Kindergarten

Monitorial sistem Mutual sistem

Bell. Lancaster

Educational guidance Vocational guidance and
training

General questions

Student personnel work

Vocational guidance

Clas here also works on choice of vocation, even tho not made under

school direction

Industrial education Manual training

For equipment and cost of manual training schools or departments
see 371.633 Machine shops, 371.676 Apparatus etc. For subjects
of study see 375.01-9. For individual schools see 607 or 378.99

Educational value

In elementary schools

" secondary schools

" special schools

" colleges
Special subjects

Material on the various vocational subjects taught may be kept
together here, .82-. 89 being divided like 620-690, and, for material
not thus provided for, .81 being uzed, subdivided like main clasifi-
cation; but in general practis such material is better clast under
other numbers, i. e. place of these subjects in the curriculum
375-OI-.9, elementary manual training 372.5, skild work under
number for special subject

History and development

Divided like 930-999

Military organization Military instruction
Pestalozzian

Clas here all Pestaloizi's educational writings

Jacotot

Quincy sistem
Government Disciplin Authority

Rules

Attendance Truancy Tardiness Absences

Clas data relating to special school with number for that school. See also
379.23 Compulsory education

Rewards Inducements

Prizes, favors, immunities, approbation, interest

Interschool contests

Competitiv examinations. Literary contests. For interschool and
intercollegiate debates se» 374.245. For interschool athletics se« 371.7s

EDUCATION

371.54 Punishment Disciplinary penalties

Limits of school jurisdiction. Disciplin of consequences

.55 Corporal punishment

.56 Other punishments

Confinement; tasks; expulsion; suspension; discharge; probation

.57 Personnel responsible for disciplin Monitors

.58 Moral government Alcott sistem

.59 Student self government College sistems

.592 Self government

.593 Participation in school management

•595 School city Ray sistem

.6 School premises and equipment

.61 Grounds Site

.62 Bildings

tional institutions. The following subdivisions apply to both special
rooms and separate bildings

.621 Study, lecture and assembly rooms

.622 Library Museums

school libraries; 021.3 Relation of libraries and schools; 027.7 and 027.82
Reports of college and school libraries

.623 Laboratories Observatory Machine shop

371.66 Scientific apparatus and supplies

.624 Gymnasium Swimming pool

.625 Other special rooms or bildings

Dormitories, clubs, infirmaries, YMCA and Y W C A

.626 Sanitation Lavatories

.627 Lighting

8 Fireproofing

.628 Heating Ventilation

.629 Accessories

Elevators, lifts, telefones etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

371.63 Furnishing and decoration
.631 Furniture

Blackboards, desks, chairs, benches. For globe* and maoi

371-6791

.632 Musical instruments

.633 Floors : bare, coverd

033.96 Library bildings
645.1 House decoration

.634 Walls : tints, covering

.635 Decoration

.636 Pictures Frescos Glas

.637 Sculpture

.638 Plants

.639 Other decoration

.64 Libraries

Caracter and functions. For relation to public library see 021.3; for relation
to other school rooms and bildings see 371.622. See also 027.7 College libraries,
027.82 School libraries

.641 Relations of library to faculty and students

.642 School traveling libraries

.644

.645 Elementary school libraries

.646 Secondary school libraries

.647 College and university libraries

Departmental and seminar libraries

.648 Professional and teknical school libraries

In 37 1. 645-. 648 may be clast matter pertaining to desirability and
scope of such libraries, tho it is better in 027.7 and 027.82, with reports
and other matter pertaining to their management

.65 Museums : caracter and functions

Divided if wisht like 010-999: e.g. 371.655 Science museums; 371.657
Art museums. Limited to caracter and functions of museums attach!

to teaching institutions; see also under museum economy 069. 015- .016. See
also 708 Art museums, and form division 074 under special subjects

.66 Scientific apparatus Laboratory equipment
and supplies

Divided like 500; e.g. 371.662 Astronomic observatory

.67 Other apparatus, equipment and supplies

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e - 8- 371-6791 Globes, maps etc

EDUCATION

371.7 School hygiene Physical welfare of students

.71 Helth and safety of students Overstudy
Fatigue

.711 Sanitary conditions and inspection Helth crusades

Board of helth. For sanitary engineer's side see 371.636

.712 Medical inspection Clinics School nurse

For personal conditions affecting helth and intellectual progress;
e.g. clenliness, contagious diseases, nervous disorders, defectiv
eyes, ears or teeth. Closing schools on account of epidemic or
contagious diseases

.713 Posture

.714 Fire preventiv and protectiv mesures Fire drils

For fireproof schoolrooms and bildings see 371.6278; for fire protection
apparatus etc

.716 School meals

Discussion. Administrativ problems: space, cost, whether wholly or
partly free, etc. For management of lunch room, suitable food, etc
see 642. 58

.718 Open air schools

.72 Care of eyes Effect of study

.73 Care of body Gymnastics Calisthenics

For sistems of gymnastics or physical training, and books of exercizes see 613.71

.731 Educational influence of physical training

.73: Gymnastics Calisthenics

2 In elementary schools

3 " secondary schools

4 " colleges

5 " special schools

6 " girls schools

7 " boys "

8 " evening schools
.733 Military dril

For military organization of school see 371.43

.734 Fencing Boxing Wrestling

•735 Swimming Bathing

.736 Riding

.74 Recreations Games etc Athletics Di-
versions

Outdoor sports

.75 Championship games Boat races Inter-
school athletics

For other relations see Games in Relativ index following Tables

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

371.8 Student life and customs

Various aspects of student life and student activities outside regular

courses of study

.805 Student periodicals

Discussion here. Periodicals themselvs preferably with their schools

.81 Student ethics Student honor Honor

sistem

Ethical topics relating distinctly to school life; e. g. cribbing, cheating,
copying, prompting, use of keys and ponies. Ethics of general application

ar clast in 170

.82 Fagging and hazing Bullying German

student duels
.83 Student organizations

Clas under 371 .83-. 84 books covering both secret and nonsecret societies, also

nonsecret societies only

.836 Ancient student societies

.837 Medieval

.838 Modern

.839 By country

Divided like 930-999

.84 By subject

Divided like main clasification, e.g. 371.845 Scientific, 371.848 Literary. See
note under 371.83

.85 Secret societies

Clas all college chapters here, thus bringing the fraternity together,

.851 General
.852 Honorary

Phi Beta Kappa etc

.854 By subject

Divided like main clasification. Clas here (in preference to 371.8s5-.856)

men's or women's secret societies, limited by special subject

.855 Men's societies Fraternities

.856 Women's " Sororities

.857 Kighschool

.86 Society premises Society houses Halls

Temples etc

.87 Student houses Lodgings Dormitories
.88 Commons Student restaurants Eating
clubs

.89 Other topics

Celebrations, customs, triumfs, burnings, anniversaries, ceremonious recep-
tions, student banquets, etc

.892 Student assemblies

.895 School plays Pageants

Divided by language like 400; e.g. 1 English, 3 German

.896 Clas days

Of special institution, with institution

.898 Colors Cheers

Of special institution with institution

EDUCATION

371.9 Education of special classes

General questions; kind and methods of education for these classes.
For institutions see 363, 364. For study of abnormal children see 136.76
Combinations of mentally defectiv with either physically or morally dofectiv
ar clast in 371.92

.91 Physically defectiv

.911 Blind

.912 Def

Finger alfabet

.913 Blind-def
.916 Crippld
.917 Feeblebodied

.92 Mentally and morally abnormal
.922 Mentally defectiv

.927 Speech defectivs

.93 Morally defectiv Delinquents

.94 Border line cases

.95 Supernormal

.96 Social classes

.961 Princes

.962 Nobles

.963 Aristocracy Welthy clas Gentry

.964 Middle clas

.965 Working clas

.966 Dependents

5 Paupers

.97 Special types

.974 Freedmen Negroes

.975 Indians
.976 Orientals

.98 Special nationalities

Special schools for foreners; e.g. French, Hungarians, Russians, Japanese
in United States. Divided like 930-999, e.g. 371.9844 Special schools
for French

.99 Coeducation of races

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

372 Elementary education

Methods. Curriculum. Primary schools. Dame schools. Infant schools (under
7 years). Preschool education. For Day nurseries, crfiches see 362.71; for Minding

schools see 362 75

.01 Pedagogics and didactics of elementary schools

.1 Childstudy

May be uzed like 136.7 by those who insist on

having childstudy with education

.2 Types of elementary schools Kindergarten

Preschool education, infant schools. Individual schools may be clast with their
respectiv types, dividing after 09 like 930—999, or groupt together under 372.9.
See also 371.44 Pestalozzian, for theory and erly history. Put Frobel's work and

development of his sistem here

.201 Theory Principles

.202

.203

.204 Essays

.205 Periodicals

.206 Societies

.207 Training of kindergartners
.208

.209 History

Divided if wisht like 93»-999

.21 Methods

.213 Occupations

.214 Stories

.215 Songs Games

2 Songs

3 Games

.22 Influence of kindergarten

.23 Relation to other schools

.24 Other types of elementary schools

.241 Primary schools

Dame schools, ABC schools, petty schools

2 Nursery schools

.242 Grammar or intermediate schools

Common school education, higher elementary schools

.3 Sensory training Observing powers

Object teaching; science

.31 Methods

Montessori

.35 Nature study

Divided like 500-599; e.g. Birds 373.3598a

.36 Gardening

EDUCATION

Reading Alfabet Fonics and word methods
Spelling

Simultaneous teaching of reading, writing and
spelling

Elementary writing and manual work

Writing

First efforts, imitating printed roman letters

Drawing Design

Clay modeling
Sewing etc

Elementary grammar Language lessons

Mother tung National language
Second language
Elementary arithmetic

Other studies

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e.g. 373.83 Religion

i Elementary geografy

but a primer of geografy is more useful to a student of elementary schools
and methods than to one interested in Geografy, Description and
Travel. Text books, except primary, go with their subjects

Special countries and schools: history, reports,
catalogs etc

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 373.943 English elementary schools. Put here
elementary schools whether public, endowd or private

Secondary Preparatory

Academic; highschools; junior highschools. Clas here discussions of general
theories, methods, curriculums etc pertaining specificly to secondary educa-
tion, regardless of source of support. Clas here also all private or endowd
secondary schools for boys or both sexes; all public (taxsupported) secondary
schools for boys or both sexes may be clast here or in 379. 4-. 9; all elementary
schools (regardless of support) in 37£.9, all schools and colleges solely for women in
376, and all colleges for men or coeducation in 378. Clas methods and questions
peculiar to monastic, diocesan and parochial schools in 377, but clas the schools
themselvs in 372, 373, 378 etc, according to their grades. For specific topics
see 371

Private instruction: tutor, governess, coach

Relativ advantages of instruction at home and
in school

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

373.2 Types of secondary schools

Individual schools may be clast with their respectiv types, dividing after 09 like
930-909. or in 37J.4-0 or 379.4~.9

.22 Day schools Boarding schools

.222 Day schools

.223 Boarding schools

.23 As to organization

.232 4 -year highschools

.234 6- " "

.236 Junior "

.238 Senior "

.24 As to curriculum

.242 Classical

Latin etc highschools

.243-.240, Other types by subject

May be divided like 300-900, e.g.

.245 Scientific, or scientific and teknical combined
5 Commercial

.3-. 9 Special countries and schools: history, reports,
catalogs etc

Divided like 930-999; e. g. 373 42 Higher English schools, Eton, Harrow etc

Home education. Self education and culture. Cultural, personal aspect of

education

Subdivided by o with form numbers if wisht; e.g. 374.05 magazines pertaining
to this work, 374.06 Conferences, conventions, institutes, general meetings
The term Adult education covers the broad field of self education thru
and correspondence schools, lecture courses and other forms of extension
teaching and other agencies for extending more widely opportunities and
facilities for education outside the usual teaching institutions
For relations of this work to libraries, the natural centers for such activities,

With or without personal guidance
.1 Solitary study Private reading Conversation

Advantages to be derived from reading. Study alone with or without aid

Reading lists themselvs, syllabuses and other aids to study belong with

other bibliografies (016) or with compends under their subjects. They may,

however, if preferd, be kept together under 374.19, divided like the clasi-

fication; e.g. syllabus on English history 374.19945; on library economy

374.19 03

See 038, for preparation of guides, policy, methods etc
For vocational guidance see 371.425

EDUCATION

374.2 Associated study Clubs

.21 Study clubs

Clas here 'travel clubs' which study about places without traveling to

.22 Reading circles Book and periodical clubs

.23 Lyceums Literary clubs

.24 Debating societies Oratorio clubs

.245 Interschool and intercollegiate debates

For interschool literary contests see 371 .533

.25 Traveling clubs Educational value of travel

.28 Community centers

Whole community as a club of varied interests. Put here discussion of use
of school bildings for various community purposes

•3

With personal guidance

Either alone or in groups, clubs or classes

.4 Correspondence teaching Manuscript aids

Clas here works on value, history and methods of correspondence teaching;
also printed general correspondence courses. Courses on special subjects ar
better clast with their subjects

.43 Societies for encouraging home study
.44-. 49 Correspondence schools

General schools divided like 940-999. Special schools ar better clast
with their subject, with only a reference here: e.g. correspondence schools
of agriculture 630.714

.5 Lectures

Discussion of lectures as a method of education, either as single lectures, or as a
series of lectures on different subjects; lists of lectures; courses on the same
subject unsupported by any other of the 7 factors of a complete extension course:
i.e.

1 Lectures 3 Clas 5 Guided reading 7 Examination

a Syllabus 4 Papers 6 Club
Lectures themselvs, whether issued separately or in collections, ar clast with
subject treated

.6 Extension courses Lecture study

.62 Lecture study

3 or more lectures on the same subject, with a or more of the 7 factors

.64 Extension courses

S or more lectures on the same subject with 4 or more of the 7 factors.
For extension courses taken for credit under college or university auspices
see 378.13

.8 Continuation schools

Summer, winter, vacation, night (adult) etc. German auxiliary schools.
Divided like 930-999. For public (taxsupported) evening or night schools

.9 Central, organizations State departments
Institutes

For encouragement of self education, e.g. N Y state library extension division,
Brooklyn institute. Cooper institute, Chautauqua etc. May be divided lik»
930-990

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Curriculum Course of study

Clas here general discussions of principles and methodo of curriculum
construction. Curriculums for special kinds of schools or on special
subjects ar better clast with those schools or subjects; e.g. 373 High-
school curriculum; 375.9 History course

.001 Order of studies

.002 Single course Mandatory studies Required courses

.003 Parallel courses

.004 Optional courses Electiv sistem

.005 Balanst courses Group sistem

Special topics

.006 Overcrowding curriculum Coordination of studies

Economy in curriculum. Minimum essentials

007 Courses for different classes of society

Liberal education. Relativ value of studies

i For bredwinning vs culture

a Failure of course to develop efficiency

008 Courses for schools of special kinds

Clas here general discussions only. Clas material relating to special
schools or special kinds of schools under their respectiv clas numbers

.009 Courses for institutions in special countries

01-.9 Subjects of study

Divided like the clasification 010-999; e.g. 375.5 Place of science in the
curriculum, 375 .84 French literature in the curriculum, 375.88 Classics
in the curriculum

Methods of teaching individual subjects, also textbooks, may be kept witn
educational literature by adding letters to 375 as follows: A general, B edu-
cational value of specific subjects, C place in curriculum, D method* of
teaching specific subjects, E textbooks;
e.g. 375.32 B Educational value of political science

3 75 32 C Place of political science in the curriculum

Education of women

.1 Physical capacity of women
.2 Mental capacity of women

by sex

.3 Home or domestic instruction

.4 Fashionable education 1 Finishing ' schools

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs etc see 376.9

.5 Convent education

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs etc see 376 9

.6 Higher education of women

Secondary and college

.63 Secondary: preparatory schools for girls

All between elementary and college. Discussion. Girls taxsupported high-
schools may be clast in 376.9 or 379-4-.91 for private preparatory schools see 376.9

.64 Influence of college education on women

Duties of college women as such

.66 Associations of college women

Association of collegiate alumnae. Alumnae of a single college with that
college

EDUCATION

376.7 Coeducation Segregation Separation

Discussion of collegiate education of women in separate institutions or those
for both sexes, whether in the same or separate classes. See 378 for coedu-
cational institutions, 376.8 for separately organized women's colleges, cither
affiliated like Barnard and Radcliffe or independent like Vassar, Smith etc
Clas here by attraction general discussion of coeducation of sexes in college
and secondary school

.8 Colleges for women

Divided like 930-999. Degreeconferring colleges go here. Arrange material
of each college by ' Table for school and college publications ' following 378.99.
All other schools for women go in 376.9 or 379. 4-. 9

.9 Special countries and schools: history, reports,
catalogs etc

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 376.943 Education of women in Germany

377 Religious, ethical and secular education

Interrelations of these types of education. Miscellaneous educational activities of
religious and charitable organizations, regardless of place, time or subject, except
religious instruction. For inculcation as wel as actual teaching of definit ethical or
religious doctrins see 37s; e.g. instruction in duties of citizenship, patriotism 375-1721
course in Christian evidences 375-239- Clas catalogs, history etc of a denominational
school regardless of religious affiliation, in 372, 373, 376, 378, according to grade or
type of school, but clas here books dealing in general with schools of a certain denomi-
nation or order; e.g. educational sistem of the Jesuits 377.35. For training for religious
work as a profession see 207; for parish educational work under direction of pastor
see 257; for religious instruction by Y M C A see 267.352 Religious department,
267-3572 Religious work in Boys department; for religious instruction by Y W C A
see 267.552 Religious department, 267.5572 Religious work in Girls department; for
Sunday and week day schools for religious instruction see 268

.1 Religious instruction Bible in public schools

Discussion of sectarian instruction or influence in public schools or in non-sectarian
private schools, public school teachers in religious garb, conscience clause of English

.2 Ethical education

Ethical training, without religious teaching, as advocated by ethical societies
See also 170.7 Study of ethics; 375.17 Place of ethics in curriculum

.3 Monastic or abbey schools

376.5 Convent education of girls

.4 Diocesan schools Cathedral schools

Domschulen, stiftschulen

.5 Parochial schools

.6 Missionary schools

Establishment and conduct of schools as part of mission work. See alto »66
Missions

.7 Charity schools

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

377.8 Christian church and education

Divided like 280; e.g. 37782 Relation of Roman catholic church to
education. Discussion of denominational schools or educational associations,

e.g. 37782 Association of Catholic colleges of United States

.9 Nonchristian religions and education

Divided like 290; e.g. 377-97 Relation of Mohammedanism to education

378 Colleges and universities

With power to confer degrees; also junior colleges. For men only or for both sexes.

For women's colleges see 376.8

Methods and curriculum. For full table of form divisions see Table 2 after
Rclativ index

.01 Definition of college and university Aim

.014 College terminology 'Slang'

Periodicals devoted to college and university interests. Those issued

by colleges, schools etc ar scatterd either by subject or under college

numbers

,06 General college associations

.068 Associated alumni University clubs

For alumni associations of any one college, see T under college

number

.069 Duties of college men as such

Obligations imposed by their greater knowledge

.1 Organization Government Location Scope,
field

President, deans etc

.113 Disciplinary offisers Judicial corps University court

.12 Teaching staf Faculty

Exchange of professors. For qualifications see 3 71. 11

.121 Freedom of teaching

.13 University extension

.14 College year Summer or vacation instruction

All the year session
.142 Summer or vacation instruction

.152 Large vs small

.153 City vs country colleges

.154 Advanst or senior colleges Junior colleges

3 Junior colleges
.155 Departments

EDUCATION

378.2 Academic degrees and costume College colors

Degrees

.21 Degree conferring body and powers

education

Pas, honor, cum laude, magna cum laude, etc

.23 Degrees in course

standing, without evidence of advanst attainments

.24 Degrees for completion of courses

With or without examination

.241 Time and residence required Length of college

course

.242 Subjects allowable for liberal degree

Whether teknical courses should be credited toward liberal degrees;
theses

.243 Differentiation of degrees : B A, B S, B L, etc

.244 Degrees on examination

With or without residence

.25 Honorary degrees

.26 Degrees by purchase or forgery

Bogus degrees

Insignia

.27 Seal Coat of arms Motto
.28 Colors: institution and clas College flags
.3 Endowment of reserch Fellowships Scholar-
ships Student aid
.3 1 Higher educational foundations and endowments

.32 Endowment of reserch

Carnegie institution. Rockefeller institute. Incentivs to reserch. Prizes.
Opportunities for reserch. Nobel prizes. Competitions

.33 Fellowships
.3 4 Scholarships

Rhodes scholarships. Traveling scholarships

•35

.36 Student income and expenses

.362 Loan funds Student aid societies

.364 College employment bureaus Faculty committees

Other organizations for securing work for students

.365 Student ernings

Working way thru college. Ways of erning

.368 Student expenses: extravagance, economy

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

378. 4-. 98 Special countries and colleges: history, reports,

catalogs etc.

For women's colleges see 376.8

Divided like 940-998; e.g. 378.42 English universities. 378.741 Maine colleges
The various colleges of any section may be given each a number or be

arranged alfabeticly. Under each college arrange publications by the fol-
lowing table, placing these letters after the letter (or letter and figures) uzed
to designate the college; e.g. a history of Harvard college would be markt 378.744
HE, and a second history would be numberd 378.744 HEi. The practical con-
venience of this plan outweighs the objection that it introduces clasification
into the book numbers

If preferd, colleg es and universities may be arranged alfabeticly under continent
number, insted of be ing clast first by country or state; e.g. European universities
under 378.4 in alfabetic order regardless of country. United States colleges and
universities all in one alfabet under 378.73

.99 Professional, teknical and other special schools
Professional education

Best kept with subject, but may be compactly groupt here. Divided
like the clasification: e.g. 378.992 Theologic schools, 378.9934 Law school*,

378.9961 Medical schools t

TABLE FOR SCHOOL AND COLLEGE PUBLICATIONS

A Charter and statutes

B Trustees Regents Resolutions, reports etc

C Administration President, chancellor Reports etc

D Finances Tresurer's reports

E History Foundation, growth etc

F Biografy Necrology

G General catalogs Triennials etc

II Annual catalogs Attendance, registers etc

I Handbooks Circulars of information

J Bulletins Official periodicals

K Commencements, inaugurals etc 1 Baccalaureate and other

L Programs Tickets Memorabilia

M Faculty (as a body) Publications Regulations Certificates

N Lectures Clas manuals Examination questions

O Student theses Orations, essays etc

P Student catalogs Society annuals, etc

Q Student periodicals

R Student societies, including periodicals

S Student miscellany Songs Clas day, etc

T Alumni Societies, committees etc

U Classes Histories, records etc

V Pictures Clas albums

W Bildings and grounds Descriptions, maps etc

Z Schools: divinity, law, medical etc

Better clast with subject; e.g. Divinity schools 207

EDUCATION

379 Public schools Relation of state to education
.1 Public school sistem

. 1 1 School funds School finance Cost to public
.12 National and state aid to education

.121 Public aid to schools

Exemption vs taxation

2 Public

3 Private

4 Sectarian

5 Nonsectarian
.123 Land grants

.124 Subsidies

.13 Local support

Taxation

.14 School laws and regulations Divided like 930-900

School age. Working permits

.15 School supervizion and control: national, state
and local Centralization

Standardization of schools. For school administrativ offisers see 371.1472

.151 National

.152 State: department, inspectors etc

.153 Local: superintendent, school committee, board

Supplies, free textbooks, etc. For school meals see 371.716. For school
superintendents, principals, supervizors etc, as administrativ offisers
employd by local authorities, see 371.1472

2 • County

County school superintendent, etc

3 Township

4 City District Ward

Local school board, etc

.154 Individual: parents and others

.156 State textbooks

DECIMAL CLASIFICATIOX

379.16 Public colleges and universities: national, state

and local

Only discussion here; for individual colleges see 3 78. 4-. 9

.17 Secondary and elementary schools

Discussion

6-year highschools, junior highschools, etc. Clas individual schools in
379.4-.9i or, if preferd, in 373 Secondary schools for boys or both sexes,
376.9 Girls secondary schools

.172 Grammar or elementary schools

Clas individual schools in 372; see note under 372.2

.173 Rural schools

Village schools. Clas individual schools according to grade or type in
372. 373. 376.9 or 379-4-9

.175 Central plan Consolidated schools Conveying

pupils

2 Conveying pupils

.18 Primary schools Kindergartens

Questions of public maintenance. Clas individual schools in 372; see note

under 372.2

. 1 9 Part time schools Evening schools

.2 Illiteracy Instruction of illiterates

.21 Illiteracy and crime Education and crime

Criminal illiterates
.22 Illiteracy and pauperism Indigent illiterates

.23 Compulsory education

.24

.3 Public vs private and endowd schools
4-.g Special countries, sections, cities etc

Divided like 940-900: e.g. 379.73 Reports of U S commissioner of education:
379.744 Education in Massachusetts; 379.7471 in New York city. Keep
state departments separate from city and other local sistems by numbering
state reports, A1-A8, uzing A9 followd by author's initial (lower case) for
history of schools of any state; e.g. Fitch's New York public schools 379-747 A9f

COMMERCE COMMUNICATION

380 Commerce Communication

Public utilities. Tcknical side of these questions goes mostly in 650 Useful arts.
Here belong discussions of social and political relations

.1 Theory

Subdivisions of 380.1 may be uzed after 01 under 381-389 and any of their
subdivisions
. 1 1 Supply and demand

.12 Trade channels Commercial expansion Markets

.122 Market surveys and analisis

.123 Commercial forecasts

2 Commercial crises Panics Depressions

.125 Cooperativ marketing

.126 Commercial arbitration

.13 Value of commerce and means of communication

.14 Terminology Nomenclature

.16 Ownership and control of business and public utilities

For control of a specific utility see its own number, e.g. 383 Postal servis,

162 By government

2 National 3 State or provincial 4 Municipal
.163 By private enterprize

.164 Joint ownership and control

2 By government

22 National 23 State or provincial 24 Municipal

3 By private enterprize

4 Joint ownership and control
.166 Of public utilities

2 By government

22 National 23 State or provincial 24 Municipal

3 By private enterprize

4 Joint ownership and control
.167 Ownership

Divided like 380.162-.166

,168 Control

1 General questions

Divided like 380.162-.166

2 Regulation

Divided like 380.162-.166
22 By government

221 General questions

2 Inspection 3 Franchizes 4 Licenses

3 Operation

Dividedlike 380.162-.166
.18 Commercial methods

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Including trade between mother country and colony

.2 Official representativs Consulates Consuls

Consular reports

383 Postal servis

.1 Transport by mail

Letters, parcel post, etc

.2 Postage stamps Postage permits

Precanceld stamps

. 2 1 International stamps

.22 Philately Stamp collections

.3 Banking by mail

.4 Organization of postal servis

Government post, private post, postal union

. 40 In special countries

Divided like 930-999

384 Telegraf Cable Telefone

.1 Telegraf
.4 Cable

Telegraf and telefone

.6 Telefone

388.4 Street railways, 625 Railway engineering, 656 Railroading

.1 General questions

. 1 2 Relations to other means of transport

.122 Railways vs highways

.123 " " street railways

.124 " " interurban lines

.126 " " waterways

2 Inland

3 River 5 Lake

4 Canal 6 Ferry
7 Ocean

.127 Railways vs air transport

COMMERCE

COMMUNICATION

385.13 Financial questions

.132 Rate skedules Tarifs

1 General questions

Principles of rate makim;, differential rates, zone rates, etc. may be
divided like 38S1323

2 Passenger and baggage rates Fares

22 According to number and frequency of trips

Commutation or suburban rates, etc

23 According to distance and destination

232 General and international rates

233 Local rates

234 Transit "

235 Thru "

236 Round trip rates

2 Going and returning by same route

3 " * * " different routes Circular trips

24 According to time

242 Day rates

243 Night rates

244 Holiday rates Vacation rates

Excursion rates, etc

245 Seasonal rates

2 Spring 3 Summer 4 Autum 5 Winter

25 According to speed and form of transport

252 According to speed

253 Rates on slow trains

254 " 8 fast "

Rates on extra fare trains

255 According to classes or form of transport

1st, 2d, 3d etc; dc luxe, tourist etc

256 Sleeping and parlor car rates

Pullman fares, etc

26 For special classes of persons

Reduced fares, passes, free transport

261 Officials

passes

262 Military

263 Laborers and railway employes

264 Students, clergy, teachers etc

265 Children, families

266 Emigrants, colonists, homeseekers

267 Special races

Colord persons, etc

268 Persons under commitment to public institutions

Prisoners, convicts, insane etc

269 Other

Divided like main clasification

27 For groups of persons

Convention rates, etc

28 Baggage rates

Excess baggage rates

29 Accessory fees Special charges

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Express rates

According to number and frequency of shipments
distance and destination

Divided like 385.13223

General and international rates
2 Export rates 3 Import rates
According to time

Divided like 385.13224
According to speed and form of transport
According to speed
Rates for slow transport

Rates on delayd shipments
Rates for rapid transport

Rates on expedited shipments

Rates for special forms of transport

Rates for limited responsibility, rates for limitations on tonnage
conditions, group rates, etc

For special classes of shippers or consignees

Reduced rates, rate exemptions. Divided like 385.13226

For special classes of goods

Express clasification .
Clas rates
Commodity rates
Rates on special types of goods

Dangerous, perishable etc

Rates on special articles

Divided like main clasification
Accessory fees Special charges
Terminal charges

ing, carting, trucking, lightering, storage etc

Insurance and registration fees, etc
Rental and charges for private equipment

Private stations, branch lines, cars etc

Charges for special connections

Charges for special land and water connections; for connectio»s with
industrial railways, tap lines, etc

Freight rates

Divided like 385.1323

Subsidies

Tolls
Taxation

COMMERCE COMMUNICATION

385.2 Servises

For railway mail servis see 383

.22 Passenger

Clas here works covering passenger and express servis combined

.23 Express
.24 Freight
.242 Regular line servis

Freight lines run on regular routes and skedules

.243 Tramp or charterd servis

Without regular routes or skedules

.244 Privately operated industrial carriers

Operated by industrial or mercantil concerns primarily to carry their own
freight, only occasionally carrying freight for other parties

.25 Combination servises

For combined passenger and express servis see 385.22

.252 Passenger and freight

.253 Freight and express

.3 Stations and terminals

For station bildings see 625.18 Road accessories, 725.3 Architecture; for teknical
and business aspects see 656 Transport

.32 Small, country stations

.33 Large, city "

.34 Union and junction stations

.35 Thru terminals

.36 Loop "

.37 Stub

.4 Standard and hevy railways

.5 Light and industrial railways

.6 Specially constructed railways

.62 Inclined and mountain railways

.622 Funicular railways

.623 Rack railways

.624 Friction railways

.63 Elevated railways

.64 Subways

.65 Monorailways

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Waterways

Sec also 626 Canal engineering, 627 River and harbor engineering, 656 Transport,

under useful arts

.09 In special countries

Divided like 93°-999

.1 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.125 for waterways vs railways

.209 In special countries

Divided like 930-999

.21 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.2125 for inland navigation vs railways

. 2 2 Ships

Divided like 623.82. For general works on ships see 387.2, see also 623.8 Shipbilding

.24 Ser vises

Divided like 385.2

.309 In special countries

Divided like 930-999 4

.31 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.3125 for river navigation vs railways

.34 Canalized rivers

.4 Canals

.41 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.4125 for canals vs railways, canals vs transport

of ships by rail

.42 Interoceanic canals

Clas here only canals connecting 1 ocean with another; canals connecting
various parts of a given ocean ar clast as noninteroceanic canals 386.46-.49
(sec notes under 386.46 and 386.4609)

.43 Suez canal

.44 American interoceanic canals Isthmian canals

.441 General questions .446 Honduras

.442 Atrato .447 Tehuantepcc

.443 Darien .448 Other South American routes

.444 Panama .449 " North " *

.445 Nicaragua

.46 Inland or noninteroceanic canals

Includes canals connecting various parts of a given ocean

.4609 In special countries

Divided like 930—999; individual canals may be clast here or by type
under 386.4709 and 386.4809

.47 Ship canals

See notes under 386.46 and 386.4609; for interoceanic canals see
386.42-.44

.48 Barge and small boat canals

Canals for avoiding rapids, cataracts etc. Sec notes under 386.46 and
386.4609

.49 Other groupings

COMMERCE COMMUNICATION

.509 In special countries

Divided like 930-999

.51 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.5125 for lake navigation vs railways

.6 Ferries

.609 In special countries

Divided like 930-999

.61 General questions

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.6125 for ferries vs railways

.62 Ferries for foot passengers and small vehicles

.63 Freight ferries

.64 Train "

.8 Inland ports and harbors

For works on ocean ports and those covering both ocean and inland ports see
387.1. Divided like 387.1

.809 In special countries

Divided like 930-999

387 Ocean and air transport

.1 Ocean ports

Clas here works covering both ocean and inland ports. See also 386.8 Inland
ports, 627 Harbor engineering

. 1 1 General questions

Divided like 385.1

. 1 2 Ports according to location or type of harbor

.122 Natural bay ports

.123 River mouth, estuary, tidal river ports

.124 Combination river and natural bay ports

.13 Entrepot vs transit ports

.132 Entrepot ports Reexport ports

.133 Free ports Free zones Foren trade zones

.134 Transit ports

.14 Overside vs quay ports

.142 Overside ports

.143 Quay ports

.2 Ships

/

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

387.5 Maritim transport

Merchant marine, maritim lines; organization and servises. For teknical and

.51 General questions

Divided like 38s. I, uzing 387.5125 for ocean transport vs railways

.522 Main trunk lines

1 North Atlantic route

Connects Canada and northeast United States with English Channel
and north and west Europe

2 Mediterranean and Suez route

Connects North America and west and south Europe with north and

3 South African route

Connects North America and Europe with west, south and southeast
Africa, Orient and Australasia

4 South American circuit

Connects east and west shores of north Atlantic with eastern South
America and Pacific coast of North and South America, also with Orient
and Australasia

5 Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea route

Southern extension of North Atlantic trunk route, connecting with
southeast United States, West Indies, Mexico and northeastern South
America

6 Panama route

Mainly extension of Caribbean route, connecting Atlantic and Pacific

7 North Pacific route

Connects North America with Asia

8 North American and Australasian route

Connects western North America with New Zealand and Australia

9 Other trunk lines

.523 Triangular and auxiliary routes

Irregular and tramp routes, branches and connections between main trunk
lines

Trade between ports of a given nation

.54 Servises

For ocean mail servis sec 383. Divided like 385.2

.7 Air transport

COMMERCE COMMUNICATION

Local transit: city and interurban
Highways

Land transportation Vehicles

Carriages, coaches, carts etc. Stages (horse or motor)

Street railways Quick transport in large towns

For teknical questions see 625.6

Weights and mesures Metrology

Metric sistem
Standardization

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

39° Customs Costumes Folklore

These heds ar for discussions by topic. Customs, etc. of any special country go in
013-919. Books on a special topic in a special country go here, as the grouping by topics
Is the more Important; e.g. Marriage in Japan is 392.5, but Japanese customs. 015.2.
For customs of primitiv man, see 571

391 Costume and care of person

Sec also 646 Clothing; 613.4 Hygiene

.1 Costumes of men

.2 " " women

.3 " " children

.4 Extremities Accessories

Hats, gloves, stockings, shoes, sandals; mufs, fan», canes, parasols; «tc.

.6 Care of person Bathing Toilet

.7 Ornaments and jewelry

392 Birth, home, and sex customs

.1 Birth customs: christening, circumcision

.3 Family and home relations

.4 Betrothal

.5 Marriage Weddings

.6 Sex relations Concubinage

393 Treatment of the ded Se« alto 614.6 Public hclth

.2 Cremation

.3 Embalming, mummies

.4 Exposure

.9 Special funeral customs: wake, suttee

394 Public and social customs

.1 Eating, banquets

.2 Shows and diversions

.25 Carnivals
.26 Holidays

Including days which, tho not legal holidays, ar similarly observd. While
separate days may be clast under 394.262, .264 and .269. it is recommended
that these numbers be used only for general works and that separate days be
kept in a single group under 394.268. See also under folklore 398.33 Ft tss;
education 371.365 Special days

.262 By season

2 Spring 3 Summer 4 Autumn 5 Winter
.264 By kind

2 Religious 5 Scientific 8 Literary

3 Economic Social 7 Art 9 Patriotic

.268 Special days Alfabeted by name of day

.269 By Country Divided like 930-999

CUSTOMS FOLKLORE

394-3 Games Dances, etc.

.4 Official ceremonies Ceremonious observances

.43 Enthronement of soverens

Consecration, coronation, taking oath

.44 Joyful entries Receptions

Durbars, levees, etc.

.45 Triumts

.5 Processions Pageants

.6 Fairs Kermess

.7 Chivalry Tournaments Justs

.8 Dueling Suicide

For other relations see Dueling in Relativ index following Tables

395 Etiquet

Codes of social procedure and behavior. For social ethics see 177

396 Woman's position and treatment

For costumes, see 391.2; biografy, 920.7

If a special library about women is wisht, 396 is the best place for it. Suffrage,
education, and employment can then be put here, with references from 324.3,
376, 331-4. etc. but it would be unwise to bring everything about women here,
e. g. to remove 618, Diseases of women, from the rest of medicin. Books on
woman in general go in 396

.1 Emancipation

.2 Legal status, property, rights, etc.

.3 Political status

See 324-3, Suffrage; 329.83, Woman suffrage party

.4 Education

.5 Employment

See 331.4 Labor of women; 371.18 Teachers; 023.56 Librarians; 069.^.(18
Museum employees

Divided like the general classification; e. g. woman as scientist, 396.55; worrun s
exchange, 396.56; woman as painter, 396.575; woman as author, 396.58, etc.

.6 Woman in home

.7 Delineation of woman in art

.8 Delineation of woman in literature

.9 Woman in history, politics, war Amazons

People without nationalities who do not coalesce with the ruling people
among whom they live. This includes Gipsy language, which til recently had
no place in the linguistic groups of 400, as the Gipsy people hav no place
in the geografic divisions of history

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

398 Folklore Proverbs, etc.

This section is for material needed in studying Folklore. Mere stories foi
children, unless having a value to students of folklore, go in 813, 813, etc. 01
in J, if there is a Juvenil collection

. 2 1 Tales

. 2 2 Legends Sagas

Legends of Arthur. Charlemagne. Roland, Faust. Reynard the fox, etc. But
poems, dramas, etc. based on these legends clas in literature

.3 Folklore, traditional beliefs and customs, popular super-

stitions

. 3 1 Fire

.32 Haunted localities

Cemeteries, burnd citie6, ancient ruins, haunted houses, caves, watsr sources,
forests etc.

.33 F6tes

.331 The year Calendar dates

.33a Principal fetes

1 Spring

1 1 April 1 All fools day

12 Easter Easter eggs

2 Summer

3 Autumn

4 Winter

41 Christmas

42 New Year

43 Lent

.34 Local customs

House, outbildings, furniture etc

.4 Fairies, elvs, ogers, monsters

Bogies, gnomes, dragons, vampires, werewolvs, ttc.

.5 Chapbooks

.6 Riddles

.7 Dream books

.8 Song books Nursery rimes Popular cries

Including only popular collections, hardly ranking with Poetry or Music,
but useful in the study of Folklore, etc.

.9 Proverbs

399 Customs of war

Wepons War dances Treatment of captivs Scalping Mutilation Burn*

I

Philology

400 Philology in general

In philology the general works put under 400-419 deal almost entirely with Indo-
European languages. They ar put here because they cover most of the divisions
of this clas. and in practis ar most convenient here. Under 439, 479 and 489 ar
placed books limited to Teutonic, Romance or Hellenic groups, and under 491 ar
placed only such general works as ar specificly limited to Indo-European group

401 Philosofy Origin of language

402 Compends, outlines

403 Dictionaries, cyclopedias

405 Periodicals

406 Societies, transactions, etc.

407 Teaching and study of languages in general,
also of philology

Works on teaching and study of an individual language ar clast with that language

408 Polygrafy Collections Different kinds of
language

.7 Dialects and patois of languages in general Dialectology

Dialects of a special language ar clast under number for that language

.9 Universal language International Artificial

.91 Volapuk
.92 Esperanto

409 History of language Distribution

Divided like 930-999

410 Comparativ

410-419 includes comparativ works in general and also comparativ works on Indo-
European group in general, but general and comparativ works on Teutonic group ar
439; on Romance group 479; on Hellenic group 489. Everything about an individual
language is put with that language. 410-416, 418 may be divided like 420-426, 428

411 Orthografy Orthoepy Alfabets

412 Etymology, derivation

413 Lexicografy Lexicology Polyglot
dictionaries

414 Phonology Visible speech Natural laws

of language

415 Grammar, morfology, syntax

DECIMAL ri.ASIFICATION

416 Prosody

417 Inscriptions Paleografy

See also 421. 7, 471.7. 481.7. etc. Rare early mss ar put in 091

418 Texts

419 Language communicated otherwise than by
words or letters of an alfabet

.1 Sign language

For def mute alfabets, see 371.91a

.2 Picture language

.25 Hieroglyfics

420 English philology

.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .4 Essays .5 Periodicals .0 Societies -.7 Study and

teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History of the language

421 Orthografy

.1 Alfabet

For def mute alfabets, see 371.912

.2 Vowels Difthongs Aspirates

.3 Consonants

.4 Phonetic spelling Simpler spelling

Spelling reform

.5 Orthoepy

.6 Accent

.7 Paleografy Inscriptions

.8 Abbreviations

For stenografic and other uncommon contractions and abbreviations, 6ee

653 Shorthand

.9 Punctuation

422 Etymology Derivation

422 is limited to derivation. For inflection, also called etymology, 3ee -

.1 Origin and laws of English language

.2 Prefixes Suffixes

.3 Reduplication

.4 Foren elements

.5 Noun forms: case, number, diminutivs

.6 Adjectival forms Degrees of comparison

.7 Pronominal forms: personal, possessiv, relativ, etc.

.8 Verbal forms: moods, tense, voice, etc.

PHILOLOGY

423 Lexicology Dictionaries Idioms

.1 Idioms .2 English .3 German, etc. Put a dictionary of two
languages with the leas known language. Under 423 put only Englith-
English dictionaries. Put an English-French dictionary with French,
443.2; a French-Latin dictionary with Latin, 473.4. If in several
languages, put with 413, or with least known. Put F,ench-French
dictionaries 443, not 443.4, so that the standard home dictionaries shall
come first in each language. This plan brings together under each of
the less known, all the dictionaries for translating either into or from
that language. Some prefer to put each dictionary under the first
language; i. e. that by which it is alfabeted. This gives under each
language, regardless of its familiarity, all dictionaries for translating
from it, but none for translating into it. These must be sought under
the language from which the translation is to be made. For a cosmo-
politan library this plan is simplest and best; but in an English library,
the first plan, with only English dictionaries in 423, and both in and
out dictionaries together under little known tungs is more convenient.
References in either case show what may be found in the other place

424 Synonyms Homonyms

425 Grammai

425 includes general works, covering also orthografy and prosody

.1 Morfology Inflection

Divided like 42s. 2 Syntax; e. g. .15 Nouns, etc See 422

.2 Syntax

.3 Arrangement of words and clauses

.4 Particular sentences : conditional, hypothetic, etc.

.5 Nouns

.7 Pronouns

.8 Verbs

.9 Particles

426 Prosody

.1 Quantity and accent

.2 Versification

.3 Feet

.4 Figures of prosody

.5 Meters

.6 Rimes

.7 Strophe and antistrophe

.8 Textbooks for writing verse
•9

427 Dialects Patois Language at different
periods Slang

.I-.8 divided like 942. 1-. 8. The Yorkshire dialect is 427.74; Gloucestershire
dialect 427.41. The dialects of other languages take the geografic subdivisions
of their countries. Dialects not provided for in these heds ar placed with the
last; e. g. American and Scotch with 427.9. The division by time is made with
a 5th figure after o; the earliest form of the language is markt .01 ; .09 is used
for modern slang, e. g. 427.01 Old English

DEC IMAL CLASIFICATION

428 School books Texts for learning the
language

Including only books for Itarning the language, with grammatic or philo-
logic notes, etc. For other works see literature of the language, 820

.1 Spelling books

.2 First lessons Elementary composition For Rhetoric see 808.

Including in other languages books like Fasquelle, Ollendorff, Chardenal,

.24 For foreners

Divided like 430-499 (for other than English, like 420-499). Clas here books
intended for use of foreners in leajning the language. Subdivide by language
of those for whom intended; e. g. English lessons for Italians 428.345, for
Russians 428.24917

.25 Special modifications of English

Basic English, etc.

.3 Errors of speech Vulgarisms Use of words

For primers and primary readers see 372.4. Clas here 3d and 4th 'readers, and
put higher readers with literature collections; 808.8 if general, 820.8 if English
or English and American, etc.

.7 Selections

.8 Texts of individual authors

With grammatic notes and questions. Preferably clast in 800 with cron

references here

.9 Examination papers

429 Anglo-Saxon

Subdivisions .I-.8 correspond to 421-428

PHILOLOGY

43° German

u

C 437 01 Old High German, to noo A.D.; 437.02 Middle High German, 1100-1500

439 Other Teutonic languages

Including general works on Teutonic group

.1 Western Germanic languages in general

.2 Frisian Old Saxon

■o .3 Netherlandish

2 .31 Dutch

£ . .32 Flemish

•2 ,36 Afrikaans

3

91 .4 Low German Plattdeutsch

.5 Scandinavian

.6 Old Norse Icelandic Faroese

& .7 Swedish

' .8 Danish Norwegian

J .81 Danish

S, .82 Norwegian

.9 Gothic

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

440 French

Old French, as the earliest form of the language, is 447.01

447.9 Canadian and Creole French, etc.

449 Provencal

.9 Catalan

450 Italian

459 Rumanian

Moldavian, Wallachian, Dacorumanian, Istrorumanian, Transylvanian,
Bukowinian, Macedorumanian

.9 Romansh

460 Spanish

469 Portuguese

.9 Galician

470 Latin

Works on Latin and Greek together, unless very clearly most useful in

Latin, go with Greek, which here as well as elsewhere Is made to Include
general works on the ancient classics

479 Other Italic Medieval and modern
Latin

Including general work3 on Romance group

. i Romance languages in general

Divided like 420

Greek

Divide 487, Greek dialects, like 930; e. g. 487.3 Alexandrian Greek; 487.3

New Testament Greek; 487. 81 Macedonian; 487.923 Ionic, etc.

489 Other Hellenic Modern Greek

Including general works on Hellenic group

. i Classic languages in general

Divided like 420

480

PHILOLOGY

490 Other languages

Each language subdivided if wisht like 420 English

491 Indo-European languages in general

Besides Teutonic, 420-439; Italic, 440-479; and Hellenic, 480-489
This hed, 491, includes general works on the Indo-European tungs, but
general works on the Teutonic languages go in 439, on the Romance :--->up in
479, on the Hellenic group in 489, while most of the material pLicc I undei
400-419 is really Indo-European; but see also notes under .|oo and 410

.1 Indie

.2 Old Indie Sanskrit

.27 Sanskrit dialects Primary Prakrits

.3 Middle Indie or Prakrit par excellence

Popular Hindu idiom. Secondary Prakrits
.3701 Pali

Language of canonical books of Southern Buddhists

.4 Modern East Indian languages

Tertiary Prakrits
, Excluding Dravidian, which is 494.8

.41 Sindi

.43 Panjabi

.43 Hindustani Hindi

.44 Bengali

.45 Uriya Orissa

.46 Marathi

.47 Gujerati

.48 Singhalese Elu

.5 Iranic

.51 Old Persian West Iranic

Official language of Persian kings. Language of cuneiform inscriptions

.52 East Iranic Zend (Avestan) Old Bactrian

Language of the Avesta or sacred book of Zoroastrianism and the Parsees

.53 Pehlevi (Huzwarcsh) Parsee

.531 Huzwaresh Pehlevi

.532 Parsee

.54 Armenian

.,55 Modern Persian Neopersian

.56 Ossetic

.57 Kurdish

.58 Afghani Pushtu

.59 Other Iranic languages

.591 Baluchi

.592 Pamir languages

.6 Keltic

.62 Irish

.63 Gaelic or Scotch Ers*:

.64 Manx

Language of Isle of Man

.65 Cymric group

.66 Welsh or Cymric

.67 Cornish

.68 Armorican or Bas Breton

.69 Basque

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

491.7 Russian

.79 Ruthenian

Little Russian, Russniak

.8 Other Slavic or Slavonic languages

\V indie. Not including Russian, clast under 401.7. nor Ruthenian, clast

under 491.79

Southeast Slavonic group

.81 Bulgarian (Church Slavonic)

.82 Serbo-Kroatian Serbian

.83 Kroatian

.84 Slovenian

West Slavonic group

.85 Polish

.86 Bohemian Bohemian Czech

.87 Moravian Slovakian
.871 Moravian
.872 Slovakian

.88 Sorbian or Sorabian Wendish or Lusatian

.89 Polabian

Slavonic of the Elbe

.9 Lettic Baltic languages

.91 Old Prussian

.92 Lithuanian
.93 Lettish

.99 Other Indo-European languages

.991 Albanian

492 Semitic

Northern group

.1 Aramaic

.19 Assyrian Babylonian

Babylon and Nineveh cuneiform

.2 Chaldee

.3 Syriac (Peshito)

Central group

.4 Hebrew

Canaanitish dialects

.49 Yiddish
.5 Samaritan

Language of the Pentateuch

.6 Phenician Punic Carthaginian

Southern group

.7 Arabic
.8 Ethiopic

Ethiopian Semitic languages; literary Ethiopian; Ghez; Abyssinian dialects;
Amharic (language of the Abyssinian court since ijoo A.D.); Tigrus Harari

Himyaritic or Sabean

Ancient language of Yemen and eastern Arabia: Minaeen. Sabean.

PHILOLOGY

493 Hamitic

.1 Old Egyptian

See 419.25 Hieroglyfics

.2 Coptic

.3 Libyan or Berber group

Algerian Kabyle, Mozabi, Moorish, Touarik or Touareg

.5 Hamitic Ethiopian languages

Hamitic group of languages of central Africa, spoken in south of Egypt and in

certain parts of Abyssinia

.51 Somali
.52 Galla
.53 Bedja

Language of Bedouins
.54 Saho
.55 Dankali
.56 Agaou

494 Scythian Ural-Altaic Turanian

Except Malay-Polynesian languages clast under 490

.1 Tungusic languages

. 1 1 Tungus proper

.12 Lamut

.13 Manchu

.2 Mongol languages

.21 Eastern Mongol

.22 Kalmuk

.23 Buriat

.3 Turkish or Tatar languages

.3 1 Yakut

.32 Uigurian

.321 Uigurian proper

.322 Djagataic

.323 Turkoman

•33 Nogair

.34 Kirghiz

.35 Osmanli or Turkish proper

.4 Samoyed languages

.41 Northern branch

.411 Yurak

.412 Targhi

.413 Yeniseian Samoyed

.42 Eastern branch

.42 1 Samoyed-ostiak

422 Kamassin

DECIMAL CLARIFICATION

494.5 Ugrian, Finno-Hungarian, Finno-Ugric, or Uralic languages

.51 Ugric languages

.51 1 Magyar Hungarian

.512 Vogul

.5 1 3 Hongro-ostiak

.52 Finnish of the Volga

.52 1 Chercmissian

.522 Mordvinian

.53 Permian languages Finno-Permian

.53 1 Permian

.532 Syryenian

■533 Votiak

.54 Western Finnish

.541 Suomi Finnish

.542 Karelian

.543 Chudic

• 544 Krevin

.545 Esthonian

.546 Livonian

•55 Lapp

.8 Dravidian languages

Tamul, Tamil or Malabares languages

.81 1st group

.811 Tamul or Tamil

.812 Malayalam

.813 Telinga or Telugu Andhra

.815 TuluorTuluva

.816 Kodagu

.82 2d group

.821 K6ta

.822 Touda or Toda

.823 G&nd

.824 Khond or Kou

.826 Oraon

495 Asiatic

Excluding those provided for above

. i Chinese

.4 Tibetan

.5 Himalayan

.6 Japanese

.7 Korean

.8 Burmese

.91 Siamese

.92 Annamite

.95 Mundari family

Language of the Kolarians

PHILOLOGY

4.96 African

Excluding 493 Hamitic, 491.8 Ethiopic, etc. included in families above

.1 Language of Hottentots
.2 " " Bushmen

.3 " " Bantu group

Kafir dialects

.4 Negro dialects

.5 Nubian languages Language of Pouls

497 North American

498 South American

499 Malay-Polynesian and other

.1 Negrito and Papuan

.11 Negrito
.12 Papuan

.2 Malay

.21 Tagala branch

.211 Philippine languages

.212 Formosan

.213 Language of Ladrones or Mariana ilands

.214 Malagasy-

.22 Malay- Javanese branch

.221 Malay proper

.222 Javanese

.223 Bali

.225 Sundanese

Java

.226 Batak Sumatran

.227 Dyak

Borneo

.228 Makassar

Bugi, Alfourou

.5 Isolated ilands
.9 Other languages

.96 Caucasus

.961 Northern group

1 Lesghian group

2 Kistic or Chechenze group

3 Cherkesse or Circassian group
.962 Southern group

1 Georgian

2 Svanetian

3 Mingrelian.

4 Lazistan

Pure Science

500 Science in general

501-509 ail hav Science in general as their subject, but it is treated in these
various forms. A periodical on Chemistry goes with 540.5, not 505, which is only
for periodicals on Science in general, o in any clas number In any part of the

classification shows the subject to be general, not specific

501 Philosofy, theorjes, utilities, etc.

502 Compends, outlines

For ancient and medieval science prefer 509.01-02

503 Dictionaries, cyclopedias

505 Periodicals, scientific magazines

506 Societies: transactions, etc.

507 Education, methods of teaching and study
Museums

508 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc.

.1 Extracts .2 .3 General scientific travels .4 — .9 Travels and

purveys (if general) divided gcograficly like 940-999

509 History of science

For subdivisions see Table 2 following Relativ index

510 Mathematics

Works on Mathematics in general, not limited to any one or two sections, are
groupt by form of treatment like Science in general above; i. e.
510.1 Philosofy .2 Collections, compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, papers,
tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education .8 Logarithmic and
other tables .9 History

511 Arithmetic

See 372.7 Teaching elementary arithmetic

.1 Systems of arithmetic

.2 Notation and numeration Fundamental rules Abacus

.3 Prime numbers

.4 Fractions

.5 Analysis Permutation and combination

.6 Proportion and progression

.61 Magic squares

.7 Involution and evolution

.8 Mercantil rules Interest Alligation Mensuration

Gaging

.9 Problems and tables

PURE SCIENCE

512 Algebra

.1 Systems of algebra

.2 Numeric equations Imaginary expressions

.21 Equations, 1st to 4th degrees

.22 Higher numeric equations

.23 Indeterminate equations Diophantin analysis

.24 Imaginary expressions

.3 Algebraic equations Maxima and minima

.4 Series Fractions Binomial theorem Taylor's theorem

.5 Combinatory analysis

.6 Proportion and progression

.7 Involution and evolution

.8 Higher algebra

.8l Theory Of numbers See sn.i Systems of arithmetic

.82 Theory of equations Complex variable j_See»i«o 517.8

.83 Determinants

.84 Symmetric functions

.85 Elimination: eliminants and discriminants

.86 Transformations Substitutions

.87 Quantics

.88 Invariants Co variants Contra variants

.89 Universal algebra

.9 Problems and tables

513 Geometry

Plane and solid geometry bound together ar 513. Deicriotlv geometry is sis

.1 Plane geometry

. 1 1 Right lines

. 1 2 Intersecting lines

.13 Parallel lines

. 1 4 Triangles

.16 Other polygons

. 1 7 Similarity

. 1 8 Areas

.19 Maxima and minima

.2 Curvs

.21 Circles

.22 Conic sections

.23 Ellipse

.24 Hyperbola

.25 Parabola

.a 6 Higher plane curvs

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

513.3 Volumetric or solid geometry

.3 1 Lines and planes

.3 2 Intersecting planes

.33 Parallel planes

.34 Polyedrons

.35 Pyramids

.36 Prisms

•37 Regular

.4 With curvd surfaces

.41 Sphere

.42 Cone

43 Cylinder

.5 Modern geometry

.51 Points Lines Planes Duality

.52 Transversals

.53 Cones Conies Involution

.54 Radical axes and centers of similitude

.55 Poles and polars Reciprocal polars

.56 Harmonic and anharmonic properties

.57 Correspondence Correlation of figures

.58 Quadric surfaces: spheroconics, curvs of double curvature

.59 Surfaces of higher order: cubics

.6

.7 Infinitesimal and kinematic geometry

.8 Non-Euclidean geometries Analysis situs

.81 Absolute or non-Euclidean geometry

.82 N-dimensional geometry

.83 Analysis situs Geometric topology

.9 Problems

514 Trigonometry

.1 Trigonometric functions General formulas 9<*> 532.7

.a Trigonometric series

.3 Exponential formulas

.4 Solution of trigonometric equations

.5 Plane trigonometry : solution of plane triangles ; analytic

.6 Spheric trigonometry General formulas

.7 Solution of spheric triangles

.8 Differences of triangles, plane and spheric

.9 Problems

PURE SCIENCE

515 Descriptiv geometry and projections

.1 Orthogonal projection on 2 planes

. 1 1 Straight lines Planes

.12 Single curvd lines

.13 Double curvd lines

.14 Single curvd surfaces

. 1 5 Double curvd surfaces

.16 Surfaces of revolution

. 1 7 Warpt surfaces

.18 Intersections of surfaces

.2 Isometric and analogous projections

.3 Oblique projection

.4 Conic projection

.5 Spheric projection See 526.8 Map projection

.51 Orthografic

.52 Globular

.53 Stereografic

.54 Polar

.55 Gnomonic

.56 Conic

.57 Cylindric

.61 Plane Parallel Oblique Angular

.62 Cylindric

.63 Shadows; natural and artificial light

.64 Reflections

.65 Circles, cylinders and spheres

.66 Distortions and corrections

.07 Human figure

.68 New methods Special devices

.8 Stereotomy

DECIMAL CT.ASIFICATION

*

16 Analytic geometry

Plane loci

Right lines

.1

.11

.12

•13
.14
.2

.21

.22

•23
.24

•25
.26

•3

•31

•32

•33

•34

•4

.41

.42

•43

■44

•45

.46

•5

•5i
•52
•S3
•54
•55
•56
•57
•58
•59
.6

•7
.8

Transformation of coordinates
Curvs

Conic sections

Ellipse

Hyperbola

Parabola
Higher plane curvs
Loci in space
Right lines
Planes

Transformation of coordinates
Curvd surfaces

Ellipsoid

Hyperboloid

Paraboloid
Surfaces of higher order
Modern analytic geometry
Systems of coordinates
Abridged notation
Conies

Higher plane curvs

Poles and polars Reciprocal polars
Harmonic and anharmonic properties
Method of projection

Quadric surfaces : spheroconics, curvs of double curvatures
Surfaces of higher order : cubics

Quaternions : calculus of direction and position
Problems

PURE SCIENCE

517 Calculus

.1 Infinitesimal Method of exhaustions

Differential and Integral calculus, bound together, ar put here

.2 Differential

.21 Series

.22 Indc terminate lorms

.23 Change of the independent variable

.24 Theory of plane curvs Curv tracing

•25

.26 Theory of curvd surfaces

.27 Maxima and minima
.28

.29 Problems

.3 Integral

.3 1 Formulas of reduction and integration

.3 2 Definit integrals Eulerian integrals

.34 Multiple integrals

.35 Laplace's functions Bessel's and allied functions

.36 Elliptic and hyperelliptic functions Abelian functions

•37 j • >•>], L.t: jj.'. • '!-v%- J J>i' 'tv ?R'^j«V ;

.38 Differential and partial differential equations

.39 Problems and tables

.4 Of variations

.5 Of functions

.6 Of finite differences

.7 Of operations

.9 Problems

519 Probabilities

.1 General principles Direct and inverse probabilities

.2 Mathematic and moral expectation

.3 Testimony : decisions of juries and tribunals

.4 Probability of future events deduced from experience

.5 Life contingencies: annuities, life insurance see 368.J

.6 Errors of observation Mean or average values

•7

.8 Method of least squares

.9 Problems

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

520 Astronomy

520.1 Astrology, see I33-S 520.2 Compends 5^0.3 Dictionaries S30.4 Essays
520.5 Periodicals 520.6 Societies 520.7 Study and teaching of astronomy

520.8 Collections, etc. S20.9 History of astronomy

521 Theoretic astronomy

Mathematic investigation of celestial motions, specially of the Solar system
Motions of individual bodies ar clast under separate heds in 523

.1 Celestial dynamics

12 Law of universal gravitation and motion

13 Problem of 3 bodies

14 Figures of hevenly bodies

1 5 Rotation of hevenly bodies

2 Geocentric and heliocentric place

2 1 Plane of orbit in space

22 Position of orbit in its plane

23 Position of body in its orbit

24 Position of body in space

2 5 Heliocentric longitude and latitude

26 Geocentric longitude and latitude

27 Variations of right ascension and declination

28 Variations of longitude and latitude
29

3 Orbits

3 1 Definitions of orbits

3 2 Determination from 3 observations

33 Determination from 4 observations

34 Variation of elements of orbit

3 5 Correction of approximate elements of orbit

3 6 Application of method of least squares

37 Kepler's problem

38 Equation of center and radius vector
39

4 Perturbations

41 Mutual action of planets

42 Action of satellites

43 Nonsphericity of planets

44 Resisting medium

5 Theory of planets
.6 Theory of satellites
.7 Theory of comets
.8 Theory of eclipses

PURE SCIENCE

522 Practical and spheric

.1 Observatories

.11 General plan, location

.12 Material and mechanism of dome, drum, etc.

.13 Transit bildings, wings, etc.

.14 High altitude observatories

. 1 s Portable

.19 History, reports and serial publications of observatories

.21 Reflecting

.22 Refracting

.23 Eye piece and accessories

.24 Object glas

.25 Mounting, tube, etc.

.26 Equatorial mounting

. 2 7 Transit mounting

.28 Observing chairs, etc.

.19 Famous telescopes

May be divided like 930-999

.3 Meridional instruments

.31 Finding meridian line

.32 Mural circles

.33 Meridian circles

.34 Transit: placing in position

.3 5 Collimation constant

.36 Level constant

.3 7 Azimuth constant

.38 Other constants, flexure, index error, etc.

.4 Extra meridional instruments

.41 Sextant and quadrant, reflecting circle, astrolabe

.42 Altazimuth

.43 Zenith telescope

.44 Transit out of meridian

.45 Heliometer

.46 Equatorial

.47 Prime vertical

.5 Auxiliary instruments

.51 Sidereal clock and chronometer

.52 Electrochronograf

.53 Micrometers

.55 For illumination

.56 For solar observation

.57 Artificial horizons

.58 Heliostat

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

522.6 Auxiliary observations

.61

.62 Photometry See 53S.2 Optics

.63 PllOtOgrafy See SiS &S Optics; 770 Photografy

.64

.65 Polarization See 535-5 Optics

.66

Technic; application to astronomy and use with telescope. For results see

523.37, 523-57, 523 67, 523 77, 523-87

.68
.69

.71 Celestial sphere Spheric coordinates

.72 Rectangular coordinates

.73 Transformation of coordinates

.74 Differential variations of coordinates

.75 Interpolation

.76 Meridian line Variation of compass

.77 Reduction of observations to the meridian

.78 Use of globes
•79

.9 Corrections

.91 Parallax

.92 Refraction See 535.3 Optics

.93 Semidiameter of celestial bodies

.94 Aberration

.95 Precession See 5219

.96 Nutation

.97 Personal equation See 522.54

.98 Instrumental errors

•99

523 Descriptiv astronomy

.1

Universe

.11

Structure of universe

.12

Nebular hypothesis

•13

Plurality of worlds

.14

Space and its temperature

•IS

Resisting medium

.16

Cosmic dust

•17

Repulsiv force

PURE SCIENCE

523.2 Solar system

.21 Distribute v laws of planets
.22

.23 Conjunctions and oppositions

.24 Motion of solar system in space

.25 Constitution of planetary system

.26 Stability of solar system Ecliptic
.27

.28 Orrery, planetarium, gyroscope, etc.

See 531-34 Rotation

.29 Zodiac

.3 Moon

.31 Constants: size, mass Distance and parallax

.32 Heat and light Phases

.33 Orbit and motions

Sidereal month, tropical, perigee and apogee, sun and earth's attraction,

.34 Features of surface : mountains, plains, etc.

.35 Atmosphere

.36 Physical condition

.37 Spectrum

.38 Eclipses

.39 Charts, photografs, etc.

.4 Planets

.41 Mercury and intramercurial

.42 Venus

.43 Mars

.44 Asteroids

.45 Jupiter

.46 Saturn

.47 Uranus

.48 Neptune and transneptunian

.49 Charts, photografs, etc.

.5 Meteors and zodiacal light

. s 1 Meteorites

.52 Fireballs

.53 Meteoric showers, radiant points, etc.

.54 Systems of meteors

■55

.56 Connection of comets and meteors

.57 Spectrum

.58 Hight of atmosphere from observation

.59 Zodiacal light Aurora (borealis and australis)

decimal clarification

523.6 Comets

.6 1 Appearance and development

.62

.63 Orbits

.64 Remarkable comets

•6S

.66 Physical constitution

.67 Spectrum

.08

.69 Charts, photografs, etc.

.7 Sun

.71 Constants, dimensions

.72 Heat and light: theories as to source

.73 Apparent motion Rotation See 523.38 Tables

.74 Spots, faculae, and other features of surface

.75 Prominences, chromosphere, corona

.76 Theories of physical constitution

.77 Spectrum

.78 Eclipses

.79 Charts, photografs, etc.

.8 Stars

.81 Stellar parallax, distance

.82 Heat and light Photometric observations Magnitude

Visibility

.83 Proper motion, stardrift

.84 Variable, double, and multiple stars

.85 Clusters and nebulas

.86 Physical constitution

.87 Spectrum
.88

.89 Constellations, maps, catalogs, etc.

.9 Transits and occultations

.91 Transits of Mercury

.92 Transits of Venus and solar parallax

.93 Delisle's method

.94 Halley's method

.95 Photografic method

.96 Transits of Venus to 1874

.97 Transit of 1882

.98

.99 Occultations

PURE SCIENCE

524 Maps, observations, and tables

Series of observatory publications may be kept together under 524, or under 522.19
with the history and reports of the observatory. Special maps or observations, e. g.
on Sun or Moon, ar better placed in subsections 9 under those heds in 523, with
charts and photografs, e. g. 523.79, thus leaving 524-524.8 blank. These numbers
ar printed to provide a place in case it is wisht to keep alt maps and observations
together

■5

525 Earth

.1 Constants

. 1 1 Mass Weight

. 1 2 Density

.13 Dimensions, diameter

.14 Figure: geomorfy, equatorial belt

. 1 5 Distance from sun

. 1 6 Parallax

.2 Heat Light

.3 Orbits and motions

.3 1 Period of revolution

.32 Obliquity of ecliptic to equator

.33 Eccentricity

34 Perturbations

.35 Rotation

.36 Foucault's pendulum

.3 7 Deviation of falling bodies and projectils

.38 Tables of the sun Apparent motion See 523.73 Sun

.4 Geografic coordinates

.42 By meridian altitudes

.43 By Pole star

.44 By altitude of 2 or more stars

.45 By other methods

.47 Terrestrial means: chronometers, telegraf, signals

.48 Celestial signals: eclipses, occultations, transits

.49 Lunar methods

.5 Seasons

.51 Effect of inclination of equator to ecliptic

.52 Effect of eccentricity of earth's orbit

.53 Secular changes of seasons

.54 Seasons on Mars and other planets

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

525.6 Tides

.61 Mathematic theory

.62 Effect of sun and moon in producing tides

.63 Distribution, diurnal inequality, spring and neap, priming

and lagging

.64 Establishment of a port Coast form modification

.65 Velocity of hight of tide wave

.66 Tides on inland seas

.67 Supposed effect in retarding Earth's revolution

.68 Tide registering and predicting machines

.69 Tide tables

.7 Twilight

526 Geodesy

526. 2-. 8 apply to surveys of large tracts, requiring allowance for earth's curva-
ture and more exact methods of determination. For local surveys see 526.0

.1 Theory and determination of Earth's figure

.11 Potentials of ellipsoids

. 1 2 Equilibrium of rotating spheroid

.13 Law of ellipticity

.14 Airy's and Pratt's theories as to attraction of mountains

.15 Determination of figure by Airy, by Bessel, and by Clarke

. 1 6 Ellipsoidal figure and position of axes

. 1 7 Geoidal figure

.2 Base mesuring and apparatus

.21 Standards of length and temperature

.22 Apparatus of Struve, Bessel, Colby, U. S. coast survey,

U. S. lake survey, etc.

.24 Location of base line

.25 Field operations

.26 Calculation of results and corrections

.27 Verification

.3 Field work of triangulation

.3 1 Reconnaissance

.32 Stations

Names, signals, tripods, scaffolds and towers, surface and underground monu-
ments

.33 Observations, instruments and records

.34 Reduction to station's center

.35 Corrections for phase of signal and eccentricity

.36 Spirit leveling

.37 Barometric leveling

.38 Trigonometric leveling
•39

These are methods. See 55I-S3t
for results, lists of hights, etc.

PURE SCIENCE

526.4 Computation of triangulation

.41 Spheric excess

.42 Legendre's theorem

.43 Chord process

.44 By spheric trigonometry

.45 By spheroidal trigonometry

.46 L M Z formulas and applications

.47 Direct deduction by Bessel

.48 Deduction by Puissant

.49 Tables for computation

.5 Theory of least squares in adjustment of figures, etc.

.51 Method of independent angles

.54 Method of directions

.55 Adjustment for closure of a circuit

.56 Method of repetitions

.6 Astronomic determinations and their connection with
geodetic results

.61 Latitude determinations

.62 Longitude determinations

.63 Azimuth determinations

.64 Effect of irregularities of Earth's surface on latitude,

longitude and azimuth

.65 Effect of same on angles of triangle

.7 Gravity experiments and results

.71 Mathematic theory

.72 Pendulum apparatus

.73 Pendulum operations

.74 Corrections

.75 Reduction of results

.8 Map projections See 515 5 Spheric projections

.81 Perspectiv projections

.82 Orthomorfic projections

.83 Development projections

.84 Zenithal projections

.85 Equivalent projections

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

526.9 Surveying

.91 Instruments and methods See 526.2

.92 Mesurement of distances

.93 Mesurement of angles

.94 Mesurement of hights

.95 Leveling See s26.36-.38

.96 Plotting

.97 Computation of areas

.98 Topografic drawing

.99 For special purposes: military, naval, railroad, mining, etc.

.1 Finding latitude at sea s ee also 525.41

.4 Sumner's method

.5 Great circle sailing

528 Ephemerides Nautic almanacs

May be further subdivided like 061-068

.1 American .4 French .7 Slavic

.2 English .5 Italian .8 Other

.3 German .6 Spanish .9 Ephemeris making

529 Chronology

.1 Sidereal and solar day

Apparent and mean time, equation of time, causes of inequality

.2 Eras, kinds of years, months, weeks, decades etc.

.3 Kalendars in general; including ancient and nonchristian

.4 Christian kalendars

.41 Coptic and other primitiv Christian kalendars

.42 Kalendar of Julius Caesar

.43 Kalendar of Gregory, 1582- Almanacs

.44 Ecclesiastic kalendar: determination

For feasts etc and kalendars themselvs see 264.021, 264.031 etc

• 5 Modern projects for reform of kalendar

.7 Horology

.71 Finding time by transit

.72 Finding by equal altitudes

.73 Finding by single altitude

.75 Time systems, and standards

.76 Distribution of time

.77 Cosmic time

.78 Instruments for mesuring: dials, hourglasses, clocks,
watches, etc.

See 522.51 for Sidereal clocks and chronometers
See 681 1 1 for Clock and watch making

PURE SCIENCE

530 Physics

Like Science in general: viz, general works only ar arranged

530.1 Philosofy .2 Compends, textbooks .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures, etc.
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, methods of teaching, experiments
.8 Physical units .9 History

531 Mechanics

.1 Pure motion Kinematics

.2 Statics Grafic statics

.21 Force and its mesure

.22 Composition of forces and motions

.23 Moments

.24 Parallel forces Center of gravity

.3 Dynamics Kinetics

.3 1 Rectilinear motion

.3 2 Vibration

.33 Undulation

.34 Rotation

.35 Centrifugal and centripetal force

.4 Work Friction See 621.89 Lubrication

.41 Unit of work

.42 Diagram of work

.43 Laws of friction Modulus of machines

.44 Sliding friction

.45 Rolling friction

.5 Gravity

.51 Law of universal gravitation

.52 Laws of falling bodies

.53 Pendulum

.54 Mass. density, etc.

.55 Projectils

.58 Apparatus for illustration

.6 Conservation of energy

•7

.8 Machines Transmission of force

.81 Lever and balance

.82 Wheel and axle

.83 Cord and catenary

.84 Pulley

.85 Inclined plane

.86 Wedge

.87 Screw

.88

.9 Tables Problems Questions

DECIMAL CLARIFICATION

532 Liquids Hydrostatics Hydraulics

.1 Properties of liquids Pressure

.2 Equilibrium of liquids

.3 Buoyant effects Floating bodies

.4 Specific gravity Hydrometer

.5 Liquids in motion Hydrodynamics

. 5 1 Theoretic flow

• 53 Weirs, overfalls

.54 Pipes, open channels, rivers

.55 Bends, valvs, sudden enlargements and contractions

.56 Efflux ; variable pressure

.57 Hydrometry Velocity

.58 Impulse and resistance

.59 Theory of waves

.6 Capillary attraction

.7 Osmose Absorption

.8 Applications Machines See 621.2 water engms

Except for libraries making Physics much more prominent than Useful arts, all
the ' Applications ' wil be more useful under their proper heds in Useful arts.
It is better to keep all the material in one place, referring to it from the oths:,
rather than attempt division

.9 Tables Problems Questions

533 Gases Pneumatics

.1 Properties of gases and vapors Absorption

.2 Laws of compressibility

•3 Atmosphere

.4 Barometer

.5 Air pump

6 Ae ronautics ■ 1 \>z

.7 Kinetic theory of gases

.8 Applications See 621.6 Blowing and pumping englns

Preferably clast in Useful arts, see 532.8, note

.82 Manometer Pressure gageS Sec 621.18473 Steam generation

.83 Condensing pump

.84 Force pump

.85 Suction pump

.86 Diving bel

.87 Forge bellows

.88 Pneumatic dispatch

.9 Tables Problems Questions

PURE SCIENCE

534 Sound Acoustics

.1 Theory Undulations

.2 Propagation of sound : velocity, diffraction

.4 Analysis of sounds Resonators

.5 Superposition of vibrations

.6 Grafic representations

.7 Physiologic : ear and larynx

For other relations see Ear. Larynx, in Relativ index following Tables

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532-8, not*

.81
.82

.84 Applications to architecture

86 Phonograf

.9 Tables Problems Questions

.1 Theory

.2 Propagation Velocity Mesurement

.3 Reflection Refraction Absorption

.4 Dispersion Diffraction Interference

.5 Polarization Polariscope Double refraction

.6 Color

.7 Physiologic: eye

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532.8, not*

* .81 Lenses and prisms

.84 Spectroscopes and spectrum analysis

other relations and applications

.86 Other applications of lenses

.87 Mirrors and reflecting instruments

.8 9

.9 Tables Problems Questions

DECIMAL CLARIFICATION

536 Heat

.1 Theory Nature

.2 Communication

.3 Action of bodies on heat

.3 1 Reflection

.32 Refraction

.34 AbRorption

.35 Diathermancy

.4 Effects Action of heat on bodies

.41 ExpanRion

.42 Liquefaction

.43 Solidification

.44 Vaporization and condenRation

.45 IncandeRcence

.46 CombuRtion Flame

.5 Temperature Ree 551-52 Meteorology; 613.18 Hygten*

.51 Thermometry

.52 Pyrometry

.53 Electric methodR of meRuring

.6 Calorimetry

.7 Thermodynamics Mechanical equivalent

.8 Applications Preferably go in Useful arts.See 533.8, note

.81 Steam eilginR See 621. 1 Engineering

.82 GaR enginR Ree 621.43 Engineering

.83 Heating see 697, 621.19, 628.8. 644

.84 Ventilation Ree 697, 622.4, 628.8

.9 Tables Problems Questions

537 Electricity

Ree also 621.3 Electric engineering

.1 Theory Nature

.2 Static

.21 Quantity, potential

.22 Conduction, distribution

.23 Machines

.24 Condensers

,25 Electrometers

•3

.4 Atmospheric Lightning rods

.5 Dynamic

.51 Theory of coils Constants

52 Induction Rpark

.53 Induction Rpark in rarified gases

.6 Electro dynamics

.7 Electric mesurements

PURS SCIENCE

537-8

.81
.82

.83
.84

.85
.86
.87
.88
•9

538

.1
.2
•3
•4
•5
.6

•7
.8

•9

539
.1
.2
•3
•4

.5

•51
•52
•53

•54
.6

•7

.8
•9

Applications Preferably clast in Useful arts. See 621.3, and 532.8, note
Xelegra.1 F° r telegraf business, see 654

Telefone Microfone

Dynamos Electric lighting
Tranmission of power Storage
E lectrometal lurgy

Galvanometers Batteries Coils

Electric signals See 654 9
Tables Problems Questions

Magnetism

For Animal magnetism, Mesmerism, etc., see 134

Theory Properties of magnets Lines of force
Communication Induction Touch
Electromagnetism

Diamagnetism

Terrestrial magnetism
Applied Magnetic machines
Tables Problems Questions

Molecular physics

Theory Molecular structure Vortex rings
Properties of solids
Elasticity Torsion
Strength of materials

Permanent displacement of molecules

Malleability

Ductility

Hardness

Tempering
Intermolecular forces

Tables Problems Questions

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

540 Chemistry

Pure or theoretic chemistry

.1 Early theories, alchemy, phlogiston .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclo-
pedias .4 Essays, lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education
methods of teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History

SUMMARY

541-542 General chemistry

541 Chemic theories

542 Operativ and experimental chemistry
543-545 Analytic chemistry

543 Analysis

544 Qualitativ analysis

545 Quantitativ analysis

546 Inorganic chemistry

547 Organic chemistry

REFERENCES

612.015 Physiologic chemistry 660 Chemic telcnology

615 Medical " 669 Metallurgy

616.0756 Pathologic " 770 Photografy

541 Theoretic chemistry Physical chemistry

Modern chemic theories General properties of bodies from chemic point of
view Composition Constitution Elements and compounds Affinity
Formulas Nomenclature

.1

.2 Atomic theory

Ultimate constitution of matter. Nature and phases of ultimate particles:
atoms, ions, anions, kations, electrons. Atomicity. Relationship of mass to
chemic properties of bodies. Laws of chemic combination: weight, definit
proportions, equivalence, multiple proportions. Laws of volume for gases.
Simple or compound nature of chemic elements. Molecules. Atomic and
molecular weights; methods of determination. Atomic and molecular volumes
Laws fundamental to atomic theory; see also 541 .9 Classification, periodic law,
etc.

.3 Physical chemistry

Borderland between physics and chemistry. Including densities in different
phases; chemic affinity, statics and dynamics', thermochemistry and electro-
chemistry

.31 Solid state

.32 Liquid state

Solution

.321 General

Surface tension, vapor tension, viscosity, capillarity

.325 Special types of liquids: gelatinous liquids
.326 Inorganic liquids

.327 Organic liquids

.33 Gaseous state

Subdivide lil»e 541 .32. See also physics, 533.1 Properties of gases; 536 44
Vaporization

PURE SCIENCE

541.34 Solute state Solubility
.341 General

» Osmose of liquids; 542.61 Dissolving

1 Theories: kinetic, hydrate and dissociation

2 Laws Terminology

.342 Solution pressure Solubility

Tables of solubility

.344 Solubility and solution of different forms

1 Solids 2 Liquids 3 Gases Absorption

.345 Solution types

2 Colloid solutions Emulsions

Including general discussion of colloids

.346 Solvents

.35 Photochemistry

Relation of light to chemic action, of polarized light to chemic structure, etc.

,36 Thermochemistry

Relationship of heat to chemic properties of bodies. Thermodynamics and
energetics applied to chemistry. Relations between specific heat and chemic
constitutions. Molecular heats; atomic heats; latent heats of physical, allotropic,
and chemic transformations. Principle of initial and final phases. Study of
changes of phase. Melting points and boiling points. Liberation and absorption
of heat in reactions. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Variation with
temperature of the quantity of heat used in transformations. Principle of maxi-
mum work

.37 Electrochemistry
.378 Magnetochemistry

.39 Chemic dynamics, statics and equilibrium Affinity

Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemic equilibriums. Kinetic theory of
chemic equilibriums (of Guldberg and Waage, Pfaundler, van't Hoff); thermo-
dynamic theory (of Willard Gibbs, of Iiorstmann, of van't Hoff, of Duhem, etc)
Reaction velocities. Accelerating and retarding influences. Catalysis. See
also in physics 536.7 Thermodynamics and energetics

Variation of affinity with physical conditions. Valence. Combinations. Un-
limited and limited decomposition. Dissociation, efflorescence, limits of dissocia-
tion and maximum dissociation. Combustion

.4 Various types of compounds

Acids, bases, salts, alloys

.5 Molecular types

Stereochemistry Formulas of structure

.7 Allotropy

Isomerism Amorfous and crystallin states Tautomerism Polymerlsm
Clas here material on structure not included in 541-6

.9 Other general subjects

Classification Nomenclature Notation Formulas Stoichiometry
Tables Periodic law

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Practical and experimental chemistry

Manipulations Chemic operations For analyses see 543-545

1 Laboratories

Interior construction and installation General arrangements Foi archi-
tecture see 737.5

2 Apparatus and manipulations For special apparatus see 54a. 3- -9

21 Manipulations Arrangements Procedure

2 2 Preparation of substances

Mechanic separation: trituration, pulverization, porphyrization; morta s
and pestles, crushers, sifting and sivs. Disintegration by wetting heated
mass. Levigation

23 Laboratory receptacles and their accessories

231 Glas and quartz

and tubing

5 Glas manipulation : blowing, grinding

232 Porcelain

Evaporating dishes, tubes, retorts. Refractory pottery: crucibles, plates

233 Metallic

Containers made of platinum, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, etc.

24 Supports Fixt, adjustable, wood. Triangles, tripods, clamps

25 Stoppers Glas, cork, rubber Corkborers

26 Rubber tubing Luting and cements
29 Other appliances

3 Mesuring apparatus

32 Determination of weights and density

Balances and weights Descriptions and directions for use

33 Specific gravity apparatus Clas preferably in 533.4

35 Determination of volume

Mesuring volume of liquid Calibrated vessels Graduated pipets, burets
and cylinders

4 ' Heating Distillation

41 General

42 Heating with coal

Laboratory furnaces: trof, cupola, reverberatory, tubular, cupel, blast
Tube furnaces for organic analysis v

43 Heating with liquid fuels, etc. Lamps; special burners

44 Heating with gas

Coal gas, carburetted air, acetylene, etc.

Fishtail and Bunsen burners; gas furnaces and grates; pressure regulators

46 Indirect heating

Baths and heaters: water baths; salt, metal and oil baths; metal plates or
wire gauzes

47 Electric heating

Heaters, muffles and furnaces; kryptol furnaces

48 Operations

Melting, fusing, boiling. Vaporization, distillation. Distilling apparatus,
alembics or stills. Deflegmators. Vacuum operations

Evaporation with heat: sublimation, dessication. For evaporation in vac-
uum see 543 .77

49 Other heating operations

PURE SCIENCE

542.5 Flames Blowpipes

.51 Flame

Nature of flame; candle flame; oxidizing and reducing flames

.52 Coloration of flame

.53 Blowpipes

Varieties of blowpipes and how to use them

For applications see Blowpiping in Relativ index following Tables

.6 Aqueous and liquid treatment

Dissolving, aqueous separation, levigation, etc; alcohol, ether, carbondisulfid,
hydrocarbons, etc.

.61 Dissolving Solution

Solvents, maceration, digestion, decoction, lixiviation

.6? Determination of solubility Supersaturation

Supersaturated solution

.65 Diffusion

Lowering the solidification point or surfusion

.64 Dialysis Dializers

.65 Solidification

Precipitation, crystallization, crystallizers

.66 Decantation

Decantation funnels, Florentin receivers, syfons, pipets

.67 Filtration and filters

Filtration with textils, with paper, thru cotton, asbestos, powders, etc.
Hot filtration Filtration in seald vessels, by suction, by compression
Filter presses

.68 Expression and presses Drying of press residues; drying machines

.69 Washing Continuous, automatic; decantation, wash bottles

.7 Gas manipulation

.71 General

.72 Gas production

.73 Gas collecting and decanting

Pneumatic trof, gas sampling-tube, gas pipets; displacement and decanting

.74 Washing and dissolving gas

Wash bottles Apparatus for drying and absorbing gas
• 75 GaS Storage Gasometers, rubber bags

.76 GaS meSUrement Graduated tubes, meters

,7'i Rarefaction of gas

Pumps: air, vacuum, mercury; blowing engins, bellows, suction gasometers;
manometers; vacuum regulators; trompes

.78 Gas compression

Seald tubes and bulbs, bellows, compression pumps, gasholders

.79 Gas liquefaction and solidification

Faraday tubes Apparatus for expansion; of Thilorier; of Cailletet and
Linde

DECIMAL CLASIFICATIOX

542 8 Electric and galvanic manipulations

only apparatus for preparing chemic substances, not apparatus for study of
phenomena. For analytic apparatus see special substance under 543 or special
process under 544 or 545

.9 Other operations

Attacks by acids and gases: oxidations, reductions 6te.

543-545 Analytic chemistry

543 Analysis

Divided by material analyzed, whether qualitativly or quantitativly ; i.e. 9ubstanca
takes precedence of process. Clas in 543 general works covering both qualitativ

and quantitativ analysis

.1 Analysis of food and drink

.2 Dairy products Milk

.3 Water

See also hygiene 613.31 Water as a beverage; and therapeutics 615.79 Min.

eral waters

.4 Analysis of drugs and medicins

See a'so 614.35 Inspection of drugs; 615 Medicin

.5 Poisons

.6 Analysis of rocks and ores

.7 Analysis of inorganic products in general

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions

of 543

.8 Analysis of organic products in general

For genera] works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions

of S43

.9 Analysis of organic products of animal origin

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions

PURE SCIENCE

544 Qualitativ analysis

Determination of chemic elements of substances General processes and methods

.1 Wet method

.11 Reagents
.12 Determination of bases
.13 Determination of acids

• .2 Dry method

.3 Blowpiping

For other relations see Relativ index

.4 Gas analysis Reactions

Eudiometry

.5 Dialysis

For technic see 542.64; for electric dialysis see 542.8

.6 Spectrum analysis

.7 Polariscopic analysis

.8 Microscopic examinations
.9 Other methods

Electroanalysis

.92 Capillary analysis

545 Quantitativ analysis

.1 Gravimetric

Analysis by weighing, sampletaking

.2 Wet method

Titration solution, alkalimetry, acidimetry

.3 Electric methods

For galvanoplastics see 671

.311 Constant current analysis

.312 Constant voltage analysis

.36 Catalytic analysis

•4 Dry method

Quantitativ analyses with blowpipe, cupellation etc.

.5 Titrometric methods In general

.6 Volumetric analysis of liquids

. 7 Volumetric analysis of gases

Eudiometry and eudiometers; gas burets, absorption pipets

.8 Other methods

Colorimetric Polarimetric Refractometric

.9 Synthesis

General processes

.97 Electric synthesis

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

546-547 Inorganic and organic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry

.1 Nonmetallic elements

.11 Hydrogen

.12 Halogen group

.13 Chlorin

.14 Bromin

. 1 5 Iodin

.16 Fluorin

.17 Nitrogen group Nitrogen

.18 Phosphorus

.19 Arsenic

.2 Oxygen group

.21 Oxygen

.22 Sulfur

.23 Selenium

.24 Tellurium

.25 Carbon group

.26 Carbon

.27 Boron

.28 Silicon

.29 Helium group

.292 Neon

.293 Argon

.294 Krypton

.295 Xenon

.3 Metals

.31 Alkali group

.32 Potassium

.33 Sodium

.34 Lithium

.35 Rubidium

.36 Caesium
•37
.38
•39

.4 Alkalin earths

Calcium and magnesium groups considerd together

.41 Calcium

.42 Strontium

.43 Barium

.44 Magnesium group

.45 Beryllium or glucinum

.46 Magnesium

.47 Zinc

•49

PURE SCIENCE

546.5 Led and silver group

.51 Led

.52 Thallium

55 Silver group

.56 Copper

.57 Silver

.58 Mercury
•59

.6 Cerium group Rare earths

.61 Yttrium

.62 Cerium

;63 Lanthanum

.64 Didymium

.642 Praseodymium

.643 Neodymium

.65 Erbium

.652 Ytterbium

.653 Terbium

.66 Aluminum

.67 Indium

.68 Gallium

.69 Other metals of rare earths

.691 Scandium

.692 Samarium or decipium

.695 Germanium

.696 Europium

.697 Thulium

.7 Iron group

Iron and chromium groups conaiderd toget£ie>

.71 Manganese

.72 Iron

.73 Cobalt

.74 Nickel

.75 Chromium group

.76 Chromium

.77 Molybdenum

.78 Tungsten or wolfram

.8 Tin group

Tin and vanadium groups considerd togethel

.81 Tin

.82 Titanium

.83 Zirconium .832 Hafnium

.86 Antimony

.87 Bismuth

.88 Tantalum

.891 Niobium or columbiuro

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

546.9 Platinum group

.91 Gold

.92 Platinum

.93 Iridium

.94 Osmium

.95 Ruthenium group

.96 Ruthenium

.97 Rhodium

.99 False and putativ elements

Arrange alfabeticly

547 Organic chemistry

.1 Cyanogen and its compounds

.2 Hydrocarbons Fatty series

For occurrence as minerals see 549.8

.21 Paraffins

.22 Olefins

.23 Acetylenes

.24 Valylene Dipropargyl, etc.

.25 Aromatic series

.26 Benzenes

.27 Diphenyl group

.28 Naphthalene Anthracene Phenanthrene

.29 Higher series

.3 Alcohols Phenols

.4 Ethers: simple, compound; haloid

.5 Aldehydes

.6 Ketones Quinones

.7 Acids: acid halids, acid anhydrids, sulfo-acids

.8 Nitroderivates : amins, compound ammoniums, amids,

amic acids, azo-bodies, azoxy-bodies, hydrazo-bodies,
diazo-bodies

.9 Compounds with metals

PURE SCIENCE

548 Crystallografy

Genera!; phenomena of a special mineral belong with that mineral; e.g

cleavage of borates 549.73

.1

Systems of crystallization

.2

Twin crystals Crystallin aggregations

•3

Cleavage Isomorfism Polymorfism

•4

Irregularities Internal imperfections

•5

Formation and growth of crystals

.6

Pseudomorfs

•7

Mathematic: mesurement of angles

.8

Physical

•9

Optical

549 Mineralogy

.01 Philosofy, classification .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays, papers,
etc. .05 Periodicals .06 Societies .07 Study and teaching, museums .08 Col-
lectiv works .09 History

.1 Determinativ Blowpiping

See 542.53 Blowpipes and their manipulation. For othei relations see Blow-
piping in Relativ index following Tables

.2 Nativ elements

.3 Sulfids, tellurids, selenids, arsenids, antimonids, bismuthids

.4 Compounds of chlorin, bromin, iodin, and fluorin

.5 Oxygen compounds: oxids

.6 Silicates

,6 1 Anhydrous

.65 Hydrous

.7 Other ternary oxygen compounds

.71 Tantalates Columbates

Nitrates
.73 Borates

.74 Tungstates Molybdates Chromates

.75 Anhydrous sulfates

.76 Hydrous sulfates

.77 Tellurates

.78 Carbonates

.79 Oxalates

.8 Hydrocarbons

Occurrence as minerals. For chemistry ot hydrocarbons see 547.2; for

economic geology see 553.2

.9 Geografic distribution

divided like 940-999 For economic geology see 553.09

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Geology

5 so. I Philosofy, theories, geologic time .2 Compcnds .J Dictionaries .4 Essays,
pipers, tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching,
museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History

Physical and dynamic geology

Including geophysics (physiografy, physical geografy) and geochemistry broadly

.1 Structure of earth as a whole

.1 1 Interior of earth

.12 Internal heat

.13 Earth's crust

.14 Conductivity of rocks

.2 Seismology

. 2 1 Volcanoes

.22 Earthquakes

.23 Hot springs, geysers

.24 Oscillations of the earth's crust

.3 Erosion and deposition

.3 1 Glaciers and glacial phenomena

.3 2 Moraines

.33 Transported materials, till

.34 Icebergs

.35 Aqueous erosion

.36 Coast changes

.37 Aerial erosion

.4 Surface features of the earth

.41 Continents

.42 Hands

.43 Mountains Valleys Orology

.44 Caves

.45 Plains

.46 Oceans Submarine topografy

.47 Ocean currents

48 Rivers Lakes

.49 Springs Wells Ground water 9 Antarctic

.5 Meteorology Climate

.51 Atmosferic currents Winds

.52 Thermometry, heat

For other relations see Heat, Temperature, in Relativ index following Tables

.53 Hypsometry, elevations See 526.36-8 for methods

.54 Barometry, pressure

.55 Storms

.57 Moisture: rainfall, flow of streams, floods

.58 Prairies, forests, and deserts

Division of Oceans for use under .46

and .47

1 Atlantic North sea Baltic

2 Mediterranean Black sea

3 Gulf of Mexico Caribbean

4 Southern Atlantic

5 Pacific

6 Eastern Pacific or American coast

7 Indian Bay of Bengal Red sea

8 Arctic

PURE SCIENCE

551.6 Metamorfism

.7 Stratigrafic geology

.71 Archean

.72 Primary, paleozoic, Cambrian

.73 Silurian

.731 Lower Silurian

.732 Upper Silurian

.74 Devonian Old red sandstone

.75 Carboniferous

.76 Secondary, mesozoic, triassic and Jurassic: lias, oolite

.77 Cretaceous

.78 Tertiary, cenozoic

.781 Eocene, oligocene

.782 Miocene

.783 Pliocene

.79 Quaternary Postpliocene Glacial

.791 Recent

.8 Structural geology

.81 Stratification

.82 Curvature and contortion

.83 Ripple marks and sun cracks

.84 Joints Cleavage Polarity in rocks

.85 Dip Outcrop Strike

.86 Anticlinal Synclinal

.87 Faults and folds Dislocations

.88 Veins Dykes Necks Bosses

.89

.9 Agents of geologic work

.91 Frost

.92 Water

.93 Atmosphere

.94 Geochemistry

.95 Animals

.96 Coral reefs

.97 Plants

.98 Segregation and concretion

.99 Other agents

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

552 Lithology Petrografy Petrology

.1 Igneous rocks

.2 Volcanic rocks

.21 Lavas Scoria

.22 Volcanic ashes Volcanic tufa Tuff

.23 Obsidian Pumis Pitchstone

.24 Trachyte

.25 Rhyolite

.26 Andesite Dacite Phonolite

.27 Felsites

.28 Basalt

.29 Other volcanic rocks

.3 Plutonic rocks

.3 1 Porphyry Porphyrite

.32 Syenite

.33 Granit

.34 Diabase and gabbro

.35 Dolerite

.36 Diorite

.37 Norite

.38 Peridotite

.39 Other Plutonic rocks

.4 Metamorfic rocks

.41 Granits and syenites

.42 Gneiss

.43 Schists

.44 Slates Argillite Phyllite

.45 Quartzite Novaculite Itacolumite

.46 Marble Crystallin limestone

.47 Serpentine

.48 Chrysolitic rocks

.49 Other metamorfic rocks

.5 Sedimentary rocks

.51 Sandstone Conglomerate Sand Gravel

.52 Shale Clay Silt

•53 Gypsum Salt

.54 Limestone Marl Ooze

.55 Dolomite

.56 Oolite

.57 Infusorial or diatomaceous earth

.58 Glauconite Greensand

.59 Other sedimentary rocks

.6 Meteorites

.7 Decay of rocks

PURE SCIENCE

552.8 Microscopic petrografy

.81 Determination of rock minerals

.82 Rock structure

.1 Ore deposits

. 1 1 Formation and structure

. 1 2 Classification

.13 Superficial: placers

.14 Stratified: beds, etc.

. 1 5 Unstratified

.16 Disseminated thru eruptiv rocks

17 Stockwerks Fahlbands Contacts

.18 Chambers and pockets Impregnations

.19 Mineral veins

.2 Carbon series WhiIe the history of al ,

• 2I Peat other products goes in 553,

.2 2 Lignite and jet history of metals is more

.2\ Cannel coal Bituminous shale useful in 669, Metallurgy

.24 Bituminous and semibituminous coals

.25 Anthracite and grafitic anthracite

.26 Grafite Plumbago

.27 Asfalt and asfaltic coals Ozocerite

.28 Petroleum Natural gas

.29 Fossil gums and resins

.3 Ores of iron

.4 Ores of metals other than iron

.41 Ores of gold

.42 Ores of silver

.43 Ores of copper

.44 Ores of led

.45 Ores of zinc and tin Mercury

.46 Ores of manganese and chromium

.47 Ores of antimony and arsenic

.48 Ores of nickel and cobalt

.49 Other metallic ores

.5 Bilding stones

.51 Marbles and limestones

.52 Granits and syenites

.53 Sandstones

.54 Slates

.55 Serpentines Soapstones

.56 Porphyries

• 57 Trap

.58 Tufa Peperino

.59 Other bilding stones

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

553.6 Earthy economic minerals

.O I

r 11c ciciyb ui lva cictyo r unci \-icty&

.02

Sands

•03

ixOCK Salt ^jypsurn

.04

a nOSpilcllco jrvptlLlLc LJUclIlU 000 also 031.55

.05

1 - - 1 ! 1 I y V^VJI U.11U U.1I1

.66

Hevy spar Sulfur

.67

Asbestos, etc.

.68

Limes and mineral cements

.69

Other earthy economic minerals

•7

Mineral waters

.71 Alkalin

.72 Salin

.73 Chalybeate, ironbearing

.74 Sulfuric

.75 Calcic

.8 Gems Ornamental stones

.9 Other economic minerals

554 Geology of Europe S54-S59 subdivided by countries like 940-9VV

555 Geology of Asia

556 Geology of Africa

557 Geology of North America

558 Geology of South America

559 Geology of Oceania Polar regions

r /T _ T-\ n 1 aavi4a1/\/VW UsC f ° rm divisions as in 550 and divide 9 geograficly

^OO XT cliGOUXOlOgy like 930-999; e. g. Paleontology of England 560.942

561 PlantS So 1 is subdivided like Botany, 580

562 Invertebrates 562-569 is subdued nke zoology, 592-599

564 Mollusks

565 Articulates

566 Vertebrates

567 Fishes Batrachia

568 Reptils Birds

569 Mammals

PURE SCIENCE

570 Biology Archeology

570.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, 'ecturcs, etc.
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, museums
.8 Collectiv works .9 History

571 Prehistoric archeology

For Customs, see 390 For Archeology of special countries, see 913

.1 Paleolithic, or early stone age

. 1 1 Drift remains

. 1 2 Cave men

.13 Remains of animals Shells

.14 Chipt stones

. 1 5 Flint flakes Arrow heds Knives, etc.

.16 Other stone remains

.19 Other remains

.2 Neolithic, or late stone age

.21 Stone quarries
.22

.23 Remains of animals

.24 Polisht stones

.25 Sharpend stones: celts, tools, wepons

.26 Perforated stones: spindles, net sinkers, pipes

.27 Hollowd stones: mortars, cups, food vessels

.28 Other stone remains

.29 Other remains

.3 Bronze age

.3 1 Ancient copper and tin mining

.34 Bronze remains

.35 Tools Wepons, etc.

.37 Cups Vessels

.39 Other remains

.4 Iron age

.5 Other remains

.51 Implements of wood

.52 Implements of bone

.54 Textil fabrics

.55 Pottery

.56 Glas

.6 Prehistoric industries

.7 Rudiments of art Ornaments

.71 Drawings

.72 Paint

.73 Sculptures

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

571-8

.81
.82

•83
.84

•85
.86

•9

.91
.92
•93
•94
•95
.96

•97
.98

•99
572

.1

.2
3

•4
•5
.6

•7

.8
•9

573
.1
.2
•3
•4
.5

.6

•7
.8

9

Dwellings

Natural caves

Earth houses Pit dwellings Weems
Lake dwellings Crannoges
Cliff dwellings
Pueblos

Tents as dwellings
Mounds and monuments

Mounds and mound bilders
Grave mounds

Kitchen middens Shell banks
Monoliths Cromlechs
Circles Labyrinths
Cairns

Ethnology Anthropology

Unity of human race
Diversity of races
Migrations of men

Original home of man: Eden, Atlantis, etc.

Savages : races divided by practises

Clas description of savages of special country in 914-919; e. g. Australian bush-
men 919 .4

Races divided by language like 400
Races divided by countries like 930-999

Divide by countries where possible. Use language divisions for groups like
Semitic, Aryan, Teutonic, English, etc.

Natural history of man Somatology

Man's place in nature
Origin of man
Antiquity of man

Influence of climate and surroundings

Color in man

Anthropometry

Craniology

Dwarfs and giants

Monstrosities

PURE SCIENCE

574 Physiologic and structural biology-
Natural history

Subdivided where wisht like 581 and 591; but clas phylogeny on 575, variation
on 575.2, ecology on 575. 3. abiogenesis on 576.1, cytology on 576.3

575 Evolution Phylogeny

.01 Theory

.016 Miscellaneous theories

2 Darwinism

3 Orthogenesis Determinate evolution

4 Weismannism

5 Mutation theory

6 Lamarckism

.07 Study and teaching

.072 Experiment and reserch

5 Methods

52 Conserving method

53 Agricultural "

54 Horticultural method
56 Zooteknic "

.1 Heredity Eugenics

see Heredity in Relativ index following Tables

. 1 1 General questions and laws

.112 Blending inheritance

2 Galton's law

.113 Alternativ inheritance

2 Mendel's law

.114 Mosaic inheritance

. 1 2 Inheritance of caracters

.122 Normal hereditary units Genotypes

.123 Inheritance of acquired caracters

Permanence of acquired caracters

.124 Inheritance of sports

• 125 " " fluctuating variations Phenotypes

.126 Heredity of special caracters

2 Factors of caracters 4 Polymorfic caracters

3 Sexual caracters

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

575.13 Breeding Heredity

.131 Theoretic and general questions

2 Effects of external influences

3 " u internal "

.132 Outbreeding Mongrelization

.133 In-and-in breeding Self fertilization

Effects of consanguinity, incest

.134 Sterility

.135 Xenia

. t 3 1 Telegony

.737 Atavism

.138 Cytology of heredity and breeding

.139 Other topics

.15 Mekanic fenomena

.16 Chemic "

.17 Morfologic "

.2 Variation

Divided Hire 581.15, but clas selection on 575.4-.S

.3 Ecology Environment Bionomics

history of man

.423 Natural selection Survival of the fittest

.424 Artificial "

.43 Special results

.432 Cros fertilization

.433 Resistance to unfavorable environment

.5 Sexual selection

.6 Development

.7 Degeneration Regeneration Extinction

.8 Origin of species
.y " " sexes

576 Origin and beginnings of life

.1 Abiogenesis Spontaneous generation

.2 Protoplasm Bioplasm

.3 Cels Cytology

Divided like 581.87

.4 Begirmings of motion and sensation

•5 Associations of eels and unicellular organisms Cel

colonies

PURE SCIENCE

577 Properties of living matter

.1 Chemic: difference between organic and inorganic

.2 Life : difference between ded and living matter

.21 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of life

.212 Mekanism
.213 Vitalism

.214 Physico-biologic conception of life

Structure necessary to life

.22 Living and ded matter

.23 Molecular life

Life considerd as sinthesis of molecular energies

.24 Relations between life and deth

.3 Difference between vital and physical fenomena

.4 Conditions of life : moisture, temperature

.5 Difference between plants and animals

.6 Vital force

.7 Deth

.72 Definitions Conditions Causes

.73 Longevity and mortality of living organisms

.74 Fenomena of decomposition among living organisms

Autolysis, putrefaction

.75 Types of deth

.76 Signs " "

.8 Sex in nature

.81 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of sex

.82 Sexes

.822 Male

.823 Female

.824 Hermaphrodite

.825 Neuter

.84 Factors effecting sex

Sex inversion

.841 External factors

.842 Internal "

.85 Physiologic fenomena

.86 Morfologic "

.88 Determination of sex

.9 Other topics

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

.1 Varieties of microscopes

.2 Optic parts

.3 Mekanic parts

.4 Accessory apparatus Management of microscope

.5 Illuminating apparatus

.6 Preparation and mounting of objects

.7 Special preparation and study of inorganic material

.8 " botanic material s ee S 8i.8 Histology

.9 " zoologic material ' 591 8

579 Collectors manuals

.1 Preparing skeletons

.2 Preservativs and hardening fluids

.3 Injections

.4 Taxidermy

.5 Mounting specimens

.6 Collecting

.611 Alluring; bait, light etc.

.612 Hunting; nets, collecting bottle, etc.

.613 Killing

.614 Exchange Purchase

.615 Rearing

.616 Transporting

.7 Arrangement of specimens in museums

.71 Cabinets .72 Labels

.8 Preservation of specimens

.81 Museum pests .82 Pestifuges .83 Prevention of moisture .84 Re-
tention of colors,

•9

BOTANY

580 Botany

For full list of form divisions sec Tabic 2 after Rclativ index

. i Theory

.14 Nomenclature Terminology Simbols Abbreviations

For dictionaries see 580.3

.142 Etimology

.143 Scientific

2 Names of genera, species etc

3 Teknical terms: organs, functions, processes etc
.144 Popular

.148 Sistems of notation: simbols, abbreviations etc

.7 Study and teaching

.72 Reserch and experimentation

.722 Laboratories

.723 Field work

.725 Methods

2 Under glas

22 Comparison of conditions under gles and in life

3 fn life

32 Comparison of artificial and natural conditions

4 Methods of culture

42 Sterilization of cultures

5 Biometric and statistical methods
.9 History of botany

Divided like 930-990. For geografic distribution of plants see 581.9

581 Physiologic and structural botany

.1 Physiology

.11 Circulation Transport

Absorption and movement of liquid substances, sap

.111 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of circulation

.112 Absorption of liquids

.113 Circulation of "

Rize of sap

.114 Translocation and distribution of foods

.115 Methods

2 Capillarity

3 Imbibition

4 Diffusion

5 Osmosis

6 Suction

62 Leaf suction Negativ tension

63 Root suction Root pressure

7 Stem action

8 Action of living eels

9 Other

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.12 Respiration

mentation

.121 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of respiration. Absorption and movement of gases

2 Aeration and aerating sistem

22 Absorption of gases

23 Circulation " "

3 Oxidation

32 Complete

33 Incomplete

34 Production of carbon dioxid

35 " " light, phosforcscence, luminescence

36 " " heat Temperature attaind

37 Other products of oxidation

4 Respiratory ratio

5 Influence of external conditions
.122 Dermal respiration

.124 Intercellular respiration

.126 Tracheal respiration

.128 Intramolecular or anaerobic respiration

.129 Exhalation and transpiration

.13 Nutrition Metabolism

.131 Acquisition of food

.132 Digestion " "

.133 Assimilation and storage of food Anabolism

1 Theoretic and general questions

* Nature of assimilation

2 Assimilation by autotrophic plants

3 " " allotrophic or heterotrophic plants

4 Processes of assimilation

42 Photosynthesis

Agents: chlorophyl, carotinoids, bacteriopurpurin

43 Chemosynthesis

44 Nitrification

45 Proteid synthesis

BOTANY

581.1335 Substances assimilated

52 Carbon

53 Nitrogen

54 Mineral substances

542 Water

543 Sulfur

544 Phosforus

545 I ron

546 Mineral salts

2 Calcium salts 3 Potassium salts 4 Sodium salts

55 Organic foods

552 Vegetable

553 Animal

6 Reassimilation of degenerate parts

7 Products of assimilation

72 Protoplasm

73 Plastic products

8 Food storage Reservs

82 Formation of reservs

83 Dissolving " 1 "

84 Distribution

85 Types of reservs

852 Water

853 Starchy or amylaceous

854 Cellulose

855 Oily or oleaginous

856 Albuminoid and nitrogenous

9 Other topics
.134 Growth

1 Theoretic and general questions

12 Rate and periodicity

Rest periods

13 Influence of tissue tension

14 Polarity Internal influences Correlations

1 5 Influence of environment

152 Metcorologic conditions

Divided like 551.5

153 Light

154 Electricity

155 Mekanic forces

2 Primary growth

22 Growing regions Vcgctativ points

23 Methods of growth

232 By eel enlargement and lengthening

2 Protoplasmic growth

3 Growth of eel wall ; of enveloping membrane

233 By eel division, multiplication

3 Secondary growth

32 Normal growth with single annual cambium layer

322 Growth of central cilinder

323 " " bark or surface

33 Abnormal growth

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.135 Development Ontogeny

General and postembyronic; for embryonic development see 581.3

1 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of development

2 Differentiation and development of members

3 Periods of development

32 Youth

33 Maturity

34 Rejuvenescence

35 Senescence Degeneration Decline

352 Exfoliation

Scaling or peeling off

353 Falling of lcavs

354 " " branches

355 Cicatrization

36 Deth

.136 Repair of waste

.137 Production of organic material

.138 Conditions of nutritiv activity

Water culture mediums, etc

.139 Longevity Vitality

.14 Secretion Excretion

.141 Mucous Sebaceous Laticiferous

2 Mucous 3 Sebaceous: fats etc 4 Laticiferous:

latex, gums etc

.142 Sericeous

.143 Digestiv

. 144 Protectiv and attractiv

Odoriferous, sweet, luminous, electric, etc.

2 Odoriferous

Essences, perfumes, resins etc

3 Sweet-tasting

Nectar, honey etc

4 Pigmentary

42 Green coloring matter, chlorophyl

43 Yellow " " xanthophyl

44 Red " " carotinoids

45 Blue " " anthocyans

46 Purple " " bactcriopurpurin
.145 Poisonous Gall formation

.146 Spermatic
.149 Other

2 Urinary 4 Cristallin 5 Inorganic

Urea etc Amorfous inorganic products, etc

BOTANY

i s Variation

151 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of variation

2 Physiologic, embryologic and cytologic aspects

22 Production of variations

23 Variation and development

232 Variation at special developmental stages

233 " and recapitulation

24 Correlated variation

242 Immediate or physiologic correlation

243 Mediate or biometric "

2 Homotypy

25 Variation and germ plasm

252 Corresponding variation of chromosomes and soma

26 Variation and heredity

3 Variation of particular caracters

31 General laws

311 Varietal vs specific caracters

312 New vs old caracters

313 Secondary sexual caracters

314 Variation in caracters of wi deranging species

32 Secular variation and periodicity

4 Variation and selection

43 Artificial "
45 Sexual

9 Polymorfic variation

152 Environmental variation Modification

Extrinsic causes of variation

2 Meteorologic influences 6 Geografic variation

Divided like 551.5 7 Effect of nutritiv agents

3 Effect of light 72 Food

4 " " electricity 73 Water

5 " " gravity and 74 Chemic agents
other mekanic forces 75 Solutions

153 Heterofagic

154 Polygoneutic

155 Mimetic

156 Sexual

Sexual dimorphism, etc

157 Colorational

158 Hybrids Grafts

Intrinsic causes of variation

2 Hybrids 3 Grafts See a l s ° 581.16582 Propagation 1

159 Mutations Abnormalities

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.16 Generation Reproduction

.1C1 Abiogenesis Spontaneous generation

.162 Parthenogenesis Apogamy Apospory Neuters

.163 Metagenesis Alternation of generations

.165 Vegetativ, asexual, nonsexual reproduction

1 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of vegetativ reproduction

2 Fission Fragmentation

22 Strobilation

23 Gemmation Unicellular budding

3 Brood organs: bulbils, gemmae, gonidia, soredia etc

4 Bulbs Tubers Winterbuds (as of Potamogeton) etc

5 Shoots, offsets, propagules, runners etc

6 Shedding of hormogons, branches or other parts

7 Regeneration

8 Artificial propagation

82 Grafts 83 Slips or cuttings 84 Layers

9 Other

.166 Sexual reproduction

Nuclear fusions

1 Theoretic and general questions

581.36 Production of sexes

2 • Fertilization Fecundation Conjugation

22 Pollination

23 Self vs cros fertilization

24 " fertilization
242 Cleistogamy

25 Cros fertilization

252 Dichogamy

253 Heterogamy

1 Dimorphic 3 Trimorphic

254 Diclinism

2 Monoecious 3 Dioecious 4 Polygamous
256 Adaptation to special carrying agents

2 Forms of adaptation 6 Zoophily

Traps, vexillary dispo- Divided like 500, but

sition, etc clas adaptation for in-

3 Hydrophily sect carriers on

4 Anemophily 581. 1662567

7 Entomophily

Divided like 595.7

26 Artificial control of fertilization
.167 Hermaphroditism

.168 Viviparity

.169 Superfetation Superfecundation Superfertilization

Double fertilization, triple fusion, twinning

BOTANi

581.17 Histogenesi s

.171 Development of sperm eels

.172 " " germ eels Micropyle

.179 Reparation of wounds Regeneration of parts

.18 Irritability and movement

.181 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of irritability; perception and transmission of stimuli

.182 Physical or mekanic movements

2 Stability 6 Hygroscopic movements

3 Elasticity 62 Movements due to cohesion of water

4 Turgidity content

5 Tensions Dehiscence of anthers, projection of sporangia,

etc

63 Movements due to swelling or dis-
tention

.183 Paratonic movements

1 General irritations or stimuli

2 Tropisms

Movements dependent on direction of stimulus

22 Geotropism

23 Water and moisture tropisms Chemic tropisms

232 Rheotropism

233 Hydrotropism

234 Osmotropism

235 Chemotropism
2 Aerotropism

24 Light and heat tropisms

242 Phototropism Hcliotropism

244 Thermotropism

25 Electrotropism Galvanot ropism

26 Haptotropism Stereotropism Thigmotropism

Of tendrils, sensitiv plants, etc

27 Traumatropism

3 Nastic movements

Movements dependent on intensity of stimulus independently of
direction

32 Nyctinastic Nyctitropic Photcolic Photonastic

Sleep movements, periodic sleep, etc

33 Seismonastic

Movements due to shock (as in Mimosa, Biophytum etc)

34 Thermonastic

4 Taxies Locomotion

.184 Turgor movements

Gyrations etc (as of traps, trigger hairs, etc)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.185 Autonomic movements

2 Of variation 6 Projections due to motions

3 " nutation and of variation and nutation
Circumnutation Projection of germs and

4 Epinasty spores thru such movements

5 Hyponasty

.186 Cytoplasmic, protoplasmic movements

2 Streaming

3 Rotation

4 Movement of plastids
6 Autonomic locomotion

62 Swimming

622 Ciliary 623 Flagellary 624 Excretory

63 Rampant Creeping Ameboid
.19 Physiologic chemistry

.192 General chemic composition

Plant constituents

2 Composition of ash 7 Stimulants

3 Organic composition 8 Mutual influences of con-

4 Necessary elements stituents Protectiv influence

5 Superfluous " of salts

6 Noxious and toxic 9 Other topics
elements Poisons

.193 Ferments and fermentation Enzymes and catalysis

Zymolysis

1 Theoretic and general questions

2 Processes and products

3 Influences of external factors

4 Special ferments

41 Oxidants Oxidases Reducing ferments

42 Hydrolytic

43 Proteolytic

44 Lipolytic and saponifying

442 Lipolytic

443 Saponifying

45 Amylolytic and sucroclastic

46 Glycolytic
461 Alcoholic

9 Antiferments Antienzymes

.194 Hormon3S Vitamins

.196 Internal reactions

.197 Special products

Divided like 547 Organic chemistry

BOTANY

581.2 Pathology

Sec also 632 Agriculture

.21 Nonparasitic or physiologic diseases

Diseases due to malnutrition, etc

.22 Teratology Malformation

.221 Union of organs Abnormal fusions

2 Cohesion

Union of similar parts

Union of dissimilar parts

7 Synophyty

Union of embryos

8 Union of special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

Abnormal fissions

2 Division of similar organs or parts

3 " " dissimilar organs or parts normally attacht

7 " " embryo

8 " " special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

.223 Displacement Ectopy

Abnormal position of organs

2 Homotopy

3 Heterotaxy

7 Displacement of embryo

8 " " special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

.224 Metachromism and metamorfism

2 Metachromism

Abnormal changes of color

27 Of embryo

28 " special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

3 Metamorfism

Change of 1 organ or part into another. For normal metamorfosis
see 581.34

37 Of embryo

38 " special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

.225 Changes of number

8 Of special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

.226 Deformations Heteromorfy

2 Fasciation 7 Deformation of embryo

3 Enations 8 " " special organs or parts

4 Torsion Divided like 581.4

.227 Stasimorfy Atrofy Loss of function Abortion

Suppression

7 Of embryo 8 Of special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.228 Hypertrofy

Abnormal enlargement of organs or parts
7 Of embryo 8 Of special organs or parts

Divided like 581.4

.229 Other abnormalities

.23 Parasitic and infectious diseases

.232 Diseases due to parasitic plants

2 Bacterial diseases

Divided like 589.95

3 Algal diseases

Divided like S89.3-.6

4 Smuts Bunts

5 Rusts

6 Other fungus diseases

Clas here general works on fungus diseases. Divided like 589.2

7 Other thallophytic diseases

Clas here general works on thallophytic diseases. Divided like 589

8 Diseases due to other parasitic plants

Divided like 580

.233 Diseases due to parasitic animals

3 Protozoans

Divided like 5931
5 Worms

Divided like 595.1
7 Insects

Divided like 595. 7

9 Diseases due to other parasitic animals

Divided like 590

.234 Virus diseases

.24 Injuries

Divided like 632.1

. 2 5 Anatomy of diseasd and injured tissues

.26 Cytology " " " " "

. 2 7 Galls

.271 Theoretic and general questions

Nature of gall producing stimuli, etc

.272 Fungus galls Mycodomatia Mycocecidia

Divided like 589.2

.273 Galls due to other plant agencies

Clas here general works on galls due to plant agencies. Divided like 580

.274 Insect galls

Divided like 595-7

.275 Galls due to other animal agencies

Clas here general works on galls due to animal agencies. Divided like

590

.276 Regions affected

Divided like 581.4

.277 Anatomic study of galls

.28 Means of protection against diseases

Divided like 632.9

.29 Other topics

BOTANY

581.3 Embryology Phylogeny

.32 Sporogenesis Gametogenesis

.322 Microsporogenesis Spermatogenesis

.323 Macrosporogenesis Oogenesis

.324 Spore sacs

2 Ovules 4 Sporogonia Sporangia

3 Thecae 5 Spore mother eels
.325 Embryo sacs and spores

2 Embryo sacs

3 Pollen grains

4 Spores

42 Asexual spores 43 Sexual spores

Gonidia, zoospores Zygospores, oospores, carpospores

.326 Gametes

2 Isogametes 4 Coenogametes 6 Spermatozoids

3 Anisogametes 5 Eg eels

.327 Seed

For seed morfology see 581.467

.33 Development of embryo

.331 Theoretic and general questions

Division of fusion nucleus, etc

.332 Anatomy of embryo

2 Embryonic tissues 7 Cotyledon 8 Radicle
5 Stem 74 Plumule g Suspensor

.333 Germination
.334 Seedling

i Theoretic and general questions

Significance of juvenil stages, etc

5 Primary shoot or stem

52 Hypocotyl

53 Epicotyl

7 Primary leavs

8 " root

.34 Metamorfosis

For abnormal metamorfism see 581.2243

. 3 5 Hypermetamorf osis

.36 Production and differentiation of sexes

.38 Phylogeny

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy Homologies

.41 Circulatory organs Vascular sistem

.413 Fibro vascular bundles

2 Xylem Tracheae 4 Phloem Bast Siv tubes

3 Cambium 5 Leaf traces

.414 Veins Venation

.42 Respiratory organs

.421 Stomata Lenticels

2 Stomata 3 Lenticels

22 Gard eels
.423 Aerenchyma
.424 Intercellular spaces

.43 Nutritory organs

.44 Secretory and excretory organs

.442 Laticiferous vessels

.446 Secretory glands and eels

Nectaries, epidermal glands, etc

.46 Generatory organs

.462 Cryptogamic generatory organs

2 Antheridia 3 Archegonia Oogonia 4 Sporophyls

.463 Flowers

As generatory organs; for flowering plants see 582.13

1 Theoretic and general questions

12 Origin of flower

13 Differentiation

2 Gross anatomy

22 Peduncle

23 Receptacle

24 Perianth

242 Calyx Sepals

243 Corolla

2 Petals 3 Ligulea

Vexilla, banners or standards

244 Corona

25 Essential organs

252 Stamens Androccium

Filament, anther, pollen sac

253 Pistils Carpels Gynoecium

Ovary, style, stigma

4 Estivation

5 Inflorescence

6 Modifications of flower parts

.464 Fruit

.467 Seed

For seed formation see 581.327

2 Anatomy

22 Nucellus 25 Micropyle

24 Seed coats ment of germ eels

BOTANY

581.47 Motory organs Integumentary sistem

.473 Motory organs

2 Cilia 3 Flagella
.477 Integumentary sistem

Cuticle, epidermis, cortex, bark

.478 Hairs, emergences etc

1 Hairs, trichomes, bristles, tentacles

Piliferous layers, root hairs, etc

2 Emergences, prickles, papillae, warts etc

.48 Nervous sistem

.49 Regional anatomy

.492 Thalloid structures

.495 Stems

1 Theoretic and general questions

12 Origin of stem

13 Differentiation

2 Gross anatomy

22 Collar 24 Internodes

23 Nodes 25 Terminal bud

3 Storage and supporting regions

32 Pith 34 Bundle sheath

33 Medullary rays 35 Mekanic tissues

5 Branches and branching

6 Modifications

62 Aerial stems 63 Underground stems

loclades, thorns, stem tend- corms, tubercles etc

rils, filaments, haptera etc
622 Climbing stems
.497 Leavs Fronds Phyllomes

1 Theoretic and general questions

12 Origin of leaf 13 Differentiation

2 Gross anatomy

22 Blade Lamina 25 Base of leaf

23 Petiole 26 Stipules Stipels Ocreae

24 Cicatrix Leaf scar Ligules

3 Storage and supporting regions

4 Leaf buds Vernation

5 Phyllotaxy Leaf arrangement

6 Modifications

Spines, phyllodes, leaf tendrils, bracts, involucres etc

.498 Roots

1 Theoretic and general questions

12 Origin of root 13 Differentiation

2 Gross anatomy

Root cap, etc

3 Storage and supporting regions

5 Secondary roots Root branching

6 Modifications

Aerial and adventitious roots, root tendrils, root buds, haustoria,
rhizoids etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.5 Habits Behavior Ecology Bionomics

. 5 1 Instinct

.52 Environment Abode

.522 Individual ecology Autecology

2 Effect of environment on individual

For climate and seasons see 581.54

22 Soil Edaphic factors

23 Light

24 Electricity Magnetism

25 Gravity and other mekanic factors

26 Smoke

27 Fluid substances

For food see 581.53

272 Gases

2 Oxygen 3 Carbon dioxid 4 Noxious gases

273 Water

274 Chemic and poisonous solutions

275 Osmotic solutions

3 Effect of individual on environment

32 Prevention of wethering and erosion

33 Sand binding

34 Deposition of silt and plant remains

35 Soil enrichment Accumulation of humus

36 " exhaustion

37 Modification of atmosferic conditions

5 Ecologic anatomy

structure

52 Ecologic anatomy of organs

Divided like 581.4

53 Ecologic anatomy of tissues

Divided like 581.82

54 Structural correlations with special environmental factors

Divided like 581.5222

55 Structural correlations with special climatic factors

Divided like 551.5

6 Migration Dissemination

61 Theoretic and general questions

Centers of distribution, migration routes, etc

62 Dissemination by wind

63 f " water
632 " " glaciers

64 " " gravity

65 " " propulsion

66 " " offshoots, runners etc

67 " " animals
Divided like 590

68 Dissemination by man

69 Other

BOTANY

581.524 Assockilional ecology Synecology

1 Theoretic and general questions

Mutual influences of living organisms

1 2 Nature of competition

14 Natural pruning

15 Toxic effects

2 Invasion

3 Succession

31 Theoretic and general questions

Dynamic relations

32 Succession correlated with physiografic factors Physio-
grafic ecology

322 Succession following seismologic disturbances

Divided like 551.2

323 Succession following erosion and deposition
1 Following glaciation

5 " aqueous erosion and river activity

7 " wind erosion and deposition

72 Blow-outs

73 Dunes

G Following landslides

324 Succession due to orografic movement

325 " in lake-swamp-medow series

326 " following floods and breaking of dnms

33 Succession following disturbances by animal agencies

Divided like 590

34 Succession following disturbance by man

342 Burnd areas

Including areas burnd by other agencies, e.g. lightning

343 Lumberd areas Natural reforestation

For artificial forestation see 634.956

344 Following cultivation

346 " drainage

347 8 irrigation

4 Zonation

41 Theoretic and general questions

Causes of zonation, etc

42 Horizontal zonation

43 Vertical "

44 Climatic zones

441 Arctic regions

Polar-niveal

442 Temperate regions

5 Subtropics

443 Tropics

444 Alpin regions

2 Arctic-alpin 3 Boreal-subalpin

5 Alternation

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.526 Formational ecology

1 General physiognomy and aspect

2 Factors determining occurrence and extent of formations

3 Hydric formations Hydrophytes

32 Aquatic formations

322 Running water

323 Benthos

Flora attacht to bottom of sea, streams etc
2 Freshwater 3 Saltwater 4 Brackish water Foul water

324 Pleuston

Submerged free swimming or floating freshwater flora, found
specially in quiet water under shelving banks

325 Plankton Pelagic botany

Free swimming or floating surface flora
2 Freshwater 3 Saltwater 4 Brackish water Foul water

326 Hot water

33 Freshwater swamp and low moor formations

For salt marsh formations see 581.526522

34 Heath formations

35 Bog and high moor formations

4 Mesic formations Mesophytes

42 Forest formations

422 Rain forest formations

2 Tropic 3 Temperate

423 Monsoon forest formations

424 Savannah woodland "

425 Deciduous or hardwood forest formations

426 Evergreen forest formations

2 Conifer 3 Krummholz Elfin wood 4 Sclerophyl

427 Thorny forest formations

43 Vines Climbing plants Lianas

44 Epiphytes

45 Prairie formations

5 Xeric formations Xerophytes

52 Halic formations Halophytes

522 Salt marsh formations

523 Alkali land "

53 Desert and semidesert formations

532 Chaparral formations

533 Tundra or cold desert formations

534 Arid or dry desert "

535 Strand formations

536 Dune

54 Rock surface formations

55 Snow and ice "

.527 Floristics Floral regions

For floras of special geografic

regions see 581.9

I

Theoretic and general

5

Barriers

questions

6

Polyphylesis

2

Floral regions and

7

their delimitation

8

Statistical floristics

3

Cosmopolitanism

9

Other topics

4

Endemism

BOTANY

581.53

•532

•533

2
3

32
4

•54
• 542

•543

•55
•552

•553

•554

■555

•557

2

22
3

7
2

22
23
24
25

3

32

33

4

42

5

52

6

62

63

Footi Nutritiv substances

Inorganic
Organic

For parasitism see 581.55763

Of vegetable origin
" animal "

Carnivorous and insectivorous plants
Saprophytism Saprophytes
Climatic conditions Seasons
Effect of climatic conditions

1 Winds 4

2 Temperature 5

22 Cardinal points 6

23 Harmonic optimum, etc 7

24 Freezing Winter killing 8

25 Temperature inversions, etc 9

3 Altitude

Seasonal habits Phenology

2 Spring 6 Periods of quiescence

Barometric pressure
Storms

Cosmic influences
Rainfall
Dryness
Other

dormancy, sus-

pended animation

Hibernation, encystment etc

3 Summer

4 Autum

5 Winter

Sociability Plant associations and associes
Consociations Consocies

Dominant groups within an association

Societies Socies Clans

Subdominant groups within an association

Colonies

Small groups on otherwize bare areas

Climax and serai communities

Climax communities
Edaphic

Serai communities
Symbiosis Consortism

Mutualistic

Commensalism Mutualism Messmatism

Prototrophy

Mycorrhiza

Myrmecophilism Myrmecophytes Acarophilism
Conjunctiv

Individualism

Helotism
Contingent

Nutricism
Disjunctiv

Metabiosis
Antagonistic Antipathetic

Syntrophism

Parasitism

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.56 Breeding habits

.57 Means of protection and attraction

.572 Against mekanic forces

2 Solidity of organs 4 Sensitivity Scnsitiv plants

3 Attachment of organs

.573 Against plants and animals

For symbiotic protection sec 581.357
2 Anatomic means 5 Electric means

Spines etc

4 Chemic means 7 Deceptiv means Mimicry

Secretions, raphides etc Protectiv resemblance

.574 Means of attraction Fascination

.6 Economic botany Applied botany

.61 Usefulness

.62 In nature

.63 As food and medicin

.632. Food for man

.633 Fodder plants and products

.634 Medicinal plants

Divided like 615.3

.64 In chemistry and manufactures

.642 Fiber plants and fibers

Divided like 633.5

.643 Wood and wood products

Divided like 634.98. Do not clas here products specificly provided
for under other hedings, e.g. Food products 581.63, Tanning materials
531.644, etc

.644 Tanning materials

.645 Oils

.646 Waxes

.647 Bleaching and dyeing materials

Divided like 667

.64 j Gums, resins, essences etc

Divided like 668

643 Other useful plants

.65 Noxiousness Weeds

.66 Offensiv plants

.67 Plants causing diseases

.68 Injuring plant and animal products and inorganic

substances

.69 Injuring living plants and animals

.692 Poisonous plants

.693 Parasitic "

Sec also 581.23 Parasitic diseases, 581.55763 Parasitism

BOTANY

1.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy

Divided like 581.4

.8 Histology Cytology

.81 Theoretic and general questions
.811 Origin and nature

.812 Formation
.813 Modification
.814 Growth

.82 Kinds of tissues

.821 Absorptiv and conductiv or siv tissues Prosenchyma

.822 Aerativ tissues

.823 Synthetic " Chlorenchyma

.824 Secretiv and excretiv tissues Glandular tissues

.825 Water storage tissues Aqueous tissues

.827 Fundamental and mekanic tissues

2 Fundamental or ground tissues Parenchyma

3 Protectiv and mekanic or sustaining tissues

32 Collenchyma

33 Sclerenchyma

.84 Histologic structure of organs

Divided like 581.4

.87 Cytology Cel physiology

For general cytology see 576.3

.871 Theoretic and general questions

.872 General eel structure and contents

.873 Protoplasmic contents

2 Nucleus

22 Linin network 25 Spiremes

23 Chromosomes Chromatin 26 Nuclear membrane

24 Nucleolus

3 Plastids

32 Chloroplasts 33 Chromoplasts 34 Lcucoplasts

4 Cytoplasm

42 Trophoplasm

43 Kinoplasm

432 Centrosomes Centrospheres

433 Asters

434 Blepharoplasts
46 Plasma membrane

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

581.874 Nonprotoplasmic contents Cel sap

2 Food material : aleurone 4 Vacuoles
grains, etc 8 Waste products

3 Pigments

.875 Cel wall

.876 " activities

2 Cel reproduction

22 Direct nuclear division Amitosis

23 Indirect " Mitosis Karyokinesis

231 Theoretic and general questions

Dynamics of mitosis

232 Prophase

233 Metaphase

234 Anaphase Reduction division

Meiosis, chromosome reduction, synapsis

235 Telophase

238 Artificial mitosis

Mekanic or physical imitations

24 Segmentation of protoplasm

242 Cleavage by constriction or by furrows

243 " " cel plates

244 Free cel formation

3 Cel unions and nuclear fusions

5 Cei degeneration and deth

7 Cel activities at critical ontogenetic periods

.877 Specialized plant eels

For reproductiv eels see 581.16 Generation, 581.3 Embryology

2 Coenocytes
.878 Comparativ cel morfology and physiology

.879 Other topics

BOTANY

1.9 Geografic botany Geografic distribution
of plants

This Geografic clasification is to be uzed only for general works and cros
references. 'Flora of North America' is 581.97; but 'North American cryptogams'
is 586 with a reference from 581.97, but North American phanerogams go with
581.97 becauz it so completely covers the subject. General works covering both
Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia ar put under 580 as books covering Vertebrates
and Invertebrates ar put under 590

In applying these numbers to Fossil plants, 561, note that one more figure must
be uzed than for fossil animals. The Zoology numbers ar alredy given in the
3d place in Paleontology, e.g. 592 Invertebrates, 562 Fossil invertebrates, and
so on to 599 Mammals, and 569 Fossil mammals. But in Fossil plants, 561, all
8 sections ar groupt together and the section number must be repeated. Fossil
phanerogams ar 561.2 not 562, which is assignd to Invertebrate zoology as more
important. Lichens ar 561.91, etc. In the same way the Fossil flora of North
America is 561.197, i.e. the first 2 Botany figures, 58, ar changed to 561 to giv
the corresponding Fossil botany number, while in Zoology the only change is
from 59 to 56 for first 2 figures, except in 591 which can not change to 561, which
is assignd to Botany. The Fossil fauna of North America must therefore go
among general works under 560.97

.91 Insular floras

Geografic distribution. Divided like 930—999

.92 Aquatic flora Marine flora

Geografic distribution. See 581.52632 for general discussions of aquatic
plants, where the geografic feature is of distinctly minor importance.
Clas here works on aquatic flora in general, when the geografic element is
prominent, also works on marine flora divided like 551.46 and .47, e.g.
Marine flora of Pacific ocean 581.925, but with Antarctic ocean included
with Arctic on 581.928

.929 Freshwater flora Divided like 930—999

•93 _ -99 By COUntry Divided like 930-999

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

582-589 Sistematic botany Taxonomy

Based on Bentham & Hooker's Genera planlarum; revized and expanded in 1928, in accordance with
best German, English and American authorities, thereby bringing tables up to date and providing (without
seriously diflturbi&fi erlier work) for clasifying material written by different authorities with varying ideas,
as represented by books and articles, both old and new, which wil be found in libraries and to a stil greater
extent in bibliogr.ific collections

Authorities consulted

Bcssey, C. E. & E. A. Essentials of college botany. "1914

Britton, N. L. Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada. loot

Clutc, W. N. Fern allies of North America north of Mexico. 1928

Encyclopaedia Britannica

Engkr, A. & Giln. E. Syllabus der pflanzenfamilien. 1924

Prantl, K. Die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien. 1 887-1909

2. aufl. 1924-
Hirmir, M. Handbuch der palaobotanik. 1927

Hutchinson, J. Families of flowering plants: 1 Dicotyledons. 1926
RendR-, A. B. Classification of flowering plants. 1904-25. 2v.
Staild&rd dictionary

Swingle, D. B. Textbook of systematic botany. 1928

Webster, N. New international dictionary ,
West, C. S. Treastise on the British freshwater algae. New and rev. edition..
F. E. Fritsch. 1927

582 Phanerogamia Embryophyta siphonogama
Spermatophyta Seed plants

For general works; clas works relating to a special order, family, genus, species etc

.1 General groupings

.11 By life duration

.112 Annuals

.113 Biennials

.114 Perennials

. 1 2 Herbaceous plants

For grasses see 584.9

.13 Flowering plants

Wild flowers. Clas here general works on wild flowering plants, even
when including trees and shrubs as wel as herbaceous plants. Clas wild
flowering plants of a special locality in 581. 93-. 99

.14 Other herbaceous plants

.142 Succulent herbs .145 Mat herbs

.143 Carpet herbs Polster .146 Cushion herbs
.144 Rosette " .147 Bush "

.15 Woody plants

.16 Trees
. 1 7 Shrubs

.172 Bushes .173 Half shrubs

.18 Woody vines

.19 Other

Woody succulents

.2-9

See, in Appendix following Relativ index, table for Systematic botany from
Universal Decimal Classification, which may be used as substitute for D. C.
582-589

BOTANY

583-584 Angiospermae Anthophyta Flowering plants

583 Dicotyledones Dicotyledonae Dicotyle-
doneae

.1 Archichlamydeae Polypetalae

Axiflorac-apopetalae-polycarpellatae, Calyciflorae-apopetalae. Chori-
petalae. Dialypetalae

Archichlamydeae includes Polypetalae and Apetalae (583.9)

583.1 1-.255 Axiflorae-apopetalae-polycarpellatae
583.1 1-.193 Thalamiflorae

. 1 1 Ranalcs Ranunculales

Polycarpicae

583.931 Lauraceae, 583.9312 Hernandiaceae

.111 Ranunculaceae Crowfoot family

Clas here Ranunculineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub-
order including Ranunculaceae, Menispermaceae (583.1 1.6),
Berberidaceae (583.117) and Lardizabalaceae (583.1172)

.112 DiUeniaceae Rough leaf tree family

Clas here Dilleniales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
583.16 Theineae

.113 Calycanthaceae Carolina allspice or strawberry shrub

family

.114 Magnoliaceae Magnolia family

Clas here Magnoliales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including, besides Magnoliaceae and next 3 families below,
Trochodendraceae (583.1 191) and Cercidiphyllaceae
(583.1192); clas here also Magnoliineae, given by Engler &
Gilg as a suborder including, besides Magnoliaceae and the
families given below (583.1144-.1152), Calycanthaceae
(583.113), Lauraceae (583.931) and Hernandiaceae (583.9312)

2 Winteraceae

3 Schizandraceae

Included by Engler & Gilg as a tribe, Schizandreae, of
Magnoliaceae (583.114)

4 Himantandraceae

5 Lactoridaceae

6 Myristicaceae Myristiceae Nutmeg family

Changed from 583.927, as most authorities consulted clas
under Ranales (583 11) Oast by Hutchinson under Laurales
(see 583.931)

7 Monimiaceae

Changed from 583.928, as most authorities consulted clas
under Ranales (583.11) Clast by Hutchinson under Laurales
(see 583.931)

8 Gomortegaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Laurales (583.931), by other
authorities consulted under Ranales (583.11)

.115 Anonaceae Annonaceae Custard apple family

Clas here Anonales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
ing Anonaceae and Eupomatiaceae (583.1152)

2 Eupomatiaceae
.116 Menispermaceae Moonseed family

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Berberidaceae Barberry family

Berberidcae is, according to Englcr & Gilg. a tribe belonging
to this family. Clas here Berberidales, given by Hutchinson
as an order including Berberidaceae etc

Lardizabalaceae

Circaeasteraceae

Nymphaeaceae Waterlily family

Clas here Nymphaeineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub-
order including Nymphaeaceae and Ccratophyllaceae
(583.1182); clas here also Cabombaccae, included by
Englcr & Gilg as a subfamily, Cabomboidcac, of Nym-
phaeaceae; and Nelumbaccae, included by Englcr & Gilg as
a subfamily, Nclumbonoideae, of Nymphaeaceae

Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophylleae Hornwort family

Changed from 583.987, as all authorities consulted clas under
Ranales (583.1 1)

Trochodendrineae

Trochodendraceae Trochodendron family
Cercidiphyllaceae

Parietales:

583.112 Dilleniaceae 583.462 Caricaccae
.245 Ochnaceae .468 Begoniaceae

.45 Passiflorales .469 Datiscaceae

.983 Lacistemaceae

Sarraceniaceae Pitcher plant family

Clas here Sarraceniales, given by most authorities con-
sulted as an order including Sarraceniaceae, Droserace.ie
(583 303) and Nepenthaceae (583.9221)

Gilg under Rhoeadales. Authorities differ considerably as

Papaveraceae Poppy family

Clas here Rhoeadineac, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder of Rhoeadales (583.122) with only I family,
Papaveraceae

Moringaceae Moringeae

Clas here Moringincae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a
suborder with only 1 family, Moringaceae. Clast by
Hutchinson under Capparidales (see 583.13)

Fumariaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Fumarioideae,
of Papaveraceae (583.1221)

Cruciferae Brassicaceae Mustard family

Clas here Cruciales, given by Hutchinson as an order
with only I family, Cruciferae

BOTANY

Capparidineae

Clas here Capparidales, given by Hutchinson as an order.
Capparidineae

Capparidaceae Capparideae Caper family

Koeberliniaceae is included by Engler & Oilg as a sub-
family, Koeberlinioideae, of Capparidaceae

Tovariaceae Tovaria family

Resedaceae Mignonette family

Clas here Resedineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder with only 1 family, Resedaceae

Cistaceae Rock rose family

Clas here Cistineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
including Cistaceae and Bixaceae (583.138)

Violaceae Violarieae Violet family

Clas here Violales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Violaceae etc

Cochlospermaceae

Clas here Cochlospermineae, given by Engler & Gilg as
a suborder with only 1 family, Cochlospermaceae

Canellaceae Winteranaceae Wild cinnamon family
Bixaceae Bixineae Arnotto family

Clas here Bixales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Bixaceae etc

Flacourtiaceae

Clas here Flacourtiineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder including Violaceae (583.135), Winteranaceae
(583.137). Stachyuraceae (583.1392). Turneraceae
(583-455). Passifloraceae (583.456), Malesherbiaceae
(583.457) and Achariaceae (583.458)

Stachyuraceae

Polygalineae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Geraniales (583.21)
including Polygalaceae (583.143) and Tremandraceae (583.142)
A group 'of doubtful position' (Rendle) variously placed —
near Parietales (583.12), with Sapindales (583.28) or with
Geraniales (583.21)

Clas here Polygalales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Polygalaceae (583.143) etc

Pittosporaceae Hedge laurel family

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Saxifragineae (583.38)
with Pittosporeae as a tribe of Pittosporaceae. Clas
here Pittosporales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Pittosporaceae etc

Tremandraceae Tremandreae

See note under 583.14

Polygalaceae Polygaleae Milkwort family

See note under 583.14

Vochysiaceae San Juan family

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Geraniales (583.21)
Hutchinson includes under Polygalales (see 583.14)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Caryophyllineae

Clas here Caryophyllales, given by Bcssey and Hutchinson
as an order including Caryophyllaceae (583.152) etc. See
also 583. 01 Centrospermae

Frankeniaceae

Caryophyllaceae Caryophylleae Pink family

Silenoideae Sileneae, pinks, Catchfhes, campions
Alsinoideae Chickwecd, starworts, stitchworts

Gilg under Alsinoideae

1 Polycarpcae Allseeds 4 Paronychieae

2 Alsineae Chickwecds Whitlow-worts

3 Spcrgulcae 5 Sclerantheac

6 Pterantheae

Portulacineae

Portulacaceae Portulaceae Purslane family

Clast by some authorities under Caryophyllales (see
583.15), by others under Centrospermae (583.91)

Basellaceae

Tamaricineae Tamariscineae Tamaricaceae
Tamarisk family

Clas here Tamaricales, given by Hutchinson as an order
and Elatinaceae (583.161), included by Engler & Gilg under
Tamaricineae

Theineae Guttiferales

Theineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales
(583.12) including (besides most of families given in sub-
divisions below) Dilleniaceae (583.112) and Ochnaceae
(583.245) Clas here Theales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Theaceae (583.166) etc. He also has Guttiferales,
including Guttiferae (583.163) etc. Bessey and Rcndle hav
Guttiferales, including Theaceae (583.166), Guttiferae
(583.163) etc, while Britton givs Theaceae directly under
Parietales

Elatinaceae Elatineae Waterwort family

Hypericaceae Hypericineae St Johns wort family

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a genus,
Hypericum, under Guttiferae (583.163)

Guttiferaceae Guttiferae Clusiaceae Balsam fig
family

Eucryphiaceae
Quiinaceae

Theaceae Ternstroemiaceae Camelliaceae Tea

or camellia family

Actinidiaceae

Saurauiaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg in Actinidiaceae (583.1661)
Medusagynaceae
Strasburgeriaceae

Included by Hutchinson in Theaceae (583.166)

Caryocaraceae Souari nut family
Marcgraviaceae

Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpeae Wingd fruit
tree family (camfor, gurjun-balsam, dammar)
Chlaenaceae Schizolaenaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Theales (see 583.16), by
Bessey and Engler & Gilg under Malvales (583.17) Clas
here Chlaenineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
with only 1 family, Chlaenaceae

BOTANY

Mai vales Columniferae

Mai vales

Malvineae

Malvaceae Mallow or cotton family
Bombacaceae Silk-cotton tree family
Sterculiaceae Coco family
Tiliaceae Linden family

Clas here Tilialcs, given by Hutchinson as an order including
Tiliaceae etc

Gonystylaceae

Elaeocarpineae Elaeocarpaceae
Scytopetalincac Scytopetalaceac
Disciflorae
Geraniales

Clas here Geraniineae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a suborder of
following, included by Engler & Gilg in Geraniales:

583.14 Polygalineae 583.115 Vochysiaceac

.142 Tremandraceae .951 Euphorbiaceae

.143 Polygalaceae

Linaceae Flax family
Erythroxylaceae Coca family (cocain)
Humiriaceae Bastard bullet tree
Malpighiaceae Golden spoon tree

Clas here Malpighiincac, given by Englcr & Gilg as a sub-
order of Geraniales (583.21) including Malpighiaceae, Trigoni-
aceae (583.215) and Vochysiaceae (583.145); clas here also
Malpighiales, given by Hutchinson as an order including
Malpighiaceae etc

Trigoniaceae

Zygophyllaceae Lignum vitae or caltrop family

Zygophylleae is given by Englcr & Gilg as a tribe of Zygo-
phyllaceae, subfamily Zygophylloideae

Geraniaceae Geranium family

Oxalidaceae Wood sorrel family (oxalis)

Tropaeolaceae Nasturtium or Indian cres, canary bird
flower

Balsaminaceae Jewel weed family (touch-me-not)

Bentham & Hooker, Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle clas
this with Geraniales (583.21); Britton and Engler & Gilg with
Sapindales (583.28) Clas here Balsaminineae, given by Engler
& Gilg as a suborder with only 1 family, Balsaminaceae

Rutaceae Rue family

Clas here Rutales, given by Hutchinson as an order including
Rutaceae etc

Simarubaceae Bitterwood or ailanrus family

Simarubeae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Simaru-
baceae, subfamily Simaruboidcae

Cneoraceae

Ochnaceae Red ironwood family

Burseraceae Torchwood family
Meliaceae Mahogany family

Clas here Meliales, given by Hutchinson as an order with
only 1 family, Meliaceae
Akaniaceae

Callitrichaceae Water starwort family

Clas here Callitrichineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
with only 1 family, Callitrichaceae

Dichapetalaceae Chailletiaceae

Clas here Dichapetalineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suuorcier with only 1 family, Dichapetalaceae

DECIMAL CLASIPICATJON

583. 26-497 Calyciflorae-apopetalae

Olacaceae is variously clast: by Hutchinson in Olacales, by Engler &
Gilg and Rendle in Santalales (see 583.942 Santalineae), by Bessey
in Celastrales (583.27)

Celastrales

Included by Britton and Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583.28);
Bentham & Hooker, Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle giv as separate
order

Celastrineae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including, besides the

Celastraceae Staf tree family

Cyrillaceae Cyrilla family

Stackhousiaceae Stackhousieae

Corynocarpaceae

Rhamnaceae, previously clast on this number, has been
changed to 583.2791, as Britton, Engler & Gilg, Hutchinson
and Rendle hav order Rhamnales (see 583.279) including
Rhamnaceae and Vitaceae (583.2792)

Hippocrateaceae

Pentaphylacaceae Pentaphyllaceae

Pentaphylax (only genus belonging to this family) included
by Hutchinson in Theaceae (583.166)

Aquifoliaceae Ilicaceae Ilicineae Holly family

Changed from 583.269, as recent authorities clas family under
Celastrales (583.27)

Rhamnales

Rhamnaceae Buckthorn family

Rhamneae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Rhamnaceae.
Changed from 583.275 as being a family of order Rhamnales,
as constituted by Britton, Engler & Gilg, Hutchinson and
Rendle

Vitaceae Ampelidaceae Ampelideae Vine or grape
family

Sapindales

.27 Celastrales .984 Empetrineae

Sapindineae

Sapindaceae Soapberry family

Aextoxicaceae

Aceraceae Maple family

Hippocastanaceae Buckeye family

Bretschneideraceae

Included by Hutchinson in Sapindaceae (583.282) Clas here
Bretschneiderineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
of Rhoeadales (583.122) with only 1 family, Bretschneidera-
ceae

Melianthineae

Melianthaceae Honey plant family •
Greyiaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg in Melianthaceae (583.2871) as a
genus, Greyia, and by Bentham & Hooker in Sapindaceae (583.282);
Hutchinson givs as a family under Cunoniales (see 583.397)

BOTANY

Didiereineae Didiereaceae
Icacinineae Icacinaceae
Sabiincae Sabiaceae

Anacardiincac Anacardiaceae Cashew or sumac
family

Buxineae Buxaceae Box family

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583. 28), by Hutchinson
under Hamamelidales (see 5*3-394) and by Rendle under Tricoccae
(see 583-951)

Limnanthineae Limnanthaceae False mermaid
family

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583-28), by Bessey and
Hutchinson under Geraniales (583.21)

Coriariineae Coriariaceae Coriarieae

Clas here Coriariales, given by Hutchinson as an order with only 1
family, Coriariaceae. Changed from 583.298 to bring into affilia-
tion with Sapindales (583.28) under which it is clast by Engler &
Gilg

Anomalous Disciflorae

583.297 and .298 hav been transposed to bring Coriariaceae under
Sapindales. See note under 583.297

583.3-.497 Calyciflorae

Rosales

583.141 Pittosporaceae, 583.92 Podostemonineae, 583.971 Platanaceae

Rosineae

Rosineae

Connaraceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Sapindales (583. 28 J

Leguminosae Pulse family

Mimosoideae Mimosaceae Mimosa subfamily
Papilionatae Papilionaceae Fabaceae Pea sub-
family

Caesalpinioideae Cacsalpiniaceae Cassiaccae

Senna subfamily

The 3 groups, 583.321-.323 ar given by Engler & Gilg
and Rendle as subfamilies of Leguminosae; Bessey,
Britton and Hutchinson uze the family names — Bessey
and Britton as families of Rosales, Hutchinson as families
of Leguminosae, which he givs as an order. Krameria-
ceae is included by Engler & Gilg in Caesalpinioideae as 3
tribe, Kramerieae

Crossosomataceae

Rosaceae Rose family

Malaceae and Pomaceae ar included by Engler & Gilg in
Rosaceae, subfamily Pomoideae (apple subfamily); Prunaceae
and Drupaceae or Amygdalaceae ar included by Engler &
Gilg in Rosaceae, subfamily Prunoideae (plum or peach sub-
family)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Saxifragineae

Clas here Saxifragales, given by Hutchinson as an order including
included by Englcr & Gilg under Saxifragineae

Saxifragaceae Saxifrage family

The following, given as families by some authorities, ar
included by Engler & Gilg in Saxifragaceae: Saxifrageae as
a tribe, subfamily Saxifragoideac; Hydrangcaceae as a sub-
family, Hydrangeoideae (Hydrangea subfamily); Escalloni-
aceae as a subfamily, Escallonioideae; Parnassiaceae as a
tribe, Parnassieae, of Saxifragoideae; Grossulariaceae in
subfamily Ribesioideae (gooseberries); Iteaceae is also in-
cluded in Saxifragaceae

Crassulaceae Orpine family

Penthoraceae is included by Rendle in Crassulaceae
Cephalotaceae Australian pitcher plant family
Bybudaceae Roridulaceae

Considerd 2 families by Engler & Gilg, alternativ names by
Hutchinson; formerly included in Droseraceae (583.393)

Droseraceae Sundew family

Hooker and Bessey clas under Rosales (S83.3)

Hamamelidaceae Witch hazel family

Hamamelideae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Ham-
amelidaceae, subfamily Hamamelidoideae. Clas here
Hamamelidales, given by Hutchinson as an order including
Hamamelidaceae etc

Myrothamnaceae

Eucommiaceae

Brunelliaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Cunoniales (see 583.30/)
Bruniaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Hamameliaalcs (see 583.394;

* Cunoniaceae

Clas here Cunoniales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
ing Cunoniaceae etc

BOTANY

583.4 Myrtales Myrtiflorae

Myrtiflorae

.41 Myrtineae

.411 Rhizophoraceae Rhizophoreae Mangrove family

.412 Punicaceae Pomegranate family

.413 Hydrocaryaceae Trapaceae Water chestnut family

Included by some authorities in Onagraceae (see 583.445)

.414 Combretaceae Myrobalan family

.415 Nyssaceae Tupelo or sour gum family

Clast by Hutchinson under Umbelliflorae (583.48)

.416 Alangiaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Umbelliflorae (583.48)

.417 Halorrhagaceae Haloragaceae Haloragidaceae

Halorrhagidaceae Halorageae Water-milfoil family

Changed from 583.308, as most authorities consulted clas
under Myrtales (583.4) Clast by Hutchinson under Lyth-
rales (see 583.441)

.42 Myrtaceae Myrtle family

.423 Lecythidaceae

Brazil nut, monkey pot tree, sapucaia nut etc

.43 Melastomaceae Melastomataceae Medow beauty

family

.441 Lythraceae Lythrarieae Loosestrife family

Clas here Lythrales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
ing Lythraceae etc

.442 Heteropyxidaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Rhamnales (583.279)

.443 Sonneratiaceae
444 Crypteroniaceae

.445 Onagraceae Oenotheraceae Onagrarieae Evening

primrose family

Oenotheras is given by Engler & Gilg as a genus of Onagraceae

446 Hippuridineae Hippuridaceae Mare's tail family

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Myrtiflorae (583.4) with
only 1 family. Formerly included in Halorrhagaceae (see 583.417),
where it is left by Britton and Hutchinson as the genus Hippuris

.4.47 Cynomoriineae Cynomoriaceae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Myrtiflorae, with only I
family; clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Santalales (583.94)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Passiflorales

Samydaceae

Clast by Hutchinson under Bixales (see 583.138)
Loasaceae Loaseae Loasa or star flower family

Clas here Loasineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of
Parietales (583.12) with only I family. Loasaceae; clas here
also Loasales, given by Bessey and Hutchinson as an order
including Loasaceae etc

Clast by Bessey under Loasales (see 583.453) Clas here Ancis-
trocladineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parie-
tales (583.12) with only 1 family, Ancistrocladaceae
Turneraceae

Passifloraceae Passifloreae Passion flower family

Malesherbiaceae

Achariaceae

Cucurbitales Peponiferae

According to Engler & Gilg this order, with only I family, Cucur-
bitaceae (583.461), belongs with Metachlamydeac (583.5); Britton
classes the family in same large division under Campanulales (583.57);
Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle leav it with Archichlamydeae (Poly-
petalae) as did Bentham & Hooker. Cucurbitales or Peponiferae
includes, according to Hutchinson and Rendle, 583 461, 583.468-.469;
Hutchinson also includes 583.462

Cucurbitaceae Gourd family

Caricaceae Papayaceae Papaya family

Clast by Hutchinson under Cucurbitales (583.46) Clas here
Papayineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales
(583.12) with only 1 family, Caricaceae

Begoniaceae Begonia family

Clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Cucurbitales (583.46)
Clas here Begoniineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
of Parietales (583.12) with only 1 family, Begoniaceae

Datiscaceae Datisceae American false hemp, Asiatic
bastard hemp

Clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Cucurbitales (583.46)
Clas here Datiscineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
of Parietales (583.12) ■with only 1 family, Datiscaceae

Ficoidales

Cactaceae Cacteae Cactus family

Clas here Opuntialcs, given by Britton, Engler & Gilg and
Rendle; and Cactales, given by Bessey and Hutchinson, as
an order with only 1 family, Cactaceae

Aizoaceae Ficoidaceae Sea purslane or carpet
weed family

Ficoideae is given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily

Molluginaceae

I tcludctl by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Molluginoideae,

of Ai::oaccae (583.475)

Umbelliflorae Umbcllales

Umbelliferae Apiaceae Ammiaceae Parsley or
carrot family

Araliaceae Ginseng family
Cornaceae Dogwood family

BOTANY

Metachlamydeae Gamopetalae Monopetalae
Sympetalae

Axiflorae-gamopetalae-polycarpellatae. Axiflorae-gamopctalae-dicarpel-
latae, Calyciflorae-gamopetalae

583.51-.591 Sympetalae-tetracyclicae-inferae

Calyciflorae-gamopetalae Inferae

Rubialcs

See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg in Rubiales: 583.531
Valerianaceae, 583.541 Dipsacaceae
Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle family
Asterales

Valerianaceae Valerian family

Clas here Valerianates, given by Britton as an order including
Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae (583.541); clas here also
Valerianeae, given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Valeri-

Dipsacaceae Dipsaceae Teasel family

Calyceraceae Calysereae

Compositae Composits

Compositae is sinonimous with Bessey's order Asterales. In
uzing family names below, rather than tribe names, Bessey

Liguliflorae Cichoriaceae Lactucaccac Cichorieae

Chicory or lettuce family

Tubuliflorae Labiatiflorae

Mutisiaceae Mutisieae Mutisia family
Carduaccae Cynareae Thistle family
Arctotidaceae Arctotidcae Gazania family
Calendulaccae Calcndulcae Marigold family
(calendula)

Senccionidaceao Senccioncac Groundsel family
Anthemidaceae Anthemideae Camomile family
Heleniaceae Helenieae False sunflower

family (sneezewced)

Inulaceae Inuleae Everlasting family
Asteraceae Astereae Aster family
Eupatoriaceae Eupatorieae Blazing star
family (hemp-agrimony) ,
Vernoniaceae Vernonieae Ironweed family
(elefant's foot)

Ambrosiaceae Ambrosiinae Ragweed family

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle in Helian-
theae (583.554?)

Helianthaceae Heliantheae Sunflower family

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

583-57

•571

•58

.581

•59

•S9i

Campanales Campanulales Campanulatae

583. 546 Calyceraceae, 583.55 Compositae

Stylidiaceae Candolleaceae Stylidieae Stylewort
family

Goodeniaceae Goodenovieae
Brunoniaceae

Campanulaceap Bluebell, bellwort or bellflower

family

Lobeliaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Lobelioideae, of
Campanulaceae (583.59)

583.6-.6864 Sympetalae-pentacyclicae Heteromerae
Axiflorae-gamopetalae-polycarpellatae

Bessey

.6 Ericales
.61 Ericineae

Includes following 5 families, 583.61 1-.631

.611 Vacciniaceae Whortleberry or huckleberry family

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily, Vac-
cinioideae, of Ericaceae (583.62)

.62 Ericaceae Heath family

.622 Clethraceae White alder family

.63 Monotropaceae Indian-pipe family

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily, Mono-
tropoidcae, of Pyrolaceae (583.631) with Monotropeae as a
tribe

.631 Pyrolaceae Pirolaceae Wintergreen family

.64 Epacridaceae Epacris family

Clas here Epacridineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
of Ericales (583.6) with only I family, Epacridaceae, with
Epacrideae as a tribe

.65 Diapensiaceae Flowering moss, pyxie or diapensia

family

Clas here Diapensiales, given by Engler & Gilg as an order
with only 1 family, Diapensiaceae

.66 Lennoaceae Lennoa family

Clas here Lennoineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
of Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family, Lennoaceae

.67 Primulales

.671 Plumbaginaceae Leadwort or plumbago family

Clas here Plumbaginales, given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle
as an order with only 1 family, Plumbaginaceae, with Plum-

bagineae as a tribe

.672 Primulaceae Primrose family

.677 Myrsinaceae Marlberry family

Myrsineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Myrsinaceae,
subfamily Myrsinoideae. Clas here Myrsinales, given by
Hutchinson as an order with only I family, Myrsinaceae

.678 Theophrastaceae

BOTANY

583.68 Ebenales

68 1 Sapotineae

1 Sapotaceae Sapodilla family

2 Hoplestigmataceae
.685 Diospyrineae

1 Ebenaceae Ebony family

.6861 Styracaceae Styraceae Storax family

Clas here Styracales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
ing Styracaceae and the next 3 families

2 Diclidantheraceae

3 Symplocaceae Sweetleaf family

4 Lissocarpaceae

583-7-.8 Sympetalae-tetracyclicae-superae

Axiflorae-gamopetalae-dicarpellatae
Bicarpellatae

.7 Gentianales Contortae

.71 Oleaceae Oliv family

Clas here Oleineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
with only 1 family, Oleaceae; clas here also Olealcs, given by
Rendle as an order including Oleaceae and Salvadoraceae
(S83.716)

.72 Gentianineae

.721 Apocynaceae Dogbane family

1 Clas here Apocynales, given by Hutchinson as an order

Asclepiadeae is given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a tribe

.74 Loganiaceae Logania family

Clas here Loganiales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ-
ing Loganiaceae and Oleaceae (583.71)

.741 Desfontaineaceae

Included by Hutchinson in Loganiaceae (583.74)

.73 Gentianaceae Gentian family

Gentianeae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Gen-
tianaceae, subfamily Gentianoideae

.751 Menyanthaceae Buckbean family

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Menyanthoideae.
of Gentianaceae (583.75)

DECIMAL CLAS1FI CATION

Tubiflorae

Polemoniales

Britton's Polemoniales corresponds to Engler & Gilg's and Rendle's
Tubiflorae (583.76); Bessey's Polemoniales corresponds to Ben-
tham & Hooker's (583.761 1-.79); Hutchinson's includes only
Polemoniaceae (583.7611) and Hydrophyllaceae (583.764)

Polemoniaceae Polemonium or phlox family
Fouquieraceae Fouquieriaceae Candlewood family
Hydrophyllaceae Waterleaf family
Boraginaceae Borraginaceae Boragineae

Borage or forget-me-not family

Clas here Borraginineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) including Borraginaceae
and Hydrophyllaceae (583.764) Clas here also Bora-
ginales, given by Hutchinson as an order with only 1
family, Boraginaceae

Convolvulaceae Convolvulus or morning-glory
family

Clas here Convolvulineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) including' Convolvula-
ceae, Polemoniaceae (583.7611) and Fouquieraceae
(583.762) Clas here also Convolvulales, given by Rendle
as an order with only 1 family, Convolvulaceae

Cuscutaceae Dodder family

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Cuscutoideae,
of Convolvulaceae (583.78)

Clas here Solanales, given by Hutchinson as an order
including Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae (S83.78) See
also 583.8 Solanineae

Nolanaceae

Included by Hutchinson in Convolvulaceae (583.78)

BOTANY

Personales Scrophulariales Solanineae

Besides families given on 58j.81-.852 Engler & Gilg includes
under Solanineae Solanaceae (583.79) and Nolanaccac (583.792)

Scrophulariaceae Scrophularineae Figwort or
snapdragon family

under Scrophulariaceae as a tribe of subfamily Antir.
rhinoideae

Orobanchaceae Broomrape family
Globulariaceae Globe daisy family
family

Columelliaceae

Gesneriaceae Gesneraceae

Bignoniaceae Bignonia, catalpa or trumpet-
creeper family

Pedaliaceae Pedalineae Pedalium family
Martyniaceae Unicorn plant family
Acanthaceae Acanthus family

Clas here Acanthineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76)

Lamiales

Myoporaceae Bastard sandalwood family

Myoporineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of
Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family, Myoporaceae

Phrymaceae Lopseed family

Clas here Phrymineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family.
Phrymaceae

Selaginaceae Dwarf heath shrub family

Included by Engler & Gilg in Scrophulariaceae (583.81)
as a tribe, Selagineae

Verbenineae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76)
including following 2 families

Verbenaceae Vervain family
Lamiaceae Labiatae Mint family

Plantaginales Plantaginaceae Plantagineae
Plaintain family

Plantaginaceae is clast by Bessey under Primulales (583.67); other
authorities consulted clas it as only family of order Plantaginales

DECIMAL CLAS1FICATI0N

583.9 Apetalae Monochlamydeae

Sec also 583.1 Archichlamydcae

.gi Centrospermae Chenopodiales Curvembryeae

trospermae: 583.15 Caryophyllincae, 583.156 Portulacineae. 583.475

Aizoaceae

.g I2 Illecebraceae Illecebrum or knotwort family

.913 Chenopodiales

Under this order Hutchinson includes families given below in
583.0131-.016 except 583.9153 Nyctaginaceae; he also includes
here Basellaceae (583.1562) All families of this group ar cla6t by

Bessey under Caryophyllales (see 583.15)

1 Amarantaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranth family
.914 Chenopodiaceae Goosefoot family

Clas here Chenopodiineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub-
order of Centrospermae (583.91) including Chenopodiaceae
and Amarantaceae (583.9131)
.915 Phytolaccaceae Pokeweed family

Clas here Phytolaccineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub-
order of Centrospermae (583.91) including, besides Phyto-
laccaceae, the 2 families, Cynocrambaceae (583.9152) and
Nyctaginaceae (583.9153), also Aizoaceae (583.475)

2 Cynocrambaceae Thelygonaceae Dog cabbage family

3 Nyctaginaceae Nyctagineae Four-o'clock family

Changed from 583.91 1 , to bring into closer relation with
Phytolaccaceae (583.915) and Cynocrambaceae (583.9152)

.916 Batidaceae Batideae Batis family

Clas here Batidales, given by Engler & Gilg as an order with
only I family, Batidaceae

.917 Polygonales Polygonaceae Buckwheat 'family

Given by Britton, Engler & Gilg and Rendle as an order with only I
family; Hutchinson includes Illecebraceae (583.912)

.92 Multiovulatae aquaticae Podostemonales

Clas here Podostcmonineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of
Rosales (583.3)

.921 Podostemonaceae Podostemaceae Riverweed

family

1 Hydrostachyaceae Hydrostachydaceae

.922 Multiovulatae terrestres Aristolochiales

1 Nepenthaceae Indian pitcherplant family

Clast by Hutchinson under Aristolochiales (583.922); by
Bessey, Britton, Engler & Gilg and Rendle under Sarraceniales
(see 583.121)

2 Hydnoraceae

.923 Raffiesiaceae Cytinaceae Patmawort family

.924 Aristolochiaceae Birth wort family

BOTANY

583.925 Micrembryeae Pipcrales

1 Piperaceae Pepper family

2 Saururaceae Lizard's-tail family
.926 Chloranthaceae

.93 Daphnales

.931 Lauraceae Laurineae Laurel family

Clas here Laurales, given by Hutchinson as an order including
liineae

2 Hernandiaceae Jack-in-a-box

583.1 1 Ranales, 583.114 Magnoliineae

.932 Proteales Proteaceae Honey flower

.933 Thymelaeales

Clas here Thymelaeineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of
Myrtiflorae (583.4) All families of this group ar clast by Bessey
under Celastrales (583.27)

1 Thymelaeaceae Mezereum or mezereon family

.934 Penaeaceae
.935 Elaeagnaceae Oleaster family

.936 Geissolomataceae Geissolomaceae

.937 Oliniaceae Hard pear

.94 Santalales Achlamydosporeae

All families of this group ar clast by Bessey under Celastrales (5R3.27)
Gilg and Rendle

.941 Loranthineae Loranthaceae Mistletoe family

.942 Santalineae

& Gilg

.943 Santalaceae Sandalwood family

.944 Myzodendraceae Myzodendron family

.945 Opiliaceae
.946 Grubbiaceae

1 Octoknemataceae
.947 Balanophorineae Baianophoraceae Balanophoreae

DECIMAL CLASIF I CATION

Uniscxuales

Tricoccae Euphorbiales Euphorbiaccae Spurge
family

Tricoccae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Geraniales
(S83.21) with only 1 family. Euphorbiaccae; Hutchinson givs
Euphorbiales as an order with only 1 family; Rcndle givs Tri-
coccae as an order including Euphorbiaccae etc

Balanopsidales Bulanopsidaceae Balanopseae
Urticales Urticiflorae

Urticaceae Nettle family

Moraceae Mulberry family

Cannabinaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg in Moraceae (583.9622) as a sub-
family, Cannaboidcae

Scyphostegiaceae
Ulmaceae Elm family
Barbeyaceae

Platanaceae Plane tree family

Leitneriales Leitneriaceae Leitnerieae Cork-
wood family
Juglandales

Juglandaceae Juglandeae Walnut family

Britton and Engler & Gilg giv this as only family i,>. Juglan-
dales (583.973); Hutchinson includes also Julianiaceae
(583-9732)
Julianiaceae Julianaceae

Clas here Julianiales, given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as

an order with only 1 family, Julianiaceae

Myricales Myricaceae Sweet-gale or barberry
family

Casuarinales Casuarinaceae Casuarineae Beef-
wood

Fagales Cupuliferae

Fagaceae Beech or oak family
Betulaceae Birch family
Corylaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg in Betulaceae (5">.)-978)asa tribe,

Coryleae

Other dicotyledones Anomali

Salicales Salicaceae Salicineae Willow family
Garryales Garryaceae Fever bush
Lacistemineae Lacistemaceae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales (583.12) with
only 1 family, Lacistemaceae; family is clast by Bessey under
Ranales (583.11), by Hutchinson under Piperales (583.925)

Empetrineae Empetraceae Crowberry family

Clast by Bessey, Britton and Engler & Gilg under Sapindales
(583.28), by Hutchinson and Rendle under Celastrales (583.27)

Pandales Pandaceae

BOTANY

Monocotyledones Monocotyledonae Mon-
ocotyledoneae

584. i -.2 Monocotyledoneae-epigynae

1 Microspermae Microspermeae

n Hydrocharideae Hydrales Hydrocharitaceae

Vallisneriaceae Frog's bit or tape gras family

1 2 Orchidales

13 Burmanniaceae Burmannia family

Clas here Burmanniineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub-
order with only 1 family, Burmanniaceae

15 Orchidaceae Orchideae Orchis or orchid family

Clas here Gynandrue. given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
with only 1 family, Orchidaceae

2 Epigynae Epigyneae Iridales

21 Scitamineae Arillatae Scitaminales Musales

211 Marantaceae Arrowroot family

212 Cannaceae Canna family

213 Zingiberaceae Ginger family

214 Musaceae Banana family

22 Bromeliineae Bromeliaceae Pineapple family

Bromeliineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Farinosae
(584.3) including Bromeliaceae, Rapateaceae (584.39) and Thur-
niaceae (584.391)

23 Liliiflorae Liliales

Clas here Liliineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including the
Juncaceae. For scope of Bessey's Liliales see note under 584.3

231 Haemodoraceae Bloodwort family

24 Iridaceae Irideae Iris family

Clas here Iridineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder
with only 1 family, Iridaceae

25 Amaryllidaceae Amaryllis family

Amaryllideae is given by Engler & Giig as a tribe of Amaryl-
lidaceae, subfamily Amarylhdoideae

26 Taccaceae

27 Dioscoreaceae Yam family

28 Velloziaceae Tree lily

Rendle includes this as a tribe, Vellozieae, of Amaryllidaceae
(584.25)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

584.3-.g Monocotyledoneae-hypogynae
Coronarieae Farinosae Xyridales

Sec also the following, included by Englcr & Gilt; under Farinosae:
584.22 Bromeliineae, 384.41 Flagellariincae, 384.81 Enantioblastae
Besscy's Liliales (see 584.23) corresponds more nearly to this group than
to Liliiflorae (Liliales) (584.23) of Brittort, Engler & Gilg and Rendle

Stemonaceae Roxburghiaceae

Liliaceae Lily family

Melanthaceae Bunch flower family

Included by Englcr & Gilg as a subfamily, Melanthioidcae,

of Liliaceae (584.32)

Convallariaceae Lily-of-the-valley family

Included by Engler & Gilg as a tribe, Convallarieac, of
Liliaceae (584.32)
Smilaceae Smilax family

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Smilacoideae. of
Liliaceae (584.32)

Pontederiineae
Cyanastraceae

Pontederiaceae Pickerel weed family

Philydrineae Philydraceae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder with only 1 family, Phily-
draceae

Xyridaceae Xyrideae Yellow-eyed gras family

Mayacaceae Mayaceae Mayaca family

Commelinaceae Spiderwort family

Clas here Commclinineae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a sub-
order with only 1 family, Commelinaceae

Rapateaceae

Thurniaceae

Calycinae Calycineae

Flagellariineae Flagellariaceae Flagcllarieae

Juncineae Juncaceae Rush family

Principes Palmales Phoenicales Palmae
Palmaceae Phoenicaceae Palm family

Besscy, Britton and Engler & Gilg giv as an order with only 1 family;

Nudiflorae Nudifloreae

Pandanales

All families of this group ar clast by Bcssey under AHsmatales (584.7)
Pandanaceae Pandaneae Hala family
Sparganiaceae Bur-reed family
Typhaceae Cat-tail family

Changed from 584.63, as Britton, Englcr & Gilg and Rendle
clas this family under Pandanales (584.61)

Synanthae Cyclanthales Cyclanthaceae
Araceae Arum family

Aroideac, formerly on 584.64, is given by Engler & Gilg as
a subfamily of Araceae
Lemnaceae Duckweed family

BOTANY

584.7 Apocarpeae Alismatales

.71 Triuridales Triuridaceae Triurideae

Rcndlc under Helobiae

.721 Alismatincae Alismaccae Alismataceac Water

plantain family

.73 Butomineae Butomaceae Water poppy

Butomincae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including
Butomaceae and Hydrocharitaceae (5S4.11) Included by
Rendlc as a tribe, Butomcae, of Alismaccae (584.721)

.74 Potamogetonineae

.742 Potamogetonaceae Pondweed or riverweed family-

Included by Britton as a genus, Potamogeton, in Naiadaceae
(584.741)

.743 Aponogetonaceae Lattice plant or lattice-leaf

.744 Scheuchzeriaceae Juncagineae Arrow gras family

.8 Clumaceae Graminales

.8 1 Enantioblastae

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Farinosae (584.3) includ-
ing, besides the 3 families following, Xyridaceae (584.36) and
Mayacaceae (584.37)

.811 Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulonaceae Eriocauleae Pipe-

wort family

.82 Centrolepidaceae Centrolepidiaceae Centrolepideae

.83 Restiaceae Restionaceae

.84. Glumiflorae

.841 Cyperaceae Sedge family

.9 Gramineae Poaceae Gras family

Because of size and importance of this family the tribes ar
here given, clasification being founded on Hackel, as given

.92 Spikelets i-flowcrd or rarely 2-flowerd

.922 Maydcae Maiz grasses

.923 Zoysieae

.924 Tristegineae

.925 Andropogoncae Blue-stem grasses

.926 Paniceae Panic "

.927 . Oryzeae Rice "

.93 Spikelets 1- to indefinit-flowerd

.932 Phalarideae Canary grasses

.933 Agrostideae Redtop "

.934 Aveneae Oat "

.935 Chlorideae Gramma "

.936 Festuceae Fescue "

.937 Hordcae Hordecae Triticeae Wheat grasses

.938 Bambuscae Bamboos

.99 Other monocotyledones Anomali

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

585 Gymnospermae

.1 Gnetales Joint fir order

.11 Gnetaceae Gnetum family (gnetum climbers)

Gnetoideae

.12 Tumboaceae Welwitschiaceae Tumboa or wel-

witschia family (welwitschia mirabilis)

Tumbooideae, Tumboideae, Wchvitsehioideac

.13 Ephedraceae Ephedra family

Ephedroidcae

.2 Coniferae Strobilophyta Pinales

.21 Coniferales Conifer or pine order

Rcndle and Swingle uze this term insted of Coniferae (585.2)

.2ii Taxodiaceae Taxodineae Taxodium family (sequoia,

bald cypress)

.212 Araucariaceae Araucarineae Old pine family

.213 Pinaceae Abietaceae Abietineae Pine (modern

pine) family (pine, hemlock, spruce, larch, tamarak, fir)

Britton and Rendle uze Pinaceae as equivalent to Bessey's
Coniferales (585.21) Pinoideae, uzed by Bessey as a clas
name, including all his Strobilophyta (585.2), is given by
Engler & Prantl as a subfamily of Pinaceae, other subfamily
being Abietoideae

.214 Cupressaceae Cupressineae Cypress family

Cupressoideae

.215 Thuyopsidaceae Thuya or thuja family (white cedar,

arbor vitae)

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Thujoideac, of
Cupressaceae (5S5.214)

.216 Juniperaceae Juniper family (juniper, red cedar)

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Juniperoidcac, of
Cupressaceae (585.214)

.221 Taxaceae Taxeae Yew family

Britton and Rendle uze Taxaceae as equivalent to Bessey's
Taxales (585.22)

.222 Cephalotaxaceae

Included by Bessey and Rendle in Taxaceae (Taxeae)
(585.221)

.223 Podocarpaceae Podocarpeae

Pherosphaeroideae, Podocarpoideae

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Phyllocladoideae,
of Podocarpaceae (585.223); included by Rendle in Taxeae
(585.221!

.5 Cordaitales

Clas here Cordaitineae, given by Bessey as including Cordaitales, Gnetales
(585.1) and Ginkgoales (585. 7)

•Si Cordaitaceae Cordaiteae

•52 Pityaceae

BOTANY

585-7

.91

.911

.912

Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Salisburyaceae Maiden-
hair tree family (ginkgo)

Bescey includes, besides the orders given below, Cordaitineae (see 585.5)

Zamiaceae Zamieae Zamia family

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Zamioideae, of

.92
.921
.922
•923

•95

•95i
•952
•953
•954
•955
•957
.961
.962

•963
.966
.967

Bennettitales Bennettitineae
Caytoniaceae
Nilssoniaceae

Bennettitaceae Bennettiteae
Pteridospermeae Pteridospermales Pteridosperma-
phyta Seed ferns

Araucarioxyleae

Protopityaceae Protopityeae

Stenomyelaceae

Calamopityaceae

Megaloxylaceae

Rhetinangiaceae

Steloxylaceae

Medullosaceae

Medulloseae Medullosae

Lyginodendraceae Lyginodendreae Lyginopterideae

The following families ar clast by some authorities with Filicales
(5*7-3) They hav caracteristics common to both Filicales and

971

Megalopterides

972

Glossopterides

973

Taemopterides

974

Neuropterides

975

Odontopterides

976

Callipterides

977

Alethopterides

978

Pecopterides

979

Sphenopterides

981

Archaeopterides

Pecopterideae

DECIMAL

CI.ASIFICATION

586 Cryptogamia Seedless plants

587 588 Archegoniatae Embryophyta asiphonogama
Embryophyta zoidiogama

587 Pteridophyta Fern plants Vascular
cryptogams

.1 Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoeteae Quillworts

.2 Articulatae Calamophyta Calamites

.21 E qui setales E qui seti neae

.211 Euequisetales Equisetaceae Equisetae Horse-

tails or scouring rushes

.212 Calamariales Calamarineae Calamarieae Old

calamites
1 Calamariaceae

7, Protocalamariaceae Archaeocalamites

. 2 2 Pseudoborniales Pseudoborniaceae

.23 Cheirostrobales Cheirostrobaceae Cheirostrobeae

.24 Sphenophyllales Sphenophyllineae Sphenophyl-

laceae Wedge-leavd calamites
.3 Filicales Filicinae Ferns

Bessey's phylum Pteridophyta (see 587) is sinonimous with Filicales
except that he includes also Isoetales (587.1)

.31 Leptosporangiatae Modern ferns

.311 Hydropteridineae Hydropterideae Marsiliales

Salviniales Water ferns

1 Salviniaceae Floating ferns

2 Marsiliaceae Pepperworts

.312 Eufilicineae Filicaceae Land ferns

1 Osmundaceae

2 Scbizaeaceae

3 Gleicheniaceae

4 Dipteridaceae

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Dipteridinae,
under Polypodiaceae (587.3127)

5 Matoniaceae

6 Parkeriaceae Ceratopteridaceae

7 Polypodiaceae Common ferns

According to Engler & Prantl the tribe Aspidieae, of this
family, includes Dipteridinae (see 587.3124)

8 Cyatheaceae

9 Hymenophyllaceae Filmy ferns

Loxsomaceae is included by Engler & Prantl under Hymeno-
phyllaceae

BOTANY

587.33 Eusporangiatae Old-fashion d ferns

Includes, according to Bessey, besides the 2 orders given b?'iow,
Isoetalcs (587.1)

.332 Marattiales Marattiaceae

.335 Botryopterideae Botryopteridaceae

.38 Fossil ferns of uncertain relationship

Psaronieae, Tieteaceae, Knorriptcrideae, Rhizomopterideac, Invcr-
sicatenaHes etc

.4 Psilotales Psilotaceae

Clast by Bessey and Clute under Lycopodiales (587.9)

.45 Psilophy tales Psilophyton

A fossil fern ally probably related to Psilotales (587.4)

.9 Lycopodiales Lycopodinae Lepidophyta Club mosses

.91 Lycopodiales ligulatae Lepidodendrineae Higher
club mosses

.911 Lepidophytineae Lepidodcndrales Lepidodendreae

1 Pleuromeiaceae

2 Sigillariaceae

3 Bothrodendraceae

4 Ulodendraceae

Included by Engler & Prantl in Lepidodendraceae (587.9115)

5 Lepidodendraceae

.912 Selaginellineae Selaginellales Selaginellaceae

Dwarf club mosses
.92 Lycopodiales eligulatae Lycopodineae Lower

club mosses
•9 21 Cyclostigmaceae

.922 Lycopodiaceae Common club mosses, ground pines

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Bryophyta Muscineae Mossworts

1 Sphagnales Sphagna Peat mosses Sphagnaceae
Large bog mosses

Included by Bessey and Engler & Gilg under Musci (588.2)

2 Musci Mosses

2 1 Bryales True mosses

2 1 1 Polytrichinales

1 Polytrichales Polytrichaceae Haircaps

2 Dawsoniales Dawsoniaceae

2 1 2 Buxbaumiinales

1 Diphysciales Diphysciaceae Weberaceae

2 Buxbaumiales Buxbaumiaceac Humpback mosses

213 Eubryinales

214 Acrocarpi Top mosses

1 Eubryales

1 1 Timmiineae (Leafy bristle mosses) Tifnmiaceae

12 . Bartramiineae : Bartramiaccae, Catoscopiaceae

(Catascopiaceae), Mecseaceac, Aulacomniaceae
(Aulocomniaccae), Spiridentaccac

13 Hypnodcndrineae Hypnodendraceae

14 Rhizogoniincae: Rhizogoniaceae, Calomniaccae,
Mittcniaceae, Sorapillaccae, Eustichiaccac, Dre-
panophyllaccae

15 Bryincae (Wood mosses): Mniaceae, Lcptosto-
maceac (Leptostomataceae), Bryaceae

2 Tetraphidiales (Tetraphidales) Georgiaccac

3 Schisloslegiales Schistostegaceae

4 Punariales

41 Splachnineae: Splachnaceae (Petticoat mosses),
Oedipodiaceae

42 Funariineae: Funariaceae (Bristle mosses), Ephe-
meraccae, EHsceliaceae, Gigaspermaceae

5 Grimmiales Grimmiaceae

6 Pottiales

61 Pottiineae: Pottiaceae, Trichostomaceae (Tri-
chostomoideae)

62 Encalyptim-ac Mucalyptaceae

63 Syrrhopodontineae: Syrrhopodontaceae, Calym-
peraceae

7 Dicranales

71 Leucobryincae: Leucophanaceae (Leucophanoid-
eae), Leucobryaceae (Cushion mosses)

72 Pleurophascineae Pleurophascaceae

73 Dicranineae: Dicnemonaceae, Dicranaceae (Turf
mosses), Seligeraceae (Seligeriaceae), Ditrichaceae,
Archidiaceae, Bryoxiphiaceae

8 Fissidentales Fissidentaceae

BOTANY

588.215 Pleurocarpi Side mosses

1 Hypnobryales

n Hypnincac: Hylocomiaceae, Rhytidiaceae, Hyp-

naceae (Bog mosses), Sematophyllaceae, Plagio-
theciaccac, Entodontaccae

12 Leskcineae: Brachytheciaceae, Amblystegiaceae,

Thuidiaceae, Leskcaceae, Rhegmatodontaceae
(Rhcgmatodontoideae), Fabroniaccae, Theliaceae

2 Hookeriales

21 Hookeriineae: Hypopterygiaceae, Leucoir.iaceae,
Symphyodontaceae, Hookeriaoeae, Pilotrichaceae

22 Ncmatacineae Nemataceac (Ncmatocaceae)

3 Isobryales

31 Neckcrincac: Echinodiaceae, Lembophyllaccae,
Neckeraceae, Phyllogoniaceae

32 Leucodontineae: Meteoriaceae, Pterobryaceae,
Myuriaceac, Trachypodaceae, Rutenbcrgiaccae,
Prionodontaceae, Lepyrodontaceae, Ptychomni-
aceae, Cyrtopodaceae, Leucodontaceae, Cryphae-
aceae, Hedwigiaceae

33 Fontinalineae: Climaciaceae (Tree mosses), Fonti-
nalaceae (Brook mosses)

34 Rhacopilineae Rhacopilaceac

35 Orthotrichincae: Helicophyllaccac, Orthotrich-
aceae, Ptychomitriaceae, Erpodiaccae

.22 Andreaeales Andreaeaceae Black mosses, small

mosses

.3 Hepaticae Liverworts

.31 Jungermanniales Scale mosses

.311 Jungermanniaceae acrogynae

.312 " anacrogynae Metzgeriaceae

.32 Anthocerotales Anthocerotaceae Hornworts

.33 Marchantiales Great liverworts

.331 Ricciaceae

Clas here Ricciales, given by Bessey as an order with only 1
family, Ricciaceae

.332 Marchantiaceae

Targionioidcae, Marchantioideae

.333 Corsiniaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Corsinioidcae of
Marchantiaceae (588.332)

.4 Charophyta Charales Stoneworts

Some authorities clas Charophyta under Algae (589.3)

.41 Characeae
.42 Nitellaceae

Included by Engler & Gilg and Hirmir as a tiibe, Nitelleae,
of Characeae (588. 41)

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Thallophyta

i Lichenes Lichens

1 1 Basidiolichenes

in Hymcnolichenes

112 Gasterolichenes

1 5 Ascolichenes

1 6 Pyrenocarpeae Pyrenolichencs Angiocarpae
Lichens with coverd fruit, closed lichens

Mycoporaceae, Mastodiaceac, Pyrenotrichaceac, Xantho-
pyrcniaceae, Pyrenidiaceae, Strigulaceac, Astrotheliaccae, Par-
athcliaceae, Trypetheliaceac, Phyllopyreniaceae, Pyrcnulaceae,
Pyrcnothamniaccae (Pyrenothamnaccae), Dermatocarpaceae, Vcr-
rucariaceae, Epiglocaceae, Moriolaccae

1 7 Gymnocarpeae Gymnocarpae Lichens with
naked fruit

171 Cyclocarpineae Discolichenes Disk lichens

Physciaccae, Buelliaccae, Thcloschistaceae, Caloplacaceae,
Usneaceac, Parmeliaceae, Lecanoraceae, Pcrtusariaceae,
psoraceae, Lecideaceae, Peltigeraceae, Stictaccae, Pannar-
iaceae, Hcppiaccae, Collemaceae (Collemataceae), Lichin-
aceae, Pyrenopsidaceae, Ephebaceae, Coenogoniaccae,
Gyalectaceae, Ectolechiaceae, Diploschistaccae, Thclotrc-
maceae (Thelotremataceae), Chrysothricaccae (Chrysotri-
chaccac), Byssolomaceae (Pilocarpaceae), Lccanactidaceae

172 Graphidineae Graphidales Slit lichens

Rocccllaceae, Dirinaceae, Chiodectonaceae, Graphidaceae,

Arthoniaceac

173 Coniocarpineae Caliciales Powdery lichens

Sphaerophoraceae, Cypheliaceae, Caliciaceae

18 Gelatinosae Gelatinus lichens

19 Byssaceae Filamentus "

BOTANY

589.2 Eumycetes Carpomyceteae Fungi Mushrooms

Terms Carposporeae (formerly assignd to 580.21 and 580.4), Oosporeae
(J89.24 and 589.5), Zygosporeae (589.27 and 589.6) and Zoosporeae
(589.67) hav been discarded by best authorities for clasification purposes,
but erly literature on those subjects is kept on the old numbers. For
physiologic discussions see 581.32 Spores

.21 Basidiomycetes Basidiales Smuts, rusts, mushrooms

Carposporeac, see note under 589.2. Basidiomycetes changed from
589.22

.22 Eubasidii Eubasidiomycetes Basidiosporeae

.221 Autobasidiomycetes Gasteromycetes Stinkhorn

fungi, pufball, erth star

3 Exobasidiineae Exobasidialcs

Exobasidiaceae, Ilypochnaceae

4 Dacryomycetincae Dacryomycctaceae

5 Phallincae Phallales Phalloideae Stinkhorn
fungi, buzzard's nose

Phallaceae, Clathraceae

6 Hymenogastrineae Hymcnogastralcs Hymeno-
gastereae Hymenogastraccac Subterranean fungi,
false tubers

7 Lycoperdineae Lycoperdales Lycoperdeae Puf-
balls, devil's snuf box, earth star

Lycoperdaceae, Tylostomataceae

8 Nidulariineae Nidulariales Nidularieae Bird's
nest fungi

9 Sclerodermatineae Sclerodermatales Sclero-
dermeae Plectobasidiincac Hard pufballs

Tulostomataceae, Sphaerobolaceae, Calostomataceae,
Sclerodermataceae, Podaxaceae

.222 Hymenomycetineae Hymenomycetes Agaricales

Tulasnellaceae, Corticiaceae, Thelephoraceae (lethery
fungi), Clavariaceae (Clavarieae, coral fungi), Hydnaceae
(Hydneae, hedgehog or prickly fungi), Polyporaceae
(Polyporeae, tubebearing fungi), Agaricaceae(Agari-

.223 Protobasidiomycetes

Removed from 589.224, which this group has been shar-
ing with Hemibasidiomycetes

1 Auriculariineae Auricularialcs Auricularieae
Ear fungi, Jew's ear

Pilacraceae (Pilacreaceae) , Auriculariaceae. Changed
from 589.2251

2 Tremellineae Tremellales Tremelleae Trembling
or jelly fungi

Hyaloriaceae, Tremellaceae (Tremellinaceae), Siro-
basidiaceae. Changed from 589.2252

.224 Hemibasidii Hemibasidiomycetes - Teliosporeae

Brand fungi

.225 Uredinales Uredineae Rusts

Melampsoraceae (Uredinaceae), Coleosporiaceae, Cronarti-
aceae, Schizosporaceae, Endophyllaceae, Pucciniaceae (Aeci-
diaceae)

.227 Ustilaginales Smuts on corn, wheat, oats

1 Ustilaginineae Ustilagineae Ustilaginaceae
Smuts

2 Tilletiineae Tilletiaceae Bunts

.229 Protomycetes Protomycetineae Protomycetaceae

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Ascomycetes Ascosporeae Parasitic or ascus fungi
Tuberineae Tuberales Truffles or tubers

Euascales

Laboulbeniales Laboulbeniineac Beetle fungi

Ceratomycetaceae, Laboulbeniaceae, Peyritschiellaceae

Euascales Discomycetes Carpoascomycetes
Helvellineae Helvellales

Helvellaceac, ('«•<> ilnssieeac, Rhizinaceae

Pezizineae Pezizales Pezizeae Cup fungi

Cyttariaceae, Cordieritidaceac, Ccnangiaccac Patcllariaceae,
Cclidiaccac, Mollisiaccac, Helotiaceae, Ascobolaceae, Pezi-
zaccac, Pyronemataccae

Hysteriineae Hysteriales Slit fungi

Acrospermaceae, Hystcriaccac, Ostropaceae, Dichaenaceae,
Hypodcrmataceac

Protocaliciineae Protocaliciaceae Powdery fungi
Phacidiineae Phacidiales Little cup fungi

Phacidiaceae, Tryblidiaceae, Stictidaceae

Pyrenomycetineae Pyrenomycetales Pyrenomycetes
Closed fungi: ergot, black knot (cherry, plum), black
rot (grape)

Sphaeriaceales: Xylariaceao, Mclogrammataccae, Dia-
trypaccae, Melanconidiaceae, Valsaceae, Clypeo-
sphacriaccae, Gnomoniaccac, Massariaceae, Pleo-
sporaceac, Mycosphaerellaceae, Lophiostomataccae,
Amphisphaeriaceae, Coryncliacoac, Cucurbitariaoeae,
Ceratostomataccac, Sphaeriaoeae, Chaetomiaccae,
Sordariaceae

Dothideaceales Dothideaccae (Dothidiaccae)

Hypocrcaccalcs Hypocrcaccae
Perisporiineae Perisporales Perisporineae Mil-
dews, powdery mildew

Microthyriaceae, Perisporiaceae, Paropsidaceae, Erysibaceae

(Erysiphaceae)

Hemiascomycetes Hemiascales

Saccharomycetineae Saccharomycetae Saccharo-
mycetes Saccharomycetaceae Yeast fungi
Protoascineae

Ascoideaceae, Endomycetaceae, Dipodascaceae, Eremascaceae

Protodiscineae Exoascineae Exoascales Exoas-
ceae Pocket fungi: peach leaf curl, plum pocket,
witch's broom (witch's besom, hexenbesen) of cherry etc

Ascocorticiaceae, Taphrinaceae (Exoascaceae)

Plectascineae Gymnoasceae Aspergillales Little
tubers

Myriangiaceae, Terfeziaceae, Elaphomycetaceae, Tricho
comaceae (Trichocomataceae), Onygenaceae, Aspergillaceae,
Gymnoascaceae

BOTANY

589.24 Deuteromycetes Fungi imperfecta

Oosporeae, see note under 580.2

.241 Fungi imperfecti: conidic type

1 Hyphomycetes Moniliales Molds: potato, peach,

apricot scab

Tuberculariaceae, Stilbaceae, Dematiaceae, Mucedinaceae

.242 Sphaeropsidales Spot fungi: black fungi, cranberry

scald

Excipulaccae, Lcptostromataceae, Nectrioidcaeeae (Nectrioid-
aceae), Sphacrioideaccae (Sphacrioidaceae, Sphacropsidiaccac)

.243 Melanconiales Melanconieae Melanconiaceae

Black dot fungi

Anthracnosc of grape, raspberry and blackberry; butternut
blight; ripe rot; root rot of tobacco, violet, lupin; brown rot
of stone fruits

.244 Fungi imperfecti: mycelic type

.25 Phycomycetes Phycomyceteae Siphonomycetes

Algaelike fungi, tube fungi
.251 Oomycetes Eg spore fungi

.252 Peronosporineae Peronosporales Peronosporeae

Downy mildews; blights on tobacco, grape vine, potato,
cucumber

Pythiaceae, Peronosporaceae (downy mildews), Albuginaceae
(white rusts)

.26 Saprolegniineae Saprolegniales Saprolegnieae

Watermolds

Leptomitaceae, Saprolegniaceae

.262 Ancylistineae

Ancylistacene, Lagenidiaceae

.263 Monoblepharidineae Monoblepharidaceae

. 2 7 Zygosporeae

See note under 589.2

.28 Zygomycetes Mucorales Lowest fungi, moldlike

saprophytes
.281 Mucorineae Black mold

anephoraceae, Mucoraceae

.282 Entomophthorineae Entomophthorales Ento-

mophthoreae Entomophthoraceae Fly fungi

.283 Endogonineae Endogonaceae

.284 Basidiobolineae Basidiobolaceae

.285 Chytridiineae Chytridineae Plasmodiophorales

Phytomyxinae

Plasmodiophoraceae, Synchytriaceae. Olpidiaceae, Rhizi-

.29 Phytosarcodina Myxothallophyta Myxomycetes

Myxophyta Mycetozoa Slime mold

This whole group is claimd by both botanists and zoologists. The
following may be clast in botany; other mycetozoa should be clast in
modiophoraceae) , Phytomyxinae

.292 Acrasiales Acraseae Sorophora

Dictyosteliaceae, Guttulinaceae

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

589. 2Q3 Myxogasteres Myxogastres Myxogastrales

Eviplasmodida

1 Ectosporeae Exosporeae Ceratiomyxaceae

2 Endosporeae

Physaraceae, Didymiaceae, Spumariaceae, Brefeldiaceae,
Stemunitaccae, Reticulariaccae. Trichiaceae, Cribrariaceae,
Clathroptychiaceae, Liccaceae

.3 Algae

.4 Carposporeae

See note under 589.2

.41 Rhodophyceae Red algae

.411 Florideae Euflorideae Red seaweeds

.412 Ceramiales Sea mosses

Delesseriaceae (Delessariaceae), Rhodomelaceae, Cerumiaceae

.413 Rhodymeniales Rhodymeninae Higher red sea-

weeds

Rhodymeniaceae, Sphaerococcaceae
.414 Gigartinales Gigartininae Soft red seaweeds

Rhodophyllidaceae, Gigartinaceae, Acrotylaceae

.415 Cryptonemiales Hard red seaweeds

Corallinaceae, Solenoporaceae, Squamariaceae, Rhizophyl-
Hdaceae (Rhiziphyllidaceae), Nemastoniataceae (Nemasto-
maceae), Dumontiaceae, Grateloupiaceae, Gloiosiphoniace le

.416 Nemalionales Nemalioninae Lower red seaweeds

Wrangeliaceae (Bonnemaisoniaceae) (clast by Bessey under
Ceramiales, 589.412), Gelidiaceae, Chaetangiaceae, Thore-

.42 Bangiales Bangioideae

Bangioideae is Bessey 's name for this clas, which he divides into
2 orders, Rhodochaetales (including Compsopogonaceae and
Rhodochaetaceae) and Bangiales (with only 1 family, Bangiaceae)

.45 Pliaeophyceae Euphaeophyceae Brown algae

.451 Dictyotales Dictyotineae Tetrasporineae Dictyo-

taceae

.452 Fucales Cyclosporeae Cyclosporinae Rockweeds

Sargassaceae (Sargassum), Fucaceae (Fucus), Himanthali-
aceae, Durvilleaceae (Durvillacaceae)

.453 Tilopteridales Phaeozoosporineae

Choristocarpaceae (clast by Bessey under Ectocarpalcs,
589.457), Tilopteridaceae. Clas here Phaeosporeae, given
by Bessey as a clas name including orders 589. 453-. 457

.454 Laminariales

Chordaceae, Laminariaceae, Prototaxitaceae. Clast fry
Bessey under Ectocarpales (589.457)

.455 Cutleriales

Splachnidiaceae, Cutleriaceae

.456 Sphacelariales Sphacelariaceae

Clast by Bessey under Ectocarpalcs (589.457)

.457 Ectocarpales Kelps

Gifferdiaceae, Hydroclathraceae, Asperococcaceae (Stri-
aceae, Scytosiphonaceae, Punctariaceae, Sporochnaceae,
Desmarestiaceae, Encoeliaceae, Spermatochnaceae (Stilo-
phoraceae), Elachistaceae, Myrioncmataceae (Ralfsiaccae),
Corynophlaeaceae, Mesogloeaceae (Chordariaceae), Ecto-
carpaceae

BOTANY

589.47 Chlorophyceae Euchlorophyceae Isokontae

Green algae

.471 Siphonophyceae Siphoneae Tube algae

.472 Siphonales Vaucherioideae Codiales Lower tube

algae, green felts

2 Vaucheriaceae

3 Codiaceae

4 Phyllosiphonaceae

5 Derbesiaceae

6 Caulerpaceae

7 Bryopsidaceae Sea ferns

Clas here Bryopsidoideae, given by Bessey as a clas
name for higher tube algae

2 Sphaeropleaceae

Clas here Sphaeropleales, given by West as an order
under Ulotrichales (589.474) with only 1 family, Sphaero-
pleaceae

Clas here Cladophorales, given by Bessey and West as
an order in which Bessey includes Cladophoraceae and
Sphaeropleaceae (589.4732) and classes under Vaucheri-
oideae (589.472), while West includes only 1 family,
Cladophoraceae, and classes under Ulotrichales (589.474)

Clas here Dasycladales, given by Bessey as an order

Clas here Valoniales, given by Bessey as an order includ-
ing Valoniaceae etc

474 Ulotrichales Confervales Confervoideae

2 Chaetophorales

22 Oedogoniaceae

Clas here Oedogoniales, given by West as an order v.-itL
only 1 family, Oedogoniaceae

23 Cylindrocapsaceae

24 Coleochaetaceae Coleochaeteae

Clas here Coleochaetales, given by Bessey as an Order
with only 1 family, Coleochaetaceae

25 Aphanochactaceae Herposteiraceae

26 Chaetopeltidaceae

27 Trentepohliaceae Chroolepidaccae Wittrockie 1 '
laceae

28 Chaetophoraceae Microthamniaceae

3 Eu-ulotrichales

32 Blastosporaceae Prasiolaceae

Clas here Prasiolales, given by West, and S~hizogoniales,
given by Bessey, as an order with only 1 family, Pra-
siolaceae

33 Microsporaceae

Clas here Microsporales, given by Bessey as an order
with only 1 family, Microsporaceae

34 Ulotrichaceae

35 Ulvaceae

Clas here Ulvales, given by Bessey as an order with only
I family, Ulvaceae

DECIMAL CLASIK1CATI0N

Protococcales Protococcoideae Green slimes
Euprotococcales Chlorococcales

Autosporinae: Coclastraceae, Dictyosphaeriaccae,
Selenastraceae, Oocystaceae, Chlorellaceae, Eremo-
sphaeraceae, Protothecaceae

Zoosporinae: Hydrodictyaccae, Protosiphonaceae,
Pleurococcaccae, Protococcaceae (Chlorococcaccae),
Chlorosphaeraccae, Rhodochytriaceac
Volvocales

Tetrasporalcs: Tetrasporaceac, Myurococcaceae, Pal-
mcHaceae (Palmcllalcs)
Chlorodendrales Chlorodendraceae
(Sphaercllaceae, volvox), Pliacotaccac, Hyalovolvo-
Polyblcpharidaceae
Heterokontae Heterocontae Yellow-green algae
Heterosiphonales

Gcosiphonaceae

Heterotrichales

Monociliaceae, Tribonemaceae

Heterococcales

Ophiocytiaceae, Marpochytriaceae, Chlorotheciaceae, Chlo-
robotrydaceae

Heterochloridales

Heterocapsalts Botryococcaceae
Mischococcales

Chloramoebalcs Heterochloridaceae
Oosporeae

See note under 589.2

Zygophyceae Conjugate algae

Zygosporeae, see note under 589.2

Conjugatae Conjugateae Euconjugatae
Zygnematales Zygnemales Pond scum

Zygnemataceae (Zygnemaceae, zygnema), Spirogyraceae
(spirogyra), Mesocarpaceae, Mougeotiaceae, Gonatozygaceae

Desmidiales Placoderm desmids

Desmidiaceae, Cosmariaceae (Cosmarieac), Closteriaceae
(Closterieae, Penieae)

Mesotaeniales Mesotaeniaceae Saccoderm desmids

Bacillariophyta Bacillarioideae Bacillariales
Diatomales Diatomeae Diatoms

Centricae Eupodiscales Cryptoraphideae Round

diatoms

Biddulphioideac: Rutilariaceae, Anauliaceae, Euodi-
accac, Biddulphiaceae, Chaetocerotaceae
Solenioidcae (Solenoideae) : Soleniaceae, Rhizoso-
leniaceae

Discoideae: Eupodiscaceac, Actinodiscaceae, Cos-
cinodiscaceae, Melosiraceae

BOTANY

Pennatae Naviculales Raphideae Pseudoraphideae
Flat diatoms

Surirelloideae Surirellaceae
Nitzschioidcae : Bacillariaceae, Nitzschiaceae
Naviculoideae: Cymbellaccae, Gomphonemaceae,
Naviculaceae

Achnanthoideae Achnanthaceae
Fragilarioideae : Eunotiaceae, Fragilariaceae, Dia-
tomaceae, Meridionaceae, Tabellariaceae
Zoosporeae

See note under 589.2

Protophyta Protista Schizophyta

Chlorophyllaceae Schizophyceae Myxophyceae
Cyanophyceae Phycochromaceae Archiplastideae
Containing chlorophyl, slime algae, blue-green or
fission algae

Coccogonales Coccogoneae Chroococcales Chroococ-
caceae

Hormogonales Hormogoneales Hormogoneae

Stigonemataceae (Sirosiphonaceae) , Rivulariaceae, Camp-
totrichaceae, Nostocaceae, Scytonemataceae, Oscillatoriaceae
(Lyngbyaceae)
Chamaesiphonales

Chamaesiphonaceae, Pleurocapsaceae

Holoplastideae Glaucocystales Glaucocystaceae

Achlorophyllaceae Lacking chlorophyl
Saccharomycetes Yeast

Preferably clast in 589.2361

Schizomycetes Bacteriales Fission fungi, bacteria,
microbes Bacteriology

Thiobacteria Thiobacteriales

Rhodobacteriaceae, Beggiatoaceae, Achromatiaceae

Eubacteria Eubacteriales

Myxobacteriaceae (Myxobacteriales), Phycobacteriaceae
(Chlamydobacteriaceae, Chlamy dobacteriales) , Actinomy-
cetaceae (Actinomycetales), Mycobacteriaceae, Bacteri-
aceae, Spirillaceae. Coccaceae, Nitrobaeteriaceae

Special applications of bacteriology

In general libraries best clast with subject, e.g. Soil bacter-
iology 631.46; but may be kept together here by dividing like
main clasification, e.g. Agricultural bacteriology 589.95863

Flagellae

Groups given here ar claimd by both botanists and zoologists.
Botanic discussions may be clast here and zoologic under 593.16, or,
either number may, as preferd, be chosen to include all the material

Silicoflagellatae Dichtyochidae
Siphonotestales Dichtyochaceae
Stereotestales Ebriaceae

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

589.973 Dinoflagellatae Peridinales Peridiniales

Peridineae Peridinieae Dinophyceae Cilio
flagellatae

2 Diniferidea Deniferina

22 Peridinioidae Peridiniaceae

23 Gymnodinioidae

232 Blastodiniidae

233 Pouchetiidae

234 Noctilucidae

235 Polykrikidae Polykrikos

236 Gymnodiniidae Gymnodiniaceae

237 Protodiniferidae

32 Thecatoidae Prorocentricae Prorocentraceae,
prorocentrum

33 Athecatoidae Exuviaella
5 Doutful dinoflagellatae

Amphilothioideae, Cystoflagellata (RhynchoflaBeUata), Cyito-
dimidae

.974 Flagellatae Phytoflagellatae Enflagellatae

2 Euglenales Euglenineae

Peranemataceae (Peranemaceae), Astasiaceae, Euglenaceae
(euglena)

4 Cryptophyceae

42 Cryptococcales

43 Phaeocapsales

aceae

5 Chrysophyceae

52 Rhizochrysidales

53 Chrysotrichales Phaeothamnionaceae

54 Chrysosphaerales

552 Chrysocapsales: Hydruraceae, Chrysocapsaceae,
Coccolithophoraceae

naceae (Chromulinaceae)

6 Protomastigales

Protomastigaceae, Tetramitaceae, Trimastigaceae, Amphi-

7 Diastomatales Diastomataceae

8 Pantostomatales Rhizoflagellatae

Rhizomastigaeeae, Holomastigaceae

PURE SCIENCE

590 Zoology

jgo.l Philosofy, classification .1 Compenda .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays,
lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, zoologic
gardens, aquaria, museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History

591 Physiologic zoology

Divided where needed like .581

I

Physiology

,11

Circulation

13

Respiration

121

Nature

123

Dermal

"3

Aquivascular

"5

Branchial

136

Tracheal

127

Pulmonary

139

Exhalation of aqueous vapor

13

Nutrition

131

Acquisition of food

133

Digestion of food

133

Assimilation of food

134

Growth

O J

Development

136

Repair of waste

H7

Production of organic material

Conditions of nutritiv activity

HQ

y

Longevity, vitality

14

Secretion and excretion

Mucous and sebaceous

143

Sericeous

To

Digestiv: salivary, gastric, pancreatic

144

Protectiv and attractiv

Odoriferous, sweet, luminous, electric, etc.

MS

Poisonous, gall formation, caprification

146

Mammary, spermatic

147

Lacrimal

148

Biliary

149

Urinary and fecal

15

iSi

Polymorfic

15*

Geografic

153

Heterofagic

154

Polygoneutic

155

Mimetic

156

Sexual

157

Colorational

158

Hybrids

159

Monstrosities

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

591.16 Generation

.161 Abiogenesis

.162 Parthenogenesis, neuters

.163 Metagenesis, pedogenesis, nurses

.165 Fission and gemmation

.166 Fecundation

.167 Hermaphrodites

.168 Viviparity

.169 Superfetation

. 1 7 Histogenesis

.171 Development of sperm cells

.172 Development of germ cells, micropyle

.179 Reparation of wounds

.18 Nervous functions and sensation

.19 Physiologic chemistry

.2 Pathology

.3 Embryology

.33 Development of embryo

.34 Metamorphosis, larva, pupa, molting

• 3 5 Hypermetamorphosis

.36 Production of sexes

.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy Homologies

.41 Circulatory organs

.42 Respiratory organs

.43 Nutritory organs

.44 Secretory and excretory organs

•45

.46 Generatory organs

.47 Motory organs and integumentary system

Skeleton, dermoskeleton

.48 Nervous system

.49 Regional anatomy

.5 Habits and behavior

Including popular books; animal stories, except fiction

.51 Instinct Reason

.52 Abode Migration

.53 Food

.54 Seasons Hibernation

.55 Sociability

.56 Philoprogenitivness Breeding

.57 Means of protection Fascination
•58

.59 Other habits

PURE SCIENCE

591.6 Economic

.61 Usefulness

.62 In nature

.63 As food and medicin for man

.64 In chemistry and manufactures

.65 Noxiousness

.66 Offensiv animals

.67 Animals causing diseases [substances

.68 Injuring vegetable and animal products and inorganic

.69 Injuring living plants and animals Parasites

.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy

Subdivided like 591.4 Morfology

.9 Geografic distribution of animals

Subdivided like 581.9

592 Invertebrates

.1 Protozoans

. 1 1 Rhizopoda

. 1 2 Foraminif era

.13 Heliozoa

. 1 5 Infusoria

. 1 6 Flagellata

.17 Ciliata

.18

.iq Gregarinidas

^ Ccelenterata Acalepha (old use of term, now limited to 593.73)

.4 Sponges Porifera Spongia

. 5 Cnidaria

.6 Actinozoa Polyps Corals and sea anemones

.6 1 Rugosa Tetracorolla

.62 Alcyonaria Octocorolla

.63 Zoantharia Hexacorolla

.64 Antipatharia

.65 Actinaria

.7 Hydrozoa

.71 Hydromedusae

.72 Siphonophora

.73 Acalepha

.74 Calycozoa

.76 Marsupialida

.77 Discophora Jelly fish

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

593.8 Ctenophora Jelly fllh

.9 Echinodermata

.91 Crinoidea, sea lilies

.92 Asteroidea, star fish

.93 Stelleridea

.94 Ophiuridea

.95 Echinoidea, sea urchins

.96 Holothuroidea, sea cucumbers

.97 Pedata

.98 Apoda

.99 Enteropneusta

594 Mollusks

.1 Lamellibranchiata Bivalvs

.2 Scaphopoda Toothshells

.31 Amphineura Chitons

.32 Prosobranchia

.324 Aspidobranchia

.329 Pectinibranchia

.34 Heteropoda

.35 Opisthobranchia Sea slug, sea lemon

.36 Nudibranchia

.37 Tectibranchia Sea hare, bubble shell

.38 Pulmonata Snails

.4 Pteropoda Wingd shells

.5 Cephalopoda Squids and cuttlefish

. 5 1 Tetrabranchia

.52 Nautilidae Nautilus

.53 Ammonites

.55 Dibranchia

.56 Octopoda Octopus, cuttlefish, squid

.58 Decapoda Ten-armd cephalopod, cuttlebone

.6 Molluscoidea

.7 Bryozoa (Polyzoa) Sea mats

.71 Gymnolaemata Sea mats

.711 Cyclostoma

.712 Ctenostomata

.713 Chilostomata

.72 Phylactolaemata Fresh water polyzoans

.73 Pterobranchia

.74 Entoprocta

.8 Brachiopoda Lamp shells

PURE SCIENCE

594.9 Tunicata Sea grapes

.91 Ascidia Sea squirt, sea pear, sea peach, sea potato

.92 Copelata? Taild ascidian

.93 Monascidiae Sea squirt

.94 Synascidiae Composit ascidian

.95 Pyrosoma Firebodies

.96 Salpae Salp

.97 Doliolum Doliolid

595 Articulates

. 1 1 Helminthes Parasitic worms

.12 Platyhelminthes Flatworms

.121 Cestoda Tapeworm

.122 Trematoda Fluke

.123 Turbellarii Black planarian

.124 Nemertini Nemertean worm

.13 Nematodes Trichina, thred worm, pin worm

.131 Gordiacea Hairworm

.135 Chaetognathi

.14 Annelida Jointed worms

. 1 5 Hirudinea Leeches

.16 Oligochaeta Earth worm, lugworm

. 1 7 Polychaeta

.174 Gephyrea Spoon worm

.176 Phoronis Actinotrocha worm

.178 Myzostomida

.18 Rotifera Wheel animalcules

.185 Echinoderes

. 1 88 Gastrotricha

.189 Dinophilus

.19 Orthonectida

.195 Dicyemida

.2 Arthropod a

.3 Crustacea

.31 Entomostraca Cyclops, shrimps, etc.

.315 Pantopoda Sea spider

.32 Phyllopoda Leaf -footed crustaceans

.323 Branchiopoda

.33 Ostracoda

.34 Copepoda Copepod, cy clops

.-^45 Copepoda parasita Fish lice

.35 Cirripedia Barnacles, etc.

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

595.36 Malacostraca Sandbugs, crabs, lobsters, etc.

.37 Arthrostraca

.371 Amphipoda Sand flea

.372 Isopoda Sow bug, wood lice

.38 Thoracostraca Crab, shrimp, prawn, lobster

.381 Cumacea

.382 Stomapoda Sea mantle, glas crab

.383 Schizopoda Opossum shrimp

.384 Decapoda Lobster, crab, crayfish

1 Macrura Lobster, crayfish

2 Brachyura Crab
.39 Gigantostraca

.391 Merostomata

.392 Xiphosura Horseshoe crab

.393 Trilobita Trilobites

.41 Linguatulida Tongue worm

.42 Acarina Mites

.43 Phalangida Harvest spider

.44 Araneida True spider

.45 Pedipalpi Whip scorpion

.46 Scorpiones Scorpion

.47 Pseudoscorpiones False scorpion

.48 Solifugae Weasel-spider

.5 Onychophora

.61 Chilognatha Milliped

.62 Chilopoda Centiped

.63 Symphyla

.64 Pauropoda

.7 Insecta Hexapoda Insects see ako 632.7 Pests

.709 Geografic distribution

Divide like 930-990

.71 Thysanura Bristletails, springtails, etc.

.711 Campodeidae

.713 Poduridae Snow flea, springtail

.715 Lepismatidae Bristletail

.72 Orthoptera Grashoppers, etc.

.721 Dermaptera Earwig

.722 Cursoria Cockroach

.723 Gressoria Walking insect

.724 Phasmidae Walking stick, leaf insect, walking leaf

.725 Mantidae Praying insect, camel insect

.726 Saltatoria Leaping or jumping insects

.,727 Acrididae Locust

.728 Locustidae Green grashopper, katydid

.729 Gryllidae Cricket

PURE SCIENCE

595-73 Pseudoneuroptera Dragon-flies, white ants, etc.

.731 Thysanoptera Thrip

.732 Corrodentia Booklice, white ant, death watch

.733 Odonata Dragonfly, darning needle, mosquito hawk

.735 Perlidae Stone fly

.741 Planipennia Ant lion, scorpion fly

.742 Megaloptera Ant lion

.743 Sialidae Hill grammite fly

.744 Panorpidae Scorpion fly

.746 Strepsiptera

.75 Hemiptcra Rhynchota Bugs, etc.

751 Aptera Wingless insects

2 Pediculidae True lice, crab lice, body lice, head lice

4 Mallophaga Bird lice

.752 Homoptera

2 Phytophthires (Phytophtires) Stenorhyncha (Sternorhyncha)

3 Monomera Coccidae Scale-insects, coccids

4 Dimera

5 Aphidae Aphids, plant-lice

6 Aleurodidae Moth-blight insects

7 Psyllidae (Psylloidae) Flea-lice
.753 Auchenoryncha Trimera

2 Fulgoridae Lantern-flies

3 Cercopidae Triecphoridae Froghoppers, cuckoo-spits,
spittle-insects

4 Membracidae Tree-hoppers

5 Jassidae Jassids, leaf-hoppers

.754 Heteroptera Squash bug, stink bug, etc.

.76 Coleoptera Beetles

.761 Pentamera

.762 Adephaga Whirligig, tiger beetle, water beetle, etc.

.763 Clavicornia Burying beetle, larder beetle

.764 Lamellicornia Dung beetle, June beetle, rose chafer

.765 Sternoxia Click beetle, wireworm

.766 Malacodermata Ship-timber beetle, powder-post beetle

.767 Heteromera Blister beetle

.768 Tetramera Weevil, leaf beetle

.77 Diptera Flies, etc.

.771 Nematocera Gnat, midge, mosquito, gall midge fly

.772 Brachycera Gadfly, botfly, fleshfly, aphis-fly

.774 Pupipara Lousefly, bee lice

.775 Aphaniptera Flea

.78 Lepidoptera Butterflies, moths

.781 Heterocera Moths

.782 Microlepidoptera Small lepidoptera: clothes moth,
codling moth

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

595.783 Macrolepidoptera Large lepidoptera

.785 Geometrina Mesuring worm, canker worm

.786 Noctuina Owlet moth

.787 Bombycina Silkworm, gipsy moth, tent caterpillar

.788 Sphingina Sphinx moth

.789 Rhopalocera Butterflies

.79 Hymenoptera Bees, wasps, etc.

.791 Terebrantia Boring hymenoptera

.792 Entomophaga Boring insects

.793 Phytophaga Sawfly, horntail, gallfly

.794 Aculeata Stinging hymenoptera

.795 Chrysididae Cuckoo wasp

.796 Formicidae Ant

.797 Fossoria Digger wasp

.798 Vespidae True wasp

.799 Apidae Bee

596 Vertebrates

597 Fishes Pisces

.09 Geografic distribution

Divide like 9JO-999, uzing .09.2 for oceans, further subdivided like 551.46
and .47; e. g. fishes of Gulf of Mexico 597.0923

.1 Pharyngobranchii Lancelet

Leptocardii, Amphioxus, Acraniata

.2 Marsipobranchii Lampreys

Cyclostomei

.3 Elasmobranchii Sharklike fishes

.31 Selachii Plagiostomes Notidani True sharks

.35 Tectospondyle Ray Rajidae Skate

.38 Holocephali Chimera

.4 Ganoidei Sturgeons, garpikes, etc. (covered with hard
bony plates)

.41 Amiidae Bowfin

.44 Chondrostei Acipenseridae Sturgeon

.46 Crossopterygii Fringe-fin

.47 Euganoides Heterocerques Lepidostei Garpike

.48 Dipneusti Dipnoi Lung fish

.5 Teleostei True bony fishes

.53 Lophobranchii Pipe fish, sea horse

.54 Plectognathi File fish, globe fish, box fish

.55 Physostomi Salmon, herring, carp

.56 Anacanthini Cod, halibut, flounder

.57 Pharyngognathi Wrasses, parrot fish

.58 Acanthopterygii Perch, bass, mackerel

.6 Batrachia (Amphibia)

.7 Ophiomorpha

.9 Urodela Salamanders

PURE SCIENCE

598 Reptils Birds

.1 Reptils

. 1 1 Lacertilia Lizards

.13 Ophidia Snakes

.121 Nonvenomus snakes

.126 Venomus snakes

.13 Chelonia Turtles

.14 Crocodilia Crocodiles

.15 Ichthyopterygia

.16 Sauropterygia

.17 Anomodontia

.18 Pterosauria

.19 Dinosauria

.2 Birds Aves

.29 Geografic distribution

Divide like 930-999

.3 1 Fulicariae

Coot, rail, sungrebe

.32 Alectorides

Seriema, sun bittern, trumpeter, kagu. crane, courtaa

.33 Limicolae Shore birds

Plover, snipe, sand piper, stilt, oyster catcher

.34 Herodiones

Heron, bittern, stork, ibis, spoonbill, flamingo, umbrettc

.4 Natatores Swimmers

.41 Anseres Lamellirostral swimmers

Duck, goose, swan, merganser, screamer, sheldrake

.42 Longipennes Long-wingd swimmers

Jaeger, skua, gull, tern, skimmer, albatross, petrel

.43 Steganopodes Totipalmate swimmers

Tropic bird, cormorant, pelican, darter, gannet, man-o'war bird

.44 Pygopodes Diving birds

Grebe, loon, auk, murre, puffin, penguin

.5 Cursores Ratitse Runners
.51 Struthionidae Ostrich

.52 Rheidae Rhea

.53 Casuariidae Cassowary Dromaeidae Emu

.54 Apterygidae Kiwi Dinornithidae Moa

.6 Rasores Scratchers
.61 Gallinae Gallinaceus birds

True fowl, grouse, quail, hoatzin, fesant, turkey

.65 Columbae

Pigeon, dodo

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

598.7 Scansores Climbers
. 7 1 Psittacidae

Parrot, macaw, parakeet, cockatoo, lory, kaka, nestor

.72 Picidae

Woodpecker, pufbird, barbet, jacamar, honey guide, wryneck, toucan

.73 Trogonidae Trogon

.74 Cuculidae Cuckoo

.8 Insessores Perchers

.81 Acromyodi Singing passerin birds

Warning, thrush, finch, swallow, warbler, flycatcher, o riolc, bobolink, sparrow

.86 Mesomyodi Non-singing passerin birds

.89 Picariae Non-passerin birds

Kingfisher, roller, swift, humming bird

.9 Raptores Birds of prey

.91 Falconidae Falcon family Vulturidae . Vulture

Hawk, falcon, eagle, buzzard

.97 Night raptores

Strigidae: owl

599 Mammals Mammalia

.1 Monotremata Duckbild platypus, duckmole

.2 Marsupialia Kangaroos, opossums

.3 Placentalia Monodelphia

.32 Rodentia Rat, rabbit, woodchuck

.33 Insectivora Shrew, mole

.4 Cheiroptera Bats

.5 Cetacea Sirenia Whales, etc.

.51 Mysticete Balaenoid whale, whalebone whale

.53 Denticete, Odontocete Tootht whale

.55 Sirenia

.6 Subungulata

.61 Proboscidea

Eiefant, mammoth, mastodon

.615 Barytheria Barypoda
.62 Hyracoidea

Hyrax, cony

.625 Embrithopoda

.63 Notoungulata Toxodonta

.632 Typotheria

.64 Homalodotheria Homalodontotheria Entelonychia

.642 Astrapotheria
.643 Toxodontia
.65 Litopterna
.6 55 Pyrotheria

.66 Amblypoda Short-footed ungulates

.67 Condylarthra Slender ungulates

PURE SCIENCE

599.7 Ungulata Carnivora

. 7 1 Ungulata Hoof t mammals

.72 Perissodactyla Od-toed ungulates

.722 Chelodactyla Normal perissodactyls

.723 Hippoidea

.724 Palacotheriidae

.725 Equidae Monochcla Solidipcda Solid ungula

Equines

Horse, ass, zebra, quagga etc

.726 Titanotheroidca Titanothcria

2 Palaeosyopidae

4 Titanotheriidae Brontotheriidae

.727 Tapiroidea

2 Tapiridae Tapirs

4 Lophiodontidae

.728 Rhinocerotoidea

2 Hyracodontidae

4 Rhinoccrotidae Rhinoceros

.729 Ancylopoda Ancylodactyla Chalicotheria Chalico-

theroidea Clawd perissodactyls

.73 Artiodactyla Even-toed ungulates

Bisulca, Dichela

.732 Nonruminantia

.733 Selenobunodontia

2 Anthracotheriidae

3 Dichobunidae

4 , Trigonolestidae

.734 Suina Bunodontia Swine

2 Cebochoeridae

3 Leptochoeridae

4 Suidae Pigs

5 Dicotylidae Tagassuidac

Peccary

6 Entelodontidae Elothcriidae

Giant pigs

7 Hippopotamidae Hippopotamas
.735 Ruminantia Selenodontia Ruminants

2 Oreodonta

3 Anoplotheriidae

4 Tylopoda Cameloidea

Camel, dromedary, llama, alpaca, vicuna etc

5 Tragulina Traguloidea
52 Gelocidae

54 Hypertragulidae
56 Tragulidae

Chevrotain or mouse-deer

6 Pecora

7 Cervicornia Antlerd or solid-bornd ruminants

72 Giraffidae

Giraf, okapi
74 Cervidae Deer

76 Merycodontidae Deer-antelope

8 Cavicornia Hollow-hornd ruminants
82 Antilocapridae

Prongbuck or pronghorn antelope
84 Bovidae Bovines

Ox, sheep, goat, antelope, gazel, chamois etc

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

599.74 Carnivora Flesh-eating mammals, beasts of prey

.743 Creodonta Primitiv carnivora

.744 Vissipedia Land carnivora

2 Aeluroidea Ailuroidea Herpestoidea

22 Viverridae

Civet, genet, linsang etc

23 Nandiniidae

African palm or tree civet

24 Herpestidae

Mongoose

25 Cryptoproctidae

Foussa or fossa

26 Protelidae

Aard wolf

27 Hyaenidae

Hyena

28 Felidae Cats
4 Arctoidea

42 Canidae

Dog, wolf, fox, jackal etc

43 Procyonidae

Raccoon, coati, kinkajou, cacomistlc, bassarisk etc

44 Ailuridae Aeluridae

Common panda

45 Ailuropodidae Aeluropodidae

Pandarctos, great or giant panda

46 Ursidae Bears

47 " Mustelidae
472 Mustelinae

Weasel, marten, sable, mink, stoat, ernjin, polecat, ferret,

wolverine etc

474 Mclinae

475 Mephitinae

Skunk etc

478 Lutrinae Otters

.745 Pinnipedia Fin- or paddle-footed carnivora, aquatic

or marine carnivora
.746 Otariidae Eard seals

Fur seal, sea lion, sea bear

.747 Odobaenidae Odobenidae

Walrus

.748 Phocidae Earless or true seals

.81 Prosimiae Lemur

.82 Pitheciinae: couxio Cynopithecidae : monkey, baboon

Catarrhina: gorilla, chimpanzee, orang Platyrrhini:
American monkey

.88 Anthropomorpha Anthropoid ape

.9 Bimana Man See also 573 Nat. hist, of man; 610 Median

Useful Arts
Applied Science

600 Useful arts Applied science

601 Filosofy Theories, etc.

602 Compends, outlines

603 Dictionaries, cyclopedias

605 Periodicals, magazines, reviews

606 Societies Fairs Exhibitions

Special exhibitions go with their topics. This is general only

607 Education Schools of technology

Divided like 040-999

608 Patents Inventions

609 History of useful arts in general

For iti history, see each special department

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Medicin

For full list of form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index. Note special sub
divisions below which may be applied as needed thruout 61 1-619
.7 Study and teaching .71 Medical schools .714 Medical education for special
classes: women etc. .73 Training schools, for nurses Nursing Regular form
divisions may be added here as needed; e.g. 610.7307 Study and teaching of nursing,
610.7300 History of nursing .74 Medical museums .75 Diagnosis .731 Pulse
.752 Tongue .753 Eye, skin, etc. .754 Auscultation, percussion .755 Ther-
mometry .756 Chemistry Urin analysis .757 Microscopy, radioscopy, etc.
.758 Pathologic anatomy .759 Postmortem examination E.g. 616.0756 Chemic
diagnosis of disease, 616.241075 Diagnosis of pneumonia

I Anatomy

SUMMARY
61 1 .0 1 Theory
.012 Teratology
.013 Embryology
.014 Anthropologic anatomy
.016 Paleontologic "
.018 Histology

.019 Comparativ anatomy •
.1 Circulatory system
.2 Respiratory "
.3 Digestiv "
.4 Glandular and lymfatic system
.6 Genito-urinary system
.7 Motor and integumentary system
.8 Nervous system
.9 Regional anatomy

.01 Theory

.0111 Notion, definition, value

.or 12 Classification, division

.0114 Terminology

.012 Teratology Anomalies

Divided like 617.3 Orthopedic surgery

.013 Ontogeny Embryology

j Germinativ cells

1 1 Sperm

15 Ovum

17 Maturation Corpus luteum

2 Copulation Fecundation Fertilization

3 Germ layers

31 Segmentation Cleavage Blast ula

314 Blastula

32 Gastrula

33 Primitiv streak

34 Blastopore Primitiv mouth

35 Archenteron Primitiv gut

36 Neurenteric canal

37 Entoderm, entoblast, hypoblast or endoderm

38 Ectoderm, epiblast or ectoblast

39 • Mesoderm or mesoblast

395 Mesenchyme

.0134 Entodermic, entoblastic or hypoblastic organs

41 Notochord

5 Ectodermic, epiblastic or ectoblastic organs

Epidermal layci

51 Neural furrows, folds and canal or medullary plates

Se» also 61 1.8 Nervous system

MEDICIN : ANATOMY

611.0136 Mesodermic organs

61 Protovertebrae Mesoblastic somites, or primitiv

vertebrae

64 Somatopleure, body wall, or musculocutaneous plate

Outer lamella of lateral plates

65 Splanchnopleure, fibrous wall of alimentary canal, or
gut fiber plate

Inner lamella of lateral plates

66 Coelom, pleuroperitoneal or body cavity

68 Blood or primitiv vessel wall

7 External form of embryo

8 Fetal appendages
81 Vitellin sac

32 Allantoi9

S3 Amnion

835 Amniotic fluid

84 Chorion

85 Placenta Umbilic cord

9 Experimental embryology
.014 Anthropologic anatomy

.016 Paleontologic anatomy

.018 Histology

Microscopic structure of organs

1 Cells Cytology

they belong
1 1 Protoplasm
13 Nucleus

16 Centrosome

18 Cilia Cellular membrane

2 Connectiv tissue

Connectiv, cartilage and bone tissue together known as 'sup-
porting tissues '

21 Connectiv tissue cells

22 Connectiv tissue fibers

23 Ground substance or matrix

Areolar or interstitial tissue Reticulum

25 Mucous or gelatinous tissue Mesenchyme

27 Elastic or yellow fibrous tissue

28 Fibrous or white fibrous tissue

29 Pigment and pigment cells

3 Cartilaginous tissue

True or hyalin cartilage, cartilage cells or chondroblasts For
Elastic, yellow fibrocartilage, or reticular cartilage see
611. 01827; for Fibrocartilage, fibrous or white fibrocartilage
see 611.01828
34 Perichondrium

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

611.0184 Bone or osseous tissue

41 Bone cells

Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Howship't lacunae Myato-

plaques of Robin

43 Ground substance or matrix

Spongiosum, spongy substance, or cancellated or spongy bone

Compact substance

Structure: lacunae, canaliculi, lamellae, Haversian canals
Volkmann's canals

44 Periosteum

Osteogenetic layer or cells; fibers of Sharpey

46 Bone marrow or medulla

5 Blood

1 For sperm, see 611.01311 and 612.6:6

57 Lymf

6 Muscular tissue Sarcoplasm

61 Smooth, unstriped, unstriated or involuntary muscle

63 Striped, striated or voluntary muscle

Sarcolemma

63 Cardiac muscle

64 Histology of muscular contraction

7 Epithelial tissue

73 Glandular system

73 Mucous membranes

74 Serous " Endothelia

8 Nervous tissue

81 General structure Tectology Neurone

Regeneration
8a Nerv cells

Nissl's chromophilic bodies

83 Prolongations and nerv fibers

Cylinder-axis process; cylinder axis. AppendUea, varicosities

833 Neurilemma Schwann's sheath

834 Myelin Ranvier's nodes Medullary sheath

Endoneurium

837 Dendrites

84 Neuroglia Ependymal cells, amyloids

86 Terminations

861 Motor terminations

866 Sensory

,019 Comparison with anatomy of lower animals

Usually better clast in 591.4

Form divisions

.02 Compends

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

.05 Periodicals

.06 Societies Clubs

MEdicin: anatomy

611.07 Teaching Methods

.07 a Laboratories Dissection

.077 Pedagogic methods

.078 Instruments Apparatus

.08 Polygrafy

.09 History

.1 Circulatory system

. 1 1 Pericardium

. 1 2 Hart

. u> Left hart

.11 j Right hart

.124 Ventricles

a Right s Left

.125 Auricles

a Right s Left

.126 Endocardium

3 Valvs

4 Auriculoventricular valvi
41 Mitral or bicuspid valvs
46 Tricuspid valvs

j Valvs of aorta and of pulmonary artery

Sinuses of Valsalva

5* Aortic valvs

56 Pulmonary or semilunar valvs

6 Valvs of right auricle

a Eustachian j Coronary

.127 Myocardium

.13 Arteries

.131 Pulmonary artery

a Right branch 5 Left branch

.132 Aorta

1 Aortic arch Ascending aorta

2 Coronary arteries

a Right 5 Left

5 Innominate artery
.133 Carotid arteries

1 Common carotid

2 External "

11 Superior thyroid

it Lingual

»3 Facial, or external maxillary

14 Ascending pharyngeal

aj Posterior auricular

j6 Occipital

*7 Superficial temporal

»8 Internal maxillary

ail Sphenopalatin arteries

»8« Middle or great meningeal

3 Internal carotid

32 Ophthalmic artery

33 Cerebral arteries, anterior and middle

For posterior cerebral artery see 611.1349

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

61T.134 Subclavian arteries

1 Axillary

Superior thoracic, acroraiothoracic, long thoracic or external
mammary, alar thoracic, subscapular, posterior and anterior

circumflex

2 Brachial or humeral

Superior and inferior profunda, nutrient, anastomotica magna,

muscular

3 Forearm arteries

35 Ulnar

4 Hand arteries

5 Internal mammary Superior epigastric

6 Costocervical trunk

7 Thyrocervical trunk

8 Posterior, or dorsal scapular, transversa colli

Q Vertebral Basilar, posterior cerebral, circle of Willit

.135 Thoracic aorta and branches

1 Parietal branches

4 Intercostal "

Subcostal, diaframatic, vas aberrans

5 Visceral branches

Bronchial, esofageal, pericardial, mediastinal

136 Abdominal aorta and branches

1 Inferior frenic

2 Lumbar

3 Middle sacral; caudal

4 Celiac axis

Celiac mesenteric, umbilic mesenteric or omphalomesenteric
41 Hepatic

Pyloric, gastroduodenal, superior pancreaticoduodenal, right

gastro-epiploic, cystic
4i Splenic, lienalis

Pancreatic, vasa brevia, left gastro-epiploic
43 Left gastric, gastric, or coronary gastric

5 Mesenteric

Si Superior mesenteric

Rami intestini tenuis, or branches of small intestin; inferior
pancreaticoduodenal; middle, right and ileocolic; terminal and

appendicular branches
5a Inferior mesenteric

Left colic, sigmoid, superior hemorrhoidal

6 Middle suprarenal

7 Renal

8 Spermatic

9 Ovarian
.137 Iliac arteries

1 Common iliac

2 Hypogastric, or internal iliac

3 Parietal branches

4 Lateral sacral

5 Obturator

medicin: anatomy

61 1. 1376

Gluteal

61

Superior gluteal

6s

Inferior gluteal Sciatic

7

Visceral branches

71

Umbilic, superior vesical

7»

Inferior vesical and deferential

73

Uterin and vaginal

74

Middle hemorrhoidal

75

Internal pudic

8

External iliac artery-

8l

Inferior epigastric, or deep epigastric

82

Deep circumflex iliac

Femoral

84

Deep femoral, profunda femoris

a External circumflex 5 Internal circumflex

85

Arteria genu suprema, or anastomotica magna

86

Popliteal

87

Anterior tibial

y

Tibiofibular trunk, truncus tibioperoneus

AT

y 1

Po^tprior tihial

92

Peroneal

93

Arteries of foot

94

Dorsalis pedis

Tarsal, metatarsal, dorsal interosseous, dorsalis

95

Plantar

• I 4

Veins

.141

Pulmonary

.142

Cardiac or venae cordis

•143

Subintestinal, or fetal portal vein

.144

Cardinal

T AC

UUUti iui VCUCl vd V U

Innominate veins Veins of neck

I

111 Lei iidi ju.yu.id.1 vein

Thyroid veins

II

Cerebral veins Sinuses of dura mater

13

Emissary vein

1 5

Superior ofthalmic

16

Tnfprinr '

illlCl IKJ 1

17

Facial

2

External jugular

3

Posterior external jugular and vertebral

4

Subclavian and axillary

41

Deep veins of upper extremity

46

Superficial veins of upper extremity

2 Basilic s Cephalic

6

Azygos

7

Spinal veins

Decimal clasification

6 i i. i 46 Inferior vena cava

1 Lumbar veins

2 Renal

3 Suprarenal "

4 Hepatic "

5 Inferior frenic

6 Spermatic

Pampiniform or spermatic plexus

7 Ovarian
.147 Iliac veins

1 Hypogastric or internal iliac

Hemorrhoidal plexus

2 External iliac

3 Femoral Popliteal

33 Long, or internal saphenous

37 Tibial veins

38 Short, or external saphenous

39 Veins of foot

.149 Portal vein

1 Superior mesenteric

* Inferior "

3 Ventricular coronary, gastric, or venae gastricae Pyloric

4 Splenic, or lienalis
3 Cystic

7 Fetal hepatic veins Omphalomesenteric

Ductus venosus Aranzii, or sinus venosus, large vein |
directly thru fetal liver

8 Umbilic

. 1 5 Capillaries

.2 Respiratory system

.21 Nose

.an External nose

.22 Larynx
.221 Cartilages

Epiglottis, thyroid, arytenoid, cuneiform, coraicular
.323 False vocal cords

.334 Ventricles

.225 Cavity of larynx Glottis

True vocal cords Rima glottidis or chink of glottis
.337 Ligaments

.229 Muscles of larynx

.23 Trachea and bronchi
.231 Trachea
.233 Bronchi

.24 Lungs, or pulmones

.25 Pleura

.26 Diafram

.27 Mediastinum

.38 Gills

See comparativ anatomy, 591.43 Respiratory organ*

medicin: anatomy

611.3

•31
313

5

.314
.315

.316

t
*

.317
.318

•32

.321

.322

.313
•3»4
.JJS
.3*6

•3»;

329

•33

•33J
•334
•335
.336

•34
.34i

•S4»

■ 343

■ 344

•345

•347

.348

a
3
4

■34f

•35
•ssi
■ss»
•sss

Digestiv system

Mouth, buccal cavity or cavum oris
Tung

Papillae

Teeth

Palate, palatum, or roof of mouth
velum pendulum palati Uvula
Salivary and other glands of mouth

Submaxillary and sublingual glands
Parotid glands Stenson's duct

Lips

Soft palate, or

Esofagus

Abdominal section.

Cheeks
Pharynx
Pharynx
Tonsils

Faucial tonsils

Pharyngeal or Luschka's tonsils
Lingual, buccal or 4th tonsil
Other tonsils: laryngeal, nasal
Topografy or regions of pharynx
Nasal or epipharynx
Oral, buccal, or meso pharynx
Laryngeal or hypo pharynx
Back
Sides

Esofagus

1 Cervical 2 Thoracic section
including diaframati~

Stomach

Gastric glands: true, oxyntic o r peptic; pyloric; cardiac
Cardia
Pylorus

Greater curvature, or lower convex surface
Lesser " upDer concave "

Intestin

Small intestin

3 Meckel's diverticulum

3 Peyer's patches, or tonsillae intestinales

4 Plicae circulares

5 Glands of Lieberkuhn and solitary glands
Duodenum Brunner's glands

Jejunum
Ileum

Cecum

Ileocecal valv
Vermiform appendix

Large intestin

Including cecum Appendices epiploic**

Colon

Ascending
Transverse
Descending
Sigmoid flexure

Rectum Anus

Rectum Houston's or rectal valva

Anus

DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION

611.36 Liver

.361 Bile ducts Bile capillaries or canaliculi

.363 Hepatic duct

. 3 66 Cystic duct Gall bladder

.367 Common bile duct, or ductus communis choledicut

Process and ampulla of Vater

.37 Pancreas

.373 Pancreatic duct, or canal of Wirsung

3 75 Duct of Santorini

.376 Glandular portion

.377 Interalveolar cell-ilets, intertubular cell masses, ilands of Langerhans

.38 Peritoneum Mesentery Omentum Coelom
.381 Peritoneum

a Parietal 5 Visceral
,38a Omentum, epiploon

Lesser or gastrohepatic, great or gastrocolic, gastrosplenic
.383 Mesentery

Transverse and sigmoid mesocolon; mesorectum; mesoappendix
.384 Retroperitoneal fossae

.389 Coelom or pleuroperitoneal cavity

.4 Glandular and lymfatic system

Put glands of any special system with that system. See 611.36, Liver;
611. 61, Kidneys; 611. 316, Salivary glands; 61 1.69, Mammary glands. But

class here chromaffin tissue in general

.41 Spleen

■415 Malpighian bodies

.418 Capsule of spleen

.42 Lymfatic vessels or lymfatics and capillaries

For lymfatics of an organ or tissue, see name of organ or tissue

Lymfatic spac

.421

Lymfatics by region

I

Hed

a

Face

3

Neck

4

Thorax

5

Abdomen

6

Pelvic region

7

Upper extremity

a Arm 4 Forearm 6 Hand

8

Lower extremity

a Thigh 4 Leg 6 Foot

9

Tail

■ 4>3

Receptaculum chyli or cistern of Pecquet

424

Thoracic duct (left)

.425

Right lymfatic duct

436 Lacteals

5 Villi

43 Thymus

43 S Accessory thymus

44 Thyroid gland

445 Accessory or aberrent thyroids

447 Parathyroids

45 Suprarenal capsules or bodies

Accessory suprarenal capsules

medicin: anatomy

6i ' 46 Lymfatic glands

461 Glands of bed

4i* " " face

Internal maxillary Submental

163 Glands of neck

1 Suboccipital or occipital

a Mastoid, retroauricular or postauricular

6 Retropharyngeal

7 Cervical or jugular

8 Subclavian
464 Glands of thorax

1 Diaframatic

a Mammary lymf

3 Intercostal
„ Mediastinal

.465 Abdominal lymf glands

I Iliac and hypogastric: sacral, lumbar

a Abdomino-aortic

a 1 Juxta-aortic

aa Preaortic: gastric, splenic, hepatic

ai Retroaortic

4 Glands of small intestin : mesenteric
6 Glands of large intestin: colic, rectal

.467 Lymf glands of upper extremity

1 Axillary

a Epitrochleal or supratrochleal and other glanda

5 Pectoral

.468 Lymf glands of lower extremity

1 Inguinal

a Femoral

3 Popliteal

4 Anterior tibial

.47 Carotid gland or body

.48 Coccygeal gland

.6 Genito-urinary system Brests

.61 Kidneys

Class here urinary organs in general

.615 Uriniferous tubules

.617 Ureter

.618 Pronephros

.619 Mesonephros

3 Urethral openings

.622 Ligaments: urachus

,623 Urethra

For female urethra see 6:1.674

I Prostatic part

Verumontanum or caput gallinaginis
Sinus pocularis or uterus masculinus

a Membranous part

3 Spongy, cavernous or penial part

4 Lacunae Littr^'s glands
.6a7 Bulbo-urethral or Cowper's glands
.619 Urogenital sinus

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

611.63 Male genital organs

Oji Testicles or testes

I Seminiferous tubules

Straight tubules, tubuli recti or v«s* recta; coni vaacttloti or
vasa efferentia

j Tunics of testes: vaginalis, albuginea, vasculosa

f Mediastinum testis or Highmore's body; rete testis of Haller or

Haller's network
.631 Epididymis
.633 Appendixes of testes

Vasa aberrantia; hydatids of Morgagni, or pedunculated bodies;

.634 Vas deferens

.6 3 5 Ejaculatory ducts

.636 Seminal vesicles

.6 j 7 Prostate
.63S Scrotum
4 Dartos
.639 Spermatic cord

Infundibula; intercolumnar or spermatic and cremasteric fascia

.64 Penis

.641 Root

.64s Body Prepuce

.64) Glans penis, or acorn

.644 Meatus

,645 Corpora cavernosa

.646 Corpus spongiosum

.647 Bulb of urethra

.651 Ovaries

I Medullary substance Stroma

t Graafian follicles

Capsule of ovum, membrana granulosa, discus proligerui

3 Cortical layer

,65a Corpus luteum or corpora lutea

.656 Fallopian tubes

.66 Uterus

.663 Endometrium

.664 Cornua

.665 Body or parenchyma

.660 Neck, cervix

.667 Ligaments

For placenta see embryology, 611.01385 and gynecology 618.3d

t Round Canal of Nuck

4 Uterosacral and uterolumbar Pouch of Douglas

Posterior ligaments

6 Epoophoron, parovarium, or organ of Rosenmuller Gartner's duct

7 Paroophoron

669 Muller's duct Oviducts of lower vertebrates

Class oviducts of lower vertebrates in 591.46 except In com-
parison with human organs

.67 Vagina Vulva

.671 Vagina

.67s Hymen Vestibulum

.673 Vulva

1 Mons veneris 1 Labia majora 3 Labia minora

.674 . Female urethra

.67s Clitoris Bulbus vestibuli

.677 Bartholins, or vulvo-vaginal glands

.69 Brests

.691 Nipple and areola Glands of Montgomery

.69s Acini, acinous glands

.603 Galactoforoui or lactiferous ducts

MEDICIN. ANATOMY

1.7 Motor and integumentary systems

.71 Osteology Bones Skeleton

.711 Spinal colum

1 Cervical vertebrae

» Atlas

j Axis or epistropheus

5 Thoracic or dorsal vertebrae

6 Lumbar vertebrae

7 Sacrum or sacral vertebrae

8 Coccyx

.712 Ribs Thorax

5 Costal cartilages

.713 Sternum or brest bone

.714 Bones of hed Skull

1 Calvaria or cerebral cranium

Sutures, fontanelles, supernumerary or Wormian bono*

3 Base of cranium

6 Orbits

7 Nasal cavity Inferior conchae

.715 Cranium, cranial bones

1 Occipital

* Sphenoid

3 Temporal

4 Parietal

5 Frontal

6 Ethmoid

7 Lacrimal

8 Nasal

9 Vomer

.716 Bones of face or visceral cranium

l Maxillary, upper jaw or superior maxillary

a Palate

3 Malar or zygomatic

4 Mandible, lower jaw or inferior maxillary
41 Alveolar limbus

43 Ramus of mandible

5 Hyoid

6 Skeleton branchiae Better clast in 591.47

.717 Bones of upper extremity

Shoulder girdle as a whole Acromion

a Clavicle or collar bone

3 Coracoid process

4 Humerus

6 Ulna

7 Carpus, carpal bones or wrist bones

71 Scaphoid or navicular

7 a Semilunar, or os lunatum

73 Cuneiform, or os triquetrum

74 Pisiform

j j Trapezium, or os multangulum majus

76 Trapezoid or " " minus

77 Os magnum, or os capitatum

1% Unciform or hook or os hamatum

79 Central

8 Metacarpus, metacarpal bones

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

611.7179 Phalanges of hand

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges

93 Middle phalanges

95 Ungual or distal phalanges

99 Sesamoid

.718 Bones of lower extremity

For pelvis see 611.96

I Hip bone, or os coxae or innominatum

Acetabulum or cotylo : d cavity

II Ilium

12 Ischium

13 Pubis

4 Femur

5 Tibia

6 Fibula

7 Tarsus

71 Astragalus, ankle bone, or talus

73 Calcaneum, heel, or os calcis

75 Cuboid

76 Scaphoid or navicular *
78 Cuneiform or wedge bones

Internal or first, middle or second, external or third cuneiforir

8 Metatarsal bones

9 Phalanges of foot

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges

93 Middle or second

95 Ungual or third "

99 Sesamoid bones

.72 Ligaments Joints

.721 Articulations of vertebrae and of cranium

J Occipito-atlantal and occipito-axial

3 Intervertebral articulations

5 Atlanto-axial or atlo-axoid and atlanto-odontoid

6 Lumbosacral

7 Sacrococcygeal

8 Coccygeal

.722 Costovertebral articulations

.723 Costosternal, costochondral, chondrosternal, interchon-
dral, intersternal

.724 Jaw joint, temporomandibular, temporomaxillary or

mandible joint

.727 Articulations of upper extremity

1 Sternoclavicular joint and costoclavicular or rhom
boid ligament

2 Articulations of shoulder

7i Shoulder joint

34 Acromioclavicular or scapuloclavicular joint Coracoclavicular and
coracoacromial ligaments

3 Elbow joint

31 Humeroulnar joint

4 Wrist joint

41 Inferior or distal radioulnar joint

MEDICIN : ANATOMY

611.7275 Intercarpal articulation

54 Middle carpal joints

6 Carpometacarpal articulations

7 Intermetacarpal "

8 Metacarpophalangeal "

9 Phalangeal or finger joints

.728 Articulations of lower extremity

1 Articulations of pelvis

Sacroiliac and pubic, or symphysis ossium pubis; sacrosciatic liga-
ment or symphysis sacrocuccygea

2 Hip joint, or articulu coxae

Iliofemoral, Y or Bigelow's ligament; ligamentum teres

3 Knee joint

31 Crucial or femorotibial ligaments

33 Semilunar fibrocartilages

34 Anterior or ligamentum patellae
38 Tibiofibular ligaments

4 Ankle joint

41 Inferior tibiofibular joint

44 Tibiotarsal ligaments

5 Intertarsal ligaments

51 Astragalocalcaneal, calcaneoastragaloid or talocalcaneum; astraga-
loscaphoid; calcaneoscaphoid or calcaneonavicular ligaments

53 Calcaneocuboid ligaments

54 Mediotarsal articulations

55 Cuboidcuneiform "

56 Scaphoidcuboid or cubonavicularis, scaphoidcuneiform or cuneonavic
ularis articulations

58 Intercuneiform articulations

6 Tarsometatarsal articulations

7 Intennetatarsal "

8 Metatarsophalangeal "

9 Toe joints
.729 Classes of joints

2 Synarthrosis or fixt joint

4 Amphiarthrosis or mixt joint

6 Diarthrosis or movable joint

61 Arthrodia or gliding joint

6a Condylarthrosis or knuckle joint

63 Enarthrosis or ball and socket joint

64 Ginglymus or hinge joint
6s Trochoid or pivot joint

.73 Muscular system Myology

.731 Dorsal muscles

1 Spinohumeral or humerospinal muscles

1 1 Trapezius

12 Latissimus dorsi

13 Rhomboid

14 Levator scapulae

2 Spinocostal or serrati posteriores

3 Spinodorsal

Sacrospinalis, lumbosacral, erector spinae, transversalis cervicis

31 Iliocostal

36 Longissimus dorsi

4 Splenitis and complexus

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

611.7315 Spinalis dorsi

6 Transversospinales

61 Semispinalis
6s Multifidus
68 Rotatores

7 Breves spinae

71 Interspinals

76 Intertransversarii

8 Oblique muscles of hed

9 Recti capitis posterior and lateralis
.732 Muscles of hed

1 Platysma myoides

2 Occipitofrontalis or epicranial

3 Muscles of nose

Pyramidalis nasi, compressor nasi, compressor nartum minor,
depressor alae nasi or myrtiform, dilatores nasi

4 Muscles Of ear Attrahens, attollens, retrahens

5 Palpebral and orbital muscles of eye

Orbicularis palpebrarum, or sphincter of eyelids; corrugator super-
cilii; levator palpebrae; levator palpebrae superioris; tensor tarsi

6 Buccal muscles

Buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levatores labii
superioris, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, zygomatic, levator
labii inferioris, levator menti, depressor labii inferioris or quadratut
menti; depressor angulae oris or triangularis menti; risorius, or

Santorini's muscle

7 Muscles aiding mastication and deglutition

71 Masseter
7» Temporal
73 Pterygoid

75 Muscles of palate and pharynx

76 Palate

Levator palati, tensor palati, azygos uvulae, palatoglossus, pala-
topharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus
78 Pharynx

Inferior, superior and middle constrictors, stylopharyngeal

•733 Muscles of neck

1 Sterno-cleido- mastoid
1 " hyoid

3 Omohyoid

4 Sternothyroid

5 Thyrohyoid

6 Longus colli

7 Rectus capitis anticus major, or longus capitis

8 Rectus capitis anticus minor, or rectus capitis anterior

For rectus capitis lateralis see 611. 7319

9 Scaleni: anticus, medius and posticus

.734 Hyoid muscles

Depressors of lower jaw or elevators of hyoid. For tung see 61 1.3 13

1 Digastric
4 Stylohyoid
6 Mylohyoid
8 Geniohyoid

medicin: anatomy

611.735 Thoracic muscles

1 Pectoralis major

i " minor

3 Subclavius

4 Levatores costarum

5 Serratus magnus or serratus anterior

6 Intercostal

7 Subcostal

8 Transversus thoracis or triangularis sterni

.736 Abdominal and coccygeal muscles

1 Rectus abdominis

1 Pyramidalis abdominis

j Oblique abdominal

6 Cremaster

7 Transversalis or transversus abdominis

9 Coccygeal

,737 Muscles of upper extremity

I Shoulder or axillary

II Deltoid

12 Supraspinatus

ij Infraspinatus

14 Teres minor

1 s Teres major
16 Subscapular

2 Arm

31 Biceps brachii, or biceps flexor cubiti

33 Coracobrachial

33 Brachialis (anticus)

34 Triceps brachii, or triceps extensor cubiti

35 Anconeus

3 Forearm

4 Pronator muscles

5 Flexors of forearm

S3 Pal maris longus

53 Flexor carpi ulnaris

54 " digitorum sublimis
53 ma profundus
56 " pollicis longus

6 Extensors and supinators

63 " " " brevis

64 " " ulnaris

65 Extensors of fingers, or extensores digitorum

66 Supinator

67 Abductor pollicis longus

68 Short and long extensors of thum, or extensores pollicis brevis
et longus

69 Extensor of index finger, or extensor indicis proprius

7 Muscles of hand

71 Lumbricales

73 Palmaris brevis

73 Short abductor of thum, or opponens pollicis

Short flexor of thum, or flexor brevis pollicis. Adductor pollicis

76 Muscles of little finger

Abductor digiti quinti (or minimi) brevis; opponens digiti quinti
short flexor of 5th or little finger, or flexor brevis digiti minimi

19 Interosseous musclea

DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION

1.738 Muscles of lower extremity

1 Hip and nates

1 1 Iliopsoas

12 Uiacus

13 Psoas major and minor

14 Gluteal

15 Tensor fasciae latae, tensor fasciae femoris or tensor vaginae femoris

16 Piriformis

17 Obturator internus

18 Gemelli or gemini

2 Thigh muscles

21 Sartorius

Rectus femoris, vastus externus, vastus internus and crureus or
vastus intermedius

22s Articularis genu, or subcrureus

23 Pectineus

24 Adductors: longus, brevis, magnus and minimus

25 Gracilis

26 Obturator externus

27 Biceps femoris or biceps flexor cruris

38 Semitendinosus

39 Semimembranosus

3 Le g

4 Anterior muscles

41 Anterior tibial or tibialis anticus

42 Extensor digitorum longus

43 " hallucis " or proprius
46 Peronaeus tertius

5 Other muscles of leg

51 Peronaeus longus

52 " brevis

53 Gastrocnemius

54 Soleus, triceps suxae

55 Plantaris

56 Popliteus

57 Posterior tibial

58 Flexor digitorum longus

59 " hallucis "

7 Muscles of foot

8 Back of foot

Extensor brevis digitorum

Sole of foot or plantar region

minimi, abductor hallucis; flexor hallucis brevis, flexor
digitorum brevis, flexor accessorius, flexor digiti minimi
brevis, lumbricales, interosseous muscles

.739 Electric organs Better clast in comparativ anatomy

.74 Tendons Fasciae

May be divided like 611.73; e. g. Achilles tendon 611.74854

.75 Bursae Sheaths of tendons

.751 Hed

.752 Neck

.753 Back

.754 Shoulder

•757 Upper extremity

.758 Lower "

medicin: anatomy

611.77 Skin Glands of skin

.771 Cuticle, scarf skin or epidermis

Horny and Malpighian layers
.77a Glands of skin

.773 Sebaceous
.774 Sudoriferous or swet

.775 Ciliary glands

.776 Circumanal "

.777 Ceruminous"

.778 Corium, cutis vera, true skin or dermis

Reticular and papillary layers
S Pigmentation
.779 Subcutaneous areolar tissue, tela subcutanea or paniculus ad : posus

.78 Hair, nails, scales, fethers, etc.

For teeth see 61 1.3 14 Fur, scales, fethers, horns, etc. bettor clait in

comparativ anatomy 501.47
.781 Hair
.783 Scales
.786 Nails
.787 Fethers
.788 Horns

.8 Nervous system Sense organs

.8 1 Encephalon Brain

Mesureraent Weight

.811 General structure of brain and cerebrospinal axis

.812. Localizations

.813 Telencephalon, or endbrain Prosencephalon, or fore-

brain Hemisferes

Longitudinal and transverse fissure

1 Pallium, brain mantle or cerebral cortex

11 Frontal lobe

Broca's convolutions

12 Parietal lobe Central fissure, sulcus centralis, or
Rolando's groove

Opercula insulae

13 Temporal or temporosphenoid lobe Fissure of Sylvius*
or fissura cerebri lateralis

14 Limbic lobe Gyrus fornicatus

Hippocampal gyre, or gyrus hippocampi Callosal gyre
Dentate gyre, or fascia dentata hippocampi Fasciola Fim-
bria, taenia fornicis or taenia hippocampi Hippocampus
major or cornu ammonis Dentate fissure, hippocampal
sulcus, or subiculum cornu ammonis Callosomarginal fissure
Amygdala, almond nucleus, or amygdaloid tubercle

15 Occipital lobe

Occipital or parieto-occipital fissure

16 Paracentral gyre or lobule

17 Cuneus Calcarin fissure

19 Insula, iland of Reil, central lobe, or gyri operti

2 Striatum, striate body, or corpus striatum

Basal ganglion of hemisfere

21 Caudatum, taild nucleus, or nucleus caudatus

22 Lenticula, lenticular nucleus, or nucleus lentiformis

Globus pallidus, or pallidum, and putamen

23 Claustrum

25 Tenia, taenia semicircularis, stria terminalis or corneae

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

6 1 1 . 8 1 3 3 Rhinencephalon or rhinencefal

Olfactory bulb tract, substantia perforata anterior, precribrum, etc

Broca's area, or parolfactoria

7 Centrum ovale majus (of Vieussens) Centrum
semiovale Internal capsule

8 Paraceles or lateral ventricles

y Callosum or corpus callosum Fornix

Septum pellueidum or lucidum, or septum Cavum septi pe^lucidi,
5th ventricle or pseudocele

.814 Diencephalon, diencefal, thalamencephalon or interbrain

1 Hypothalamus or subthalamic tegmental region

Nucleus of Luys or nucleus hypothalamics
Postcommissure or posterior commissure

2 Corpora albicantia, albicans, or corpus mammillare

Bundle of Vicq-d'Azyr, or fasciculus thalamomammillaris

3 Hypophysis

Hypophysis cerebri, pituitary body or somatic brain

Tuber or tuber cinereum Infundibulum-

4 Optic tract Optic chiasm or commissure

5 Epithalamus Pinea, pineal body, conarium or epi-
physis Habenula, habena, or pedunculus conarii

6 Geniculate bodies, or geniculum Metathalamus

7 Thalamus or optic thalamus

Thalamic radiation: ansa peduncularis, ansa lenticularis
For Nissl's bodies see 61 1. 01882

8 Third ventricle, or diacele

Porta or foramen of Monro, or foramen interventriculare

.815 Mesencephalon, midbrain or mesencefal

4 Pedunculi or crura cerebri, crura or crus

41 Substantia nigra (Sommering) or intercalatum

42 Foot of peduncle, basis or pes pedunculi, or crusta

43 Tegmentum

4.1 Red nucleus, nucleus ruber, or rubrum

5 Nuclei of oculomoto and trochlear nervs

6 Aqueduct of Sylvius, aqueductus cerebri, or mesocele
.816 Isthmus rhombencephali

3 Valv of Vieussens, or superior medullary velum

/y Superior cerebellar peduncles

Prepeduncles, brachium coniunctivum cerebelli, or crura ad cerebrum

h Lemniscus: mesial and lateral fillets

medicin: anatomy

611.817 Metencephalon or epencephalon, epencefal or hindbrain

Pons (Varolii)
1 Cerebellum

xx Lobes, fissures, valv of Tarinus, velum medullare posterius, or kilos

13 Cerebellar centers of gray matter Nuclei olivaris superiores: roof

nuclei, dentate nuclei, dentatum, etc.
15 White substance of cerebellum Arbor vitae

3 Pons Varolii Tegument For reticula see 6n.8aa6

4 Nuclei of trigeminus system

41 Nucleus motorius or motor nucleus of 5th nerv

43 Nucleus of spinal tract or sensory nucleus of 5th nerv

5 Nucleus or nidus of abducent nerv

6 " " " " facial nerv

68 Salivary nucleus

7 Cochlear nidi or nucleus of cochlear nerv

Ventral root of 8th nerv

76 Trapezium or trapezoid body

77 Nucleus of superior olivary body

78 Acoustic striae, striae acusticae or medullares

8 Vestibular nidi or nucleus of vestibular nerv

Dorsal root of 8th nerv

.818 Myelencephalon, medulla, bulb or afterbrain,

postoblongata or medulla oblongata

1 Pyramids Pyramidal decussation

2 Dorsal colum, posterior fibers, or funiculi dorsales
Arcuate fibers Restis or restiform body

Fasciculus of Rolando, cuneatus and gracilis

3 Lateral fibers Oliva or olivary bodies

Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateralis;
anterolateral cerebellar tract or fasciculus anterolateralis super-
ficialis

4 Interolivary stratum, fillet or lemniscus

5 Fourth ventricle or metepicele

Metapore or foramen of Magendie Foramina of Luschka, Key
and Retzius Obex Lingula Calamus scriptorius

6 . Nucleus of glossopharyngeal system Solitary tract

7 Nuclei of vagus and accessory nervs

75 Ambiguous nucleus

78 Dorsal nucleus of vagus

9 Nucleus of hypoglossal system or hypoglossal nidus
.819 Meninges and cerebral meninges

1 Pia mater or pia

2 Telae choroideae, velum interpositum, choroid plexus

3 Arachnoid villi

Glandulae Pacchioni, Luschka's villi or granulations

4 Cisterns, or subarachnoid cisterns

5 Dura mater, or dura Tentorium and falx cerebelli
Falx cerebri

DEI I MA L CLASIFI CATION

611.82 Spinal cord, or my el

.821 Enlargements or intumescentia ; general structure

j Cervical cord or myel, pars cervicalis

3 Thoracic or dorsal cord or myel, pars thoracalis

4 Lumbar cord or myel, pars lumbaris

5 Sacral cord

6 Terminal cone, or conus (medullaris) Filum Cauda (equina)
8 Grooves and fissures, sulci and fissurae

.822 Gray substance or matter, entocinerea or cinerea Gray

cornua or colum

1 Anterior or ventral colum or cornu or funiculus anterior

1 Posterior or dorsal " " "

3 Clarke's colum, nucleus dorsalis or Stilling's nuclei

4 Gelatinosa or gelatinous matter, substantia cinerea geiatinosa Sub-
stantia spongiosa

6 Reticula or formatio reticularis

.823

.824 White substance, or alba

.825 Anterolateral colum

Anterior plus lateral colums

2 Pyramidal tract or bundle or fasciculus cerebrospinal!*

Direct or uncrost tract, fasciculus cerebrospinalis anterior, or

fasciculus

Crost pyramidal tract, or cerebrospinalis lateralis

3 Direct cerebellar tract, or dorsolateral cerebellar tract

4 Gower's tract, cerebellar path of anterior funiculus, or fasciculus
anterolateralis superficial ascendens or anterolateral ascending
cerebellar tract

5 Fasciculus sulcomarginalis, or marginal tract of Spitzka and Lissauer

6 Lateral colum or anterolateral descending cerebellar tract or colum
of Marchi and Lowenthal

7 Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateralis

8 Anterior or ventral commissure

.826 Posterior or dorsal colums

1 Ascending fibers

Tracts of Burdach (posterolateral or cuneatus) and of Goll
(posteromedian or gracilis) and fasciculus of Rolando

5 Descending fibers Comma tract in Burdach's colum

5 Posterior or dorsal commissure

.827 Roots of nervs

Works tracing nerv roots into spinal cord; for microscopic studies on

nerv roots see 611.832
r Anterior or ventral roots

a Posterior " dorsal "

.828 Spinal canal Ependyma or endyma

Rhomboidal sinus Reissner's fibers

.829 Spinal membranes, or meninges spinales

1 Spinal pia mater

3 " arachnoid

5 " dura mater

medicin: anatomy

611.83 Periferal nervous system Nervs

.831 Cranial nervs and ganglia

1 Olfactory, or 1st cranial

a Optic, or 2d cranial

3 Motoroculi, 3d cranial or oculomoto

4 Trochlear, pathetic, or 4th cranial

5 Trifacial, trigeminus, or 5th cranial

i^arge or great superficial petrosal branch

51 Ofthalmic nerv of Willis

54 Superior maxillary nerv or maxillary nerv

542 Infraorbital branch

56 Mandibular or inferior maxillary

6 Abducent, external motoroculi, oculomoto, or 6th cranial

7 Facial, 7th cranial nerv, or portio dura

73 Other collateral branches

74 Terminal branches

75 Pars intermedia of Wrisberg (nervus intermedius) Chorda tympanl

8 Auditory, acoustic or 8th nerv

81 Cochlear nerv or path, or central auditory path

85 Vestibular path or nerv

9 Glossopharyngeal or 9th nerv

91 Pneumogastric, vagus or 10th nerv

git Parietal branches: auricular and lateral nerv*

914 Pharyngeal branches

915 Superior cardiac nervs
9:6 Superior laryngeal nerv

917 Inferior or recurrent laryngeal nerv

918 Pulmonary branches

919 Esofageal and gastric branches
9a Spinal accessory or nth nerv
93 Hypoglossal or 12th nerv

.832 Spinal nervs

1 Dorsal or posterior blanches

1 Ventral or anterior "

.833 Cervical nervs

I Dorsal or posterior branches of cervical nervs Small and large sub.

occipital nervs

* Vtntral anterior branches of cervical nervs

3 Cervical plexus

32 Large auricular nerv

33 Cutaneous nerv of neck

34 Supraclavicular nervs

3d Frenic or internal respiratory nerv of Bell

4 Brachial plexus

41 Supraclavicular part

47 Infraclavicular part

5 Median nerv

6 Ulnar or cubital nerv

Musculo-spiral

8 Musculocutaneous nerv

9 Antibrachii ulnaris

Cutaneus brachii medialis, or nerv of Wrisberg

.834 Thoracic nervs

1 Posterior branches

■ Anterior " Intercostal nerve

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

611.835 Lumbar and sacral nervs

1 Posterior branches

2 Anterior "

3 Lumbosacral plexuses

4 Lumbar plexus

41 Great iliohypogastric nerv

43 Ilioinguinal

43 Genitofemoral or genitocrural

44 Lateral or cutaneous nerv of thigh

5 Femoral nerv or anterior crural nerv (femoralis)
5 1 Middle cutaneous nerv

5 a Internal " "

53 Muscular branches of posterior division of anterior crural ntrv

54 Long or internal saphenous nerv

6 Obturator nerv

61 Accessory obturator, or accessory anterior crural nerv of Winilow

68 Lumbosacral cord

7 Sacral or sciatic plexus

71 Superior gluteal

72 Inferior "

73 Small sciatic nerv (cutaneus femoris posterior)

8 Great sciatic nerv or ischiadicus

81 External popliteal, or peronaeus communis or peroneal

8a Sural or lateral cutaneous branch, or cutaneus surae lateralis

84 Musculocutaneous or superficial peroneal

86 Anterior tibial nerv or deep peroneal

87 Internal popliteal or tibial

88 Sural or plantar nervs

9 Genital, pudic or pudendal plexus
93 Collateral branches

95 Pudic nerv

.836 Coccygeal plexus Coccygeal nervs

.839 Sympathetic system

1 Cervical and cephalic part

11 Superior cervical ganglion

1 2 Internal carotid nerv and plexus

Cavernous plexus

13 External carotid nerv and plexus

14 Common " plexus Superior cardiac nerv

1 5 Middle " ganglion Middle " "

16 Inferior cervical "

17 " cardiac nerv Cardiac plexus

2 Thoracic part of gangliated cord

3 Abdominal and pelvic part of sympathetic system

31 Solar or epigastric plexus or plexus coeliacus

.84 Eye Organ of vision

.841 Fibrous coats or tunics of eye

1 Conjunctiva

3 Cornea

5 Sclerotic coat or sclera

Canal of Schlemm Spaces of Fontana

.842 Vascular coats of eye Uveal tract

1 Iris Pupil

3 Choroid

Tapetum

5 Ciliary body, muscle and processes

.843 Retina

Optic disc; macula lutea For optic nerv see 611.831c

medicin: anatomy

611.844 Refracting media

1 Crystallin lens

1 Zonule of Zinn or zonula ciliaris

7 Vitreous humor Posterior chamber

Hyaloid membrane Hyaloid or Stilling's or Cloquet's canal

Canal of Petit
9 Aqueous humor Anterior chamber

.846 Accessory organs of eye

1 External muscles, musculi oculi

4 Tear apparatus

7 Lacrimal gland

g " canals and puncta

9 " sac and nasal duct

.847 Eyelids or palpebrae

Canthi

5 Eyelashes or cilia

6 Eyebrows or supercilia

.85 Ear Organ of hearing

.851 Internal ear

.852 Membranous labyrinth

1 Cochlea, scala media, or ductus cochlearis

a Organ of Corti, or Corti's fibers

4 Saccule

5 Utricle

6 Semicircular canals

.853 Osseous labyrinth

Vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, modiolus or columella

.854 Middle ear or tympanum

Atrium or tympanic cavity proper
\$ Attic

7 Mastoid cells

855 . Membrana tympani, or drumhed

.856 Eustachian tube or tuba auditiva

.857 Bones of ear

Malleus or hammer; incus or anvil; stapes or stirrup; muscles o(
tympanum, stapedius and tensor tympani

.858 External ear

Meatus, pinna

.86 Organs of smell; olfactory organs
.87 " " taste

.88 " touch and senses in general

889 Organa lateralia

.89 Ganglions

Class ganglions here if separately treated

.801 Cranial ganglions

S Semilunar ganglion or Gasserian

53 Ciliary "

54 Sphenopalatin or Meckel's ganglion

56 Otic or Arnold's submaxillary ganglion

7 Geniculate ganglion

81 Spiral or Corti's ganglion

85 Vestibular ganglion

9 Petrosal and superior glossopharyngeal ganglion

91 Jugular and nodose ganglions

.893 Ganglions of spinal nervs

.899 Sympathetic ganglions

For chromaffin tissue see 61 1.4

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

1.9 Regional anatomy

.91 Hed

.92 Face

.93 Neck

.94 Thorax

.942 Front or pectoral

.946 Back or dorsal

.95 Abdomen

.951 Epigastric region

.955 Mesogastric "

.957 Hypogastric "

.959 Lumbar "

.96 Pelvic and perineal region

.962 True pelvis

.964 False "

1 Inlet 2 Cavity 3 Outlet

.966 Position and size

.968 Difference between male and female pelvis

.97 Upper extremities

.971 Shoulder or axilla

.972 Arm

.973 Elbow

.974 Forearm

•975 Wrist

.976 Hand

.977 Fingers

.98 Lower extremities

.981 Hip Nates Sulcus ingu/aalis

1 Hip

a Nates

3 Sulcus inguinalis

4 Inguinal canal

5 Cmral or femoral canal

.982 Thigh

.983 Knee Popliteal space

.984 Leg

.985 Ankle

.986 Foot

.987 Toes

.99 Toil

medicin: physiology

612 Physiology

SUMMARY

612.013 Vitalism

.014 Cells and organisms

.015 Physiologic chemistry

.1 Blood and circulatory -.ystem

.j Respiration

.3 Digestion

.4 Glandular system

.5 Animal heat

.6 Reproduction Development
.7 Motor and vocal apparatus
.8 Nervous system
.ox General theory of physiology

.0111 Notion, definition, nature

.0113 Classification, division

.0114 Terminology, notation, symbols

.0118 Methods

.012 Physiologic theories and generalities

.013 On the nature of life and deth Vitalism

This place is provided for the physiologist who prefers to keep related
topics with his subjects. Usually the heds under this number are
better clast in their broader relations; i. e. see 577.3 for the nature
of life; 577.7 for the nature of deth; 613.67 for deth as a stage in
vital history
I Signs of real deth See 577.7

I Experiments on executed persons

4 Tneories of life and the soul Vitalism

See metaphysics, 128

5 Comparisons of animals and plants See 577.5

6 Organism and inanimate matter See 577.1

7 Vital energy See 577.6

8 Experiments on surviving organs See 577.6

.014 General physiology of cells and organisms

See 576 and note under 613.013

1 Chemistry of cells

II Aerobic and anaerobic cells

2 Physiologic morfology of cells

3i Functions of protoplasm
22 " " nucleus

24 " " chromosome bodies Chromatolyslg

26 " " centrosome

3 Physiologic characteristics of cells

31 Irritability in general

33 Fatigue

4 Influence of environment on cells and organisms
Mesology

41 Effects of barometric pressure

42 Action of electricity Electrophysiology

421 Electrophysiologic technic

3 Static electricity

4 Dynamic electricity
f Alternating currents

7 Electric mesurements

8 Special instruments

1 Electrodes 3 Telefone microfone 6 Galvanometers
411 Electric resistance Conductibility

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Electric fenomena of organisms

For electric fenomena of muscles see 613.743, of nervs and muscle*

see 612.813
Theory of electric fenomena
Negativ variation
Electro tonus

Electric fenomena of tissues in repose and in action
Action of electricity on organisms

Everything concerning effect of electricity on function rmy be clait
here by adding and dividing like 612; e. g. action of electricity on
red corpuscles 61 2.01442401 1 1, as .111 is the lubdivinon of 612
meaning red corpuscles. Action of electricity on bilj 61 2.0144240357,
as .357 means bile

Action of static electricity

* * atmosferic "
" " dynamic "

* " alternating currents
Deth by electric shock; by lightning
Magnetic action
Galvanotropism

Electrotherapy from physiologic point of view

Fosforescence ,
Heliotropism Fototropism
Action of sound and its vibrations

Poisons and chemic substances

Poisons and definit chemic substances ar preferably clast in 6157.
general toxicology in 615.9. This number is for topics of special physi-
ologic interest
Effects of water

Reviviscent animals
Hydrations

Quantity of water in organisms and tissues
Physicochemic forces
Osmosis

Molecular concentration in organic fluids Crvoscopy

Subdivisible with o like 612; e. g. Cryoscopy of gastric juice
612.0144622032

Relation between secretion and osmotic pressure

Relation between osmosis and electric action : ions

Colloid substances: coagulation, agglutination, etc.

Reaction, acid or alkalin

Viscosity

Superficial tension
Other physicochemic forces
Action of mineral salts on organisms

" " air, normal and abnormal; of oxygen and ozone
" " anesthetics
" " antiseptics
Chemotaxis Chemotropisra
Action of other chemic forces
Action of mechanical forces
Geotropism
Thigmotaxis
Other physical forces
Various rays

Physiologic effect of X rays

To express effect of X rays on a specific organ or tissue, ad o and
subdivide like 612; e.g. effect of X rays on sight 612. 014481 1084
Effect on lower organisms
Effect of radioactiv substances; Becquerel rays
Production and action of N rays

medicin: THYSIOLOGY

612.015 Physiologic chemistry in general

1 Ferments

11 Oxydants Reducing ferments

12 Hydro lytic

13 Proteolytic

14 Lipolytic

15 Amylolytic and sucroclastic

16 Glycolytic
161 Alcoholic

2 Normal composition of the body and its products

21 Extracts of organs

3 Metabolism

31 Of mineral substances

32 Of carbon

33 Of nitrogen

34 Of substances foren to the normal organism

Elimination of poisons

Most material will be clast under 615.7 and its subdivisions

346 Metabolism of nonnitrogenous substances

347 " crystallizable nitrogenous substances

348 " albuminoids

349 after deth Autolysis

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. autolysis of the liver
612 01334903s

35 • Influence of temperature on metabolism

36 Reductions, hydrations and syntheses in organisms

37 Influence of other agents on metabolism

38 Influence of nervous system on metabolism

39 Metabolism in disease

4 Staining substances and pigments

.016 Means of attack and defense

Comparativ physiology; usually better clast in 591.57

1 Autotomy

2 Mimicry

1 Physiology of parasites

.019 Comparativ physiology

May be subdivided like 590 to signify kind of animal; e. g. Reptils
being 598.1, comparison of reptil and human physiology 13612.01981
Class here only books written distinctly from physiologist's point
of view. Other works en comparativ zoology are better in 591.1
Form divisions

.oa Compends

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias

.05 Periodicals

.06 Societies Clubs

.07 Study and teaching

.072 Vivisection

.08 Polygrafy
.09 History

DECIMAL CLASH"! CAT iON

6 1 2. i Blood and circulatory system

.109 History of circulation of blood

. 1 1 General properties of blood
.111 Red corpuscles

I Chemic composition

II Hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

14 Carboxyhemoglobin

Action of CO on blood, carbon monoxid hemoglobin

15 Spectroscopy of blood

16 Methemoglobin and derivates

Hematin or hematoxylin, hematoidin, globin, hemin or Teich-
mann's crystals, hematochromogen, hcmatoporphyrin

17 Isotony of corpuscles Osmotic permeability
19 Chemic substances in corpuscles

Lecithin, urea, cholesterin, etc.

3 Number of corpuscles

Technic of counting
ai Volume of corpuscles

3 Formation of corpuscles

4 Action of poisons on corpuscles

See also 61 2. 1 1 1 14 Action of CO on blood

44 Agglutinating substances

45 Hemolytic substances

6 Corpuscles in disease

7 Other red corpuscles than erythrocytes

8 Coloring matters of invertebrate blood

e. g. hemocyanin

9 Other similar coloring matters

e. g. chlorophyl and derivate-.: pY.-llocrythrin

.112 Leucocytes and ameboid cells

1 Chemistry of leucocytes

1 1 Ferments of leucocytes

Influence of leucocytes (lymphocytes) on digestion

2 Movements and irritability of leucocytes

3 Phagocytosis

4 Diapedesis

5 Effect on coagulation of blood

6 In disease and intoxications Leucocytosis

For digestiv leucocytosis see 6n.mii

7 Counting and its technic

8 Numeric relations of white and red corpuscles

9 Varieties Physiologic morfology
.113 Arterial blood

.114 Venous "

.115 Coagulation of blood

I Fibrin Fibrinoplastin

II Composition and chemic properties

u Fibrogenous and fibrinoplastic ferments Fibrinogen Thrombin

ij Estimating quantity of fibrin

3 Substances modifying coagulation

\$1 Retarding agents

if Accelerating agents

medicin: physiology

612.116 Total quantity of blood

a Hemorrhage Anemia

Subdi visable with o like 61 a; e. g. physiologic Influence of anemia
on kidneys 612.1162046 For pathologic etiect aee 616.343,
618.54

iz Hemostasia

3 Transfusion

Effect on system receiving transfused blood

.118 Physical and biologic properties of blood

1 Physical

11 Osmotic pressure

1 1 Effect of various injections

14 Viscosity
ij Cryoscopy of blood

Method of studying isotony and similar phenomena by relativ

freezing points of solutions

2 Biologic properties

• 1 Toxins and antitoxins

Physiologic effect For chemic action see 61 j jgH May
be used for those not produced by the blood, e. g. cytotoxtns
an Theory of toxic and antitoxic action

aa Toxic and antitoxic action of blood

an Specific reaction of blood and albuminoids

Blood in legal medicin
aaa Natural immunity

a 23 Effect of blood on bacteria

Class here physiologic aspect of opsonic theory, opsonins and
14 Various toxic and antitoxic substances of blood

7 Varieties of blood in different parts of body

.119 Hematopoiesis or sanguification

.ia Chemic properties of blood
.121 Reaction and density

Color reaction Specific gravity

.122 Carbohydrates in blood

x Glucose a Glycogen 3 Glycolytic ferments

.123 Fats, lipoids, cholesterin, saponin, glycerin

.124 Albumins and albuminoids Uncrystallizable nitrogen

compounds

.125 Crystallizable nitrogen compounds

1 Staining substances of serum

.126 Mineral salts

.127 Blood gases

1 Technic for determining quantity a Oxygen 3 Carbonic acid.

.128 Ferments

.129 Other chemic substances

Abnormal substances

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.13 Hydraulic principles of circulation
.133 Arterial circulation

Sounds and murmurs

.134 Venous circulation

1 Air in the veins

2 Venous pulse Flebogram
.135 Capillary circulation

.14 Blood pressure

.141 Technic of mesuring pressure

Sphygmograf Sphygmomanometry

.143 Pressure in arteries

.144 Pressure in veins

.145 Pressure in capillaries

.146 Influence of various agents on pressure

1 Influence of respiration Asphyxia

2 Effect of drugs and organic extracts

3 Pressure in disease

.148 Pressure in lesser or pulmonary circulation

.15 Rapidity of circulation

In arteries, veins or capillaries Technic of mesuring

.16 Pulse

For dicrotic pulse see 616.0751 Pulse in diagnosis

.166 Pulse in disease

. 1 7 Hart

.171 Mechanism of cardiac contraction

Impulse or apex beat Change of volume and position of beating
hart Systole Diastole

i Technic of cardiac contraction Cardiografy

3 Valvs System of valv closure

5 Hart sounds

56 " " in disease

7 Action of abnormal hart: misplaced or malformd

.172 Hart as a muscle

Cardiac irritability, contractibility and physiologic morfology

1 Action of blood and coronary arteries Cardiac
anemia

2 Rhythm Excitation wave Frequency of beats

3 Electric stimulation of hart and refractory period

4 Electromotiv force

5 Surviving hart Artificial respiration

Solutions maintaining beat of hart

6 Physiologic morfology

61 Conduction of stimulation

medicin: physiology

612.173 Work of the hart

Chemic, dynamic and thermic fcnomena

1 Chemic composition of hart

2 Intracardiac pressure

.174 Effect of toxins on the hart

1 Atropin

2 Anesthetics

.176 Hart in disease

.178 Innervation of hart

1 Pneumogastric or vagus

2 Sympathetic

3 Ganglions of hart

4 Action of cerebrum

5 Action of medulla oblongata

6 Cardiac syncopes and reflexes

7 Depressor nerv
.179 Prenatal circulation
. 1 8 Vasomotors

.181 Action of nervs and nerv centers on bloodvessels

1 Action of cerebrum

2 " " medulla oblongata

3 " " spinal cord

4 " " great sympathetic

.182 Influence of vasomotors on arterial pressure

.183 Vasoconstrictors

.184 Vasodilators

.185 Effect of poisons on vasomotors

.186 Vasomotors in disease

.187 Vasomotors in organs

Divide like 612 Physiology; e. g.

613.18724 Effect of vasomotors on lung capacity
612.1878431 Effect of vasomotors on iris
612.1875 Influence of vasomotors on temperature
612.187556 Vasomotors in fever

.188 Erectil tissues

.189 Change of volume of organs

Plethysmografy Quantity of blood in various organs

.19 Action of special organs on circulation
.2 Respiration

. 2 1 Respiratory movements Mechanics of respira-
tion

.211 Pneumografy Respiratory types

\ Respiratory excursion

.212 Pulmonary elasticity and intrapleural pressure

Intrapulmonary and intrathoracic respirations

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.213 Influence of respiration on circulation

.215 Special physiology of respiratory apparatus

1 Bronchi

2 Trachea

3 Smooth pulmonary muscles

4 Primary paths of respiration : nose and pharynx

5 Pleura

8 Pulmonary circulation

9 Pulmonary absorption of liquids

.216 Respiratory frequency and rhythm

1 Respiratory sounds

2 Pulmonary ventilation

3 Artificial respiration, artificial changes of respiration
.217 Action of muscles Mechanical fenomena .

Dimensions and expansibility of thorax

i Action of diafram

.219 Other mechanical fenomena

Modified respiratory acts: snoring, laughing, crying, sighing, yawning,
coughing, hawking, sneezing, blowing nose, gargling

.22 Respiratory exchange of gases Respiratory
chemistry

02 Action of oxygen and ozone on organisms

08 Composition of normal air (only in its physiologic bearing)

.221 Technic of gaseous exchange

.222 Effect of various agents on gaseous exchange

.223 Effect of quality of air

Hyperpnea, polypnea, thermopnea

1 Composition of abnormal air

11 Carbonic acid

ia Activ oxygen or ozone

2 Influence of barometric pressure

See 612.27

3 Influence of climate
.224 Influence of food

.225 " " temperature

.226 Effect of disease and intoxications

.227 Influence of organs

1 Influence ot muscular movements

Motion, rest, work

2 Influence of nervous system

3 " " circulation
.229 Influence of animal kind

Variability of gaseous exchange in animal kinds

1 Influence of stature

2 Aquatic animals

medicin: physiology

612.23 Gaseous exchange in the blood
.231 Expired air Respiratory quotient

.232 Asphyxiation

In legal medicin

1 Artificial respiration in asphyxiation

2 Asphyxiation by submersion

3 Hart in asphyxiation

4 Toxic action of carbonic acid (CO2)
.233 Respiration in confined air

.234 Toxic action of carbonous oxid (CO)

.235 Exchange of gases between air and blood

1 Theory

.24 Lung capacity Vital capacity

Residual, reserv, respiratory or tidal and complementa! air

25 Exhalation of water from lungs

26 Internal or tissue respiration

.261 Exchange of gases between tissues and blood

.262 Accumulation of oxygen in tissues (cells)

.27 Influence of barometric pressure on living beings

of carbonic acid see 612.2232

.273 Toxic effects of oxygen and ozone

.274 Effect of more than normal pressure

Physiologic aspect of caisson disease

.275 Effect of less than normal pressure

I Physiologic and therapeutic effects of high altitudes

II Mountain and aeronautic sickness

.276 Effect ot pressure on fermentations

Effect of removing pressure

.279 Maximum pressures

Effect on aquatic animals

.28 Respiratory centers

Influence of nervous system on respiration

.281 Action of cerebrum and of will

.282 " " medulla oblongata and vagus nucleus

.283 " " spinal cord

.284 " " chemic substances and abnormal blood gases

1 Toxicology of center

2 Apnea, acapnea, dyspnea

.287 Action of pneumogastric or vagus nervs

.288 Respiratory reflexes

.29 Influence of other organs on respiration

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.3 Digestion

May be subdivided by 01-09 for form, if needed

.31 Mouth Teeth Salivary glands

.311 Mastication and prehension

1 Physiology of teeth

.312 Deglutition or swallowing

2 Tonsils 3 Tung

.313 Salivary glands Saliva

1 Composition of normal saliva

2 Action of saliva on food Ptyalin

3 Salivary secretion

j i Toxic effect of saliva

4 Action of chemic substances

41 Elimination

41 Action of atropin and of pilocarpin

5 Physiologic morfology

6 Pathologic changes of saliva

61 Salivary fistulas

63 Bacteriology

64 Salivary calculi

69 Abnormal substances

8 Action of nervous system on salivary secretion

8a Action of sympathetic nervs

87 Action of chorda tympani

.314 Salivary venoms and venoms in general

1 Chemic composition

2 Toxic action

3 Natural immunity and resistance to venoms

4 Attenuation and neutralization of venoms

5 Treatment of venom poisoning Serotherapy

See 615.94 Duplicated here for physiologist only
5: Antitoxins

.315 Esofagus

.32 Stomach Gastric juice Vomiting

.321 Normal composition of gastric juice

1 Gastric fistulas, experimental and pathologic

2 Determination of acid in gastric juice

5 Proteolytic ferments: pepsin

6 Milk curdling ferments, inorganic and organic
.322 Digestiv power of gastric juice

1 Starch and analogs

2 Sugars " "

3 Fats

4 Albuminoids

45 Nature and properties of peptone*

5 Antiputrefactiv properties of gastric juice

6 Mixture of bile or other secretions of digestiv tract
and gastric juice

medicin: physiology

612.3227 Absorption in stomach and transformation (into

mucus) of products of digestion

73 Absorption and transformation of sugars

73 ■..■«•■ f ats

74 " nitrogenous substances (peptones)
7 5 " " salts Effect on stomach

.323 Stomach secretion

2 Formation and destruction of pepsin

ai Pepsin in urin

3 Formation of hydrochloric acid (HC1)

4 Autodigestion of stomach

5 Effects of removing stomach

.324 Action of chemic substances (poisons) on gastric secre-
tion and their elimination

.325 Physiologic morfology of stomach

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation

.326 Pathologic changes of stomach secretion

3 Bacteriology

5 Gastric juice in disease

9 Abnormal substances in gastric iuice

.327 Movements of stomach

1 Muscular irritability of stomacn

3 Evacuation of stomach

5 Merycism and rumination

7 Vomiting

8 Action of emetics or vomitories

.328 Action of nervous system on stomach

1 Psychic influence on stomach secretions

8 Sensibility of stomach

.33 Intestin

Middle intestin and glands of middle intestin in invertebrates

.331 Normal composition of intestinal juice

1 Intestinal fistulas, experimental and pathologic

7 Intestinal gases Fermentiv process due to bacteria

.332 Intestinal digestion

2 Carbohydrates

3 Fats

4 Albuminoids and derivates Erepsin

7 Absorption and changes of food in intestin

73 Carbohydrates

74 Albuminoid derivates

75 Other substances

751 Inorganic substances Water and salts

8 Action of intestinal juice on other secretions and
ferments

•4 Enterokinasis and secretin

DECIMAL CLAS1FICATION

612.333 Intestinal secretion

.334 Action of chemic substances on the intestin and their

elimination

4 Purgativs

•335 Physiologic morfology of intestin

5 Intestinal circulation

.336 Pathologic changes of intestinal secretion

3 Parasites and microbes

31 Bacterial fermentation Physiologic effect of microbes

.337 Movements of intestin

1 Movement of chyme in intestin

.338 Action of nervous system on intestin

1 Action of nervs and nerv centers on secretion

•339 Peritoneum Omentum

1 Absorption in peritoneum

.34 Pancreas Pancreatic juice

.341 Normal composition of pancreatic juice

1 Pancreatic fistulas

.342 Action of pancreatic juice on food Tryptic digestion

1 Starches and analogs

2 Sugars

3 Fats Steapsin or ptyalin

4 Albuminoids Trypsinogen Trypsin

5 Effect on other digestiv fenomena

51 On bile and gastric juice

•343 Pancreatic secretion

.344 Action of special substances on pancreatic secretion and

juice

.345 Physiologic morfology

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation

.346 Pathologic changes of pancreatic juice

.348 Action of nervous system on pancreas

.349 Pancreas as an internal gland Hands of Langerhans

1 Pancreatic glycosuria

diseases 616.63, where most material belongs

•35 Liver

.351 Hepatic circulation and chemic composition

I Chemic composition

I I Ferments

5 Hepatic circulation

51 Ligature of portal vein

6 Effect of extracts from hepatic tissue

«l Hepatic opotherapy

medicin: physiology

612.35a Effect of liver on absorbd foods

I Glycogenesis Glycogen of liver and its tissues

II Determination of amount of sugar and glycogen: technic

13 Action of nervs on glycogenic function Experimental diabetaa

14 Fermentation of glycogen Glycogenolysis

16 Glycosuria (diabetes) in general

17 Glycogen of other organs

19 Relations between glycogenesis and alimentation

.353 Hepatic chemic fenomena

•354 Action of poisons on liver

1 Toxic steatoses

2 Antitoxic action of liver

•355 Temperature of liver s ee also 612.563

.356 Hematopoietic function of liver and effect on blood

.357 Bile

1 Normal composition of bile

11 Biliary fistulas

13 Coloring matter Bile pigments

Bilirubin, biliverdin For origin see 33 below

14 Mineral salts

13 Biliary acids and their salts

Glycocholic and taurocholic acida

2 Action of bile in the intestin

Final fate of bile

3 Bile secretion

31 Quantity

3* Origin of bile acids

33 " " " pigments

4 Action of chemic substances on bile secretion

5 Elimination of poisons by bile

6 Pathologic physiology of bile

For general works and medical aspect see 616.36

64 Biliary calculi

65 Obliteration of bile ducts Icterus Jaundis Cholemia

66 Bile in disease

67 Toxic effects of bile

69 Abnormal biliary substances

7 Biliary excretion Physiology of ducts

73 Absorption in biliary ducts

73 Contractility of ducts

8 Innervation of bile ducts
.358 Action of nervous system on liver

•359 Ablation, regeneration, cicatrization and other mor-

fologic fenomena

1 Volume of liver

2 Fatty or starchy degeneration

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.36 Defecation Large intestin

Proctodeum and its appendages in invertebrates

.361 Chemic composition of excrements

.363 Cecal digestion Vermiform appendix

.364 Absorption in large intestin

.365 Defecation

.366 Rectum

.367 Movements of large intestin

.368 Innervation " " "

.38 Absorption

.381 Imbibition Transudations and exudations Edema

1 Dialysis of mineral salts

2 " " sugars

4 " " albuminoids

.383 Diffusion
.384 Absorption by skin

.385 Absorption by lungs

.386 Absorption in digestiv tract

.387 Absorption by mucous and serous membranes

.388 Parenchymatous absorption

Absorption by cellular tissue (after injection)

.39 Nutrition Metabolism

.391 Hunger Thirst Inanition

3 Hunger, thirst and nervous centers Mechanical
action of hunger

4 Inanition in man

6 " " disease

9 " " animals

92 Inanition in poikilotbermic animals

96 " " homoiothermic "

.392 Foods

1 Assimilation of carbon

2 " " nitrogen

3 Assimilation of water

4 " of sulfur, fosforus and iron

3 Sulfur 4 Fosforus s Iron

5 Thermodynamic value of food

6 Mineral foods

1 Sodium salts 3 Potassium salts 3 Calcium salts

7 Vegetable foods

While the strictest vegetarians confine themselvs to a purely vegetable
diet, the majority use some forms of animal food, e. g. milk, butter and

egs

73 Fruits and fresh vegetables

73 Cereals

74 Bred

medicin: physiology

612.3928 Animal food

81 Meats

8a Soup Meat extracts

83 Egs

84 Milk

841 Sterilization and artificial changes in milk

8s Cheese

86 Butter

9 Special artificial foods

•393 Condiments and stimulants

1 Alcohol as food Fermented drinks

2 Coffee Tea

9 Condiments

.394 Ration or food requirement during growth

2 Of man Nourishment of newborn

3 " animals

.395 Ration or food requirement of adults

1 "Working ration Normal ration

1 j Working ration for man

13 " " " animals

2 Subsistence ration

33 Subsistence ration for man

23 " " " animals

5 Relations of ration to external conditions,
e. g. climate

6 Food requirements in disease
.396 Carbohydrates

1 Chemic composition

11 Polysaccharids

in Starch Inulin

113 Glycogen

113 Cellulose

12 Gums and analogs: dextrin

13 Monosaccharids: glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, etc.

14 Disaccharids: sugar, lactose, maltose, etc.
17 Combined carbohydrates

See 612.3981453 Glycoproteids

17a Chitin

175 Glycosids: amygdalin, salicin, phlorizin, saponin, etc.

19 Other carbohydrates: pentose, inusitum

2 Changes of sugars in organism Glycolysis

2i Products of carbohydrates; e. g. glycuronic acid

32 Alcohol in tissues

3 Hydrolytic ferments of carbohydrates and analogs

31 Amylasis, inulasis, cytasis, etc.

3a Saccharoclastic ferments Inversion

4 Formation of carbohydrates in organism

5 Thermodynamic value of carbohydrates

7 Quantity of carbohydrates in foods and tissues

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.397 Fats

1 Chemic composition

2 Changes of fats in organism

11 Fatty degeneration and infiltration See alto 612.3592

ss Products of fats

aj Acids

•4 Glycerins

3 Lipolytic ferments

4 Formation of fats

5 Thermodynamic value

7 Quantity of fat in food and tissues Adiposity

8 Lipoids

81 Cholesterin
8a Lecithin

.398 Albuminoids and nitrogenous substances

1 Chemic composition

11 Composit albuminoids

1* Blood serum and other serous fluids of body

13 Simple albuminoids
131 Albumin

133 Globulins: fibrinogenic and fibrinoplastic substances, myosin, etc.

133 Coagulated albuminoids Fibrin Coagulation of albuminoids

135 Albuminoids as acids or bases

136 Nucleoalbumins, simple phosphorated albuminoids

138 Protamins

139 Other albumins

14 Other albuminoids

145 Proteids

Albumin + a complex organic compound
1 Nucleoproteids

Albumin + nucleic acid, products of nucleic acid and specific
ferments

a Hemoglobin and analogs

i Glycoproteids

146 Albuminoids: glutin, elastin, amyloid, etc.

15 Vegetable albuminoids

16 Albuminoid products and nitrogen compounds

17 Albuminoses and peptones
171 Thermodynamic value

175 Changes of substances derived from albuminoids by digestion

19 Products of complete change of albuminoids Nitrogen compounds

193 Amidic acids

194 Ammonia and ammonia compounds

195 Bases (alkaloids), purin compounds

196 Aromatic compounds

197 Nonnitrogenous products of albuminoids
199 Other products

2 Changes of albuminoids in organism

3 Proteolytic ferments

Only general works See specific nitrogen compounds for their
derivates, ferments and properties For milk curdling ferments
see 613.3316 and 613.664171

5 Thermodynamic value of albumins and derivates

Albumin as food

medicin: physiology

612.3986 Formation of albuminoids in general

7 Quantity of albuminoids in food and tissues

8 Toxins, antitoxins Chemistry of poisons

For action, see 612.11821; for animal poisons, see 612.314; /or
ptomains, Ieucomains. etc. se* 612.39819s above

.4 Glandular system Secretion Excretion

.401 Effect of circulation on glands

.40a " " glands " circulation and blood

.403 " " " " nutrition

.404 " " nutrition " glands

.405 Physics and chemistry of secretion

.407 Effect of glands on nervous system

.408 " " nervous system on glands

.409 Physiologic morfology of secretions and glandular epitheliumi

.41 Spleen

.411 Hematopoietic action Effect of spleen on blood

.412 Splenotomy Circulation in spleen

.413 Contractility of spleen

.414 Spleen in relation to other organs

1 Effect on digestion

.416 Function of spleen in disease, in experimental infections

and in wounds

.418 Chemic fenomena

.42 Lymfatic system and lymf

For lymfocytes see 612. 112

.421 Lymf Chemic composition

.422 Quantity and origin of lymf

•423 Lymfatic circulation

1 Thoracic duct

.414 Lymfatic harts

.425 Innervation of lymfatic system

.426 Lymfatic absorption

.427 Lymfatic fistulas

.428 Lymf glands

. 43 Thymus

.44 Thyroid gland

.441 Chemic composition

.442 Parathyroid glands or accessory thyroids

.445 Thyroidectomy Destruction of thyroid

Including pathologic destruction

.448 Effects of thyroid extracts

.45 Suprarenal capsules

.451 Chemic composition

.455 Excision and destruction

.458 Effect of capsular extract

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

612.46 Kidneys Urin

.461 Chemic composition of urin

1 Reaction and physical properties

11 Reaction

1 3 Density

13 Temperature

17 Urinary technology

174 Staining reactions

175 Spectroscopic examinations

176 Polarimetric "

177 Histochemic "

178 Pathologic urinary technology

179 Densimetry and cryoscopy of urin

2 Urea and nitrogen compounds

31 Determination of quantity of urea Ureametere

33 Determination of total nitrogen

23 Excretion and metabolism of nitrogen

331 In relation to alimentation

333 " " " work

334 Effect of chemic substances (poisons)

335 Influence of temperature

336 " " disease

338 " " nervous system

339 " " animal kind

Variability of process in animal kingdom

351 Determination of quantity

354 In animals

355 " normal man

356 " man in disease: uric diathesis
359 " other tissues and fluids than urin

36 Other nitrogen products of urin

363 Ptomains

363 Allantoin

366 Hippuric acid

369 Physiologic albuminuria

37 Coloring matter Pigments: urobilin, urochrome

6 Salin substances in urin

61 Chlorin salts

63 Fosforus and its compounds

63 Sulfur and its compounds

64 Gases of urin

8 Nonnitrogenous organic constituents of normal urin

8a Sugars Physiologic glycosuria

.462 Urinary toxicity

1 Internal secretion of kidneys

,463 Urinary secretion

1 Quantity of urin

2 Elimination of urin

4 Renal circulation

5 Influence of blood and circulation

6 Comparativ secretion of the two kidneys
8 Effect of nervous system

81 Glycosuria, polyuria after lesion of medulla oblongata

medicin: physiology

612.464 Action of poisons on urinary secretion and their elimina-

tion

1 Diuretics Polyuria

2 Toxic albuminurias

3 Elimination of poisons by urin

4 Toxic glycosuria Phlorizin

Sec also 611.46631

.465 Physiologic morfology of kidneys

.466 Pathologic physiology of kidneys and urin

1 Urinary calculi

2 Urin in disease

3i Urin in diabetes Chemistry of glycosuria For physiology ol

diabetes see 612.33216
as Urin in albuminuria Albuminuria in feneral

23 Resection and lesion of kidneys, experimental and pathologic

Ligature of ureter, etc.

26 Urin in fever

6 Abnormal substances in urin

61 Acetonuria Acidosis

62 Chyluria

63 Other abnormal products of metabolism

64 Products of intestinal putrefaction Indican

67 Biliary pigments Choluria

68 Albuminoses and peptones

69 Hematuria and hemoglobinuria

7 Urinary fermentation Putrefaction of urin
.467 Urinary discharge

1 Physiology of bladder, ureters and urethra

1 1 Micturition

2 Absorption in urinary passages

3 Innervation of vesical apparatus

For prostate see 612.617 For action of nervous system on func-
tion of kidneys see 612.4638

.49 Other glands and secretions
.491 Bone marrow

.492 Hypophysis or pituitary gland Somatic brain

.493 Scent glands of animals

.494 Bartholin's glands

495 Carotid gland

499 Other glands

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

2.5 Animal heat

.51 Sources Thermogenesis Calorimetry

.511 Direct calorimetry

6 Calorimetry in disease

.512 Indirect calorimetry

1 Influence of alimentation

3 Effect of respiration

.52 Loss of heat Radiation Thermolysis

Conduction of animal tissues

1 Physiology of clothing

.523 Loss by pulmonary evaporation

.524 " " cutaneous evaporation

•53 Regulation of temperature Heat balance

Thermotaxis

.531 Influence of vasomotors

.532 " " muscular movement

.533 Effect of perspiration

534 " " respiration Thermic polypnea

•535 Thermic centers

.54 Other conditions affecting temperature and ther-
mogenesis

.541 Effect of baths

.543 " " inanition

.544 Effect of poisons

.55 Variations in production and regulation of heat

.556 In disease : fevers

.56 Temperature of body

.563 Thermic topografy

.58 Hibernating animals

.59 Heat and cold; effect on organism

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. 612.59074 Effect on muscles

612.5908 " nervous system

.591 Effect of heat Deth from heat Thermic rigidity

.592 Effect of cold Deth from cold Rigidity from cold

medicin: physiology

Reproduction and generation Development

Spontaneous generation

See origin and beginnings of life, 576 '
Transplantation Animal grafting

May be divided by organs like 611
Cicatrization Regeneration

May be divided by organs; e. g. 613.60344 Regeneration of thyroid

612.60384 " eye

Reproduction of lower organisms

Protozoa, etc.

Asexual: fission, division, gemmation or budding or sprouting
Sexual : conjugation or concrescence

Variations: alternation of generations » »r metagenesis, pedogenesis, partheno-
genesis

Morfogenesis in general Heredity

See 575 Evolution
Heredity

Variation, including artificial

Hybridization

Tumors

Only for physiologic aspect, for pathology see 616.99a
Proportion and determination of sexes

Consanguinity Incest
Hermafroditism

Theory of evolution Natural selection, darwinism

See S7S Evolution

Male functions of generation

For semen see 613.616

Erection

Including also the function in general, in either or both sexes See
also 613.188

Copulation and fecundation

Artificial
Parthenogenesis

Artificial parthenogenesis

Testicles Orchitic fluid Sperm

Effects of castration Resection or injury, experi-
mental or pathologic, of testicles or of sexual glands
in general

Physiology of spermatozoa

Testicles as internal glands Interstitial cells
Appendages of male organs : semenif erous ducts, seminal
vesicles

Female functions of generation Ovulation

Physiology of ovaries

Ablation or injury of ovary, experimental or patho-
logic

Physiology of ovum
Physiology of uterus

Uterin circulation
Innervation of uterus

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.63 Impregnation Pregnancy Parturition

01 Period of pregnane/
03 Ovary in pregnancy Corpus luteum

.64 Development of embryo

For embryology see 61 1.013 ; for abnormal development see 61 1.01 2 Tera-
tology, 617.3 Deformities

.646 Physiology of embryo
.647 " " fetus

.648 " " newborn

649 Appendages of embryo Amniotic fluid

.65 Growth after birth

.651 Metamorfosis of lower animals Larvae

.66 Period of full development

.661 Puberty

.662 Menstruation

.663 Fecundity

.664 Lactation and milk

Physiology of mammary glands

i Physics and chemistry of milk

1 a Sugars

13 Fats Butter

14 Albuminoids

16 Mineral substances

17 Lactic fermentation Milk ferments

171 Milk curdling ferment*- Coagulation of milk

18 Other constituents

181 Abnormal substances

19 Comparison of milk of various animals
191 Human milk

3 Lactic secretion

31 Quantity

33 Formation of sugars

33 " " fats

34 " " albuminoids

35 Colostrum

_j Effect of various agents on secretion

4 Action of poisons on milk secretion and their elim-
ination

5 Physiologic morfology of milk

6 Pathologic changes in lactic secretion

7 Digestion of milk

8 Innervation of mammary glands
.67 Period of decline Deth

.68 Longevity

medicin: physiology

612.7 Motor and vocal apparatus Skin

. 7 1 Protoplasm

.72 Vibratil cilia
.73 Smooth muscle

Divided like 612.74

.74 Striped muscle

Muscle in general, including smooth muscle

741 Muscular contraction

1 Myografy

12 Single contraction of muscle fiber Jerk contraction

ij Tetanic contraction

14 Tonic contraction

x 5 Influence of chemic substances on muscles

16 Myografy in disease

2 Change of volume of muscle

3 Muscle wave

4 Elasticity of muscle

Myotonometry Effect of weight Tension

6 Muscular irritability Influence of blood

61 Circulation in muscles

62 Effect of stimulation
6} " " electricity

7 Latent period

Time e'apsing between moment of stimulation and response by an
activ tissue

8 Muscle murmur

9 Physiologic morfology of muscles

Histologic phenomena of contraction

.742 Muscles after deth Rigor mortis

1 Chemic phenomena after deth: autolysis

.743 Electric phenomena of muscles

.744 Chemistry of muscle

1 Normal composition

ir Carbohydrates

14 Albuminoids

15 Other organic substances

16 Mineral substances

Including water Muscle salts

17 Gases

2 Chemic effects of muscular contraction

3 1 Fatigue

2:1 Ergografy Dynamometry Work in general

32 Consumption of oxygen and production of CO2 in work

23 " Function of carbohydrates

24 Relation of chemic changes to work Metabolism in relation to
work

.745 General effect on organism of muscular contraction or

work

I Dynamic effects

3 Thermic

5 Relations between work and heat

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.746 Pathologic physiology of muscles

1 Contractures

4 Tremors Shuddering

5 Nutrition of muscles Atrofy Degeneration

Regeneration

.75 Bones, joints and connectiv tissues

.751 Chemic composition of bone and connectiv tissue

1 Bone

2 Cartilage

3 Connectiv tissue
.752 Nutrition of bones

•753 Growth, cicatrization and regeneration of bone

.754 Periosteum Perichondrium

.755 Tendons

.76 Locomotion

Principles of animal mechanism; comparativ study of locomotion prefer
ably clast in 591.47

.761 Chronofotografy : technic

.763 Special movements Combined movemeuts

Physiology of violin playing, etc.

.766 Human locomotion

.1 Physiology of exercise and work

2 Rest

.767 Animal locomotion Special organs of locomotion

.768 Flight

.77 Electric and phosphorescent animals

Preferably clast 591.57
.771 Electric animals

.772 Phosphorescent animals

.78 Voice and speech

.781 Sensibility of larynx

.782 Movements and innervation of larynx

1 Influence of spinal accessory nerv

2 Influence of pneumogastric

3 Laryngoscopy

4 Movements of glottis

5 Epiglottis
.783 Artificial larynx

.784 Singing Timbre, quality Voice register

.785 Larynx in deglutition and other laryngeal function^

.786 Organs of sound in lower animals

.f88 Larynx of birds

MEDICIN : PHYSIOLOGY

612.789 Speech Language

1 Function of mouth and nose

a " " lips and soft palate

3 Innervation of organs of speech Aphasia

4 Vowels and consonants

5 Ventriloquism

.79 Skin

.79015 Chemic composition

.791 Absorption

1 Penetration by solids

2 Absorption of fats

3 " " solutions

4 urn iiq U i(j s

5 " " gases

.792 Cutaneous glands and secretion

1 Swet Chemic composition

la Toxic action of swet

4 Action of chemic substances on swet secretion

41 Elimination of poisons by swet

5 Physiologic morfology of swet

6 Pathologic changes of swet

8 Action of nervous system on cutaneous exhalation

9 Other cutaneous secretions
•793 .Cutaneous respiration

4 Effect of suspended transpiration; closing pores by
liniments, etc.

5 Effect of chemic substances on skin

.794 Cutaneous sensibility

' .795 Electric conductibility and resistance of skin

.796 Chromatophores and skin pigments

.798 Trofic nervs of skin

•799 Growth and physiology of nails and hair

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612 .8 Nervous system

.801 Theory cf nervous system and innervation

1 Dynamogenesis and inhibition

2 Action of nervous system on chemic fenoraena

3 Effect on morfogeny and evolution

.81 Peripheral nervous system Nerv fibers
.811 Distinction between sensory and motor nervs

3 Ganglions of sensory nervs

4 Influence of sensibility on movement and of move-
ment on sensibility

.812 Recurrent sensibility

.813 Electric fenomena of nervs and muscles

Muscle-nerv experiments as indicativ of nervous process
For muscle fenomena see 612.743

a Negativ variations

3 Electrotonus

.814 Chemic and thermic fenomena of nervous stimu-
lation

For stimulation of nerv centers see 61 3.822.1

.815 Physiologic morfology of nervous stimulation

1 Sensory terminations

a Motor "

.816 Irritability of nervs and muscles

Nerv-muscle or nerv-gland physiology

i Action of electricity

a Theories of nerv waves

3 Nervous conductibility

4 Effect of blood on nervs Anemia

5 Rapidity of nerv waves

6 Nerv fatigue

7 Action of chemic substances on nervous irritability
.817 Effect of nervs on muscles and glands

1 Chemic substances Curare poisons

a Voluntary contraction

3 Tonicity Atrofy of muscles after cutting nervs,
etc.

.818 Trofic nervs

5 Degeneration, regeneration and cicatrization

I Degeneration a Regeneration 3 Cicatriaation

medicin: physiology

612.819 Special nervs

Whenever possible class according to function rather than according
to a particular nerv, classing here only special nerv physiology

i i st pair: olfactory

a 2d pair: optic

3 3d pair: motoroculi or oculomoto

31 Innervation of iris

32 Innervation of eyelids

33 Innervation of eye muscles

4 4th pair: trochlear or pathetic

5 5th " : trigeminal

52 Sensory action

53 Trofic action

6 6th pair: external oculomoto or abducent

7 7th " : facial

71 Effect on facial muscles

73 " " respiration

74 " " hearing

75 " " deglutition and taste

77 " " salivation Chorda tympani

78 * Pathology Facial paralysis

8 8th pair: auditory

9 9th pair: glossopharyngeal

91 10 th " : p'neumogastric or vagus

911 Effect on hart and circulation

912 Effect on respiration

913 Effect on digestiv organs

915 Effect on kidneys and other glands

917 Effect on voice production

918 Section of vagus and pneumogastric

92 nth pair: spinal accessory
921 Anastomosis with vagus

923 Innervation of respiratory organs

923 Innervation of vocal organs

93 12th pair: hypoglossal

94 Spinal nervs in particular
941 Phrenic nerv

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.82 Nervous centers Brain
.821 Physiologic psychology

Usually better clast in 131 Mental physiology

i Time of reaction to stimulation Psychometry

3 Attention Memory Association Imagination

3 Instinct Intelligence Emotions Sensibility

j 1 Comparativ psychology

311 Nonautomatic actions of animals Anticlisis

]i) Automatic u m m

For physiologic aspect see 612.839

33 Emotions Sensibility

34 Inhibition of movement Will Habit Impulse

35 Associated movements

4 Action of poisons on intelligence

" " 615.9 Toxicology
41 Alkaloids

43 Nonalkaloid anesthetics

44 Alcohol ,

Pathology 6 16.86 r Alcoholism

5 Effect of disease on intelligence

6 Psychic reflexes

7 Sleep Hypnotism

73 Theories of sleep

74 Cerebral circulation in sleep

75 Chemic fenomena of organism in sleep

76 Dreams

8 Sense in general and theories of perception

88 Psychophysical laws

89 Sensory delusions

822 Nerv cells and nerv centers

1 , Chemistry of nervous tissue

Metabolism in nervs

2 Chemic fenomena of nervous excitation

For stimulation of nerv fibers see 612.814 1

3 Electromotiv fenomena of nervous excitation

4 Thermic

5 Physiologic morfology " " "

53 Effects of fatigue

54 * " poisons

56 Degeneration and regeneration of centers

6 Effects of removal and experimental, pathologic or
teratologic lesion of nerv centers

61 Movement in a circle (motus oircularis. manege)

7 Decapitation

8 Action of central nervous system on chemic
fenomena of organism

gi Effect of chemic changes on centers

medicin: physiology

612.823 Weight and general morfology of brain

5 Conduction in centers

.824 Cerebral circulation

I Neurolymf , neurolymfa or cerebrospinal fluid

Meninges Choroid plexus
Brain movements

3 Cerebral vasomotors

4 " anemia

5 Pressure on nerv centers

55 Compression and concussion of brain Abnormal pressure

6 Temperature of blood in nerv centers

Effect of abnormal pressure

.825 Cerebral convolutions (cortex)*

1 Cortical excitability

2 Psychomotiv centers Localizations

23 Inhibitory actions

24 Localization in man
249 Speech Aphasia

25 Localization in animals

26 Topografy of localizations

261 Frontal lobe

262 Occipital "

263 Parietal "

264 Temporal "

265 Central "

266 Olfactory "

3 Cortical epilepsy

5 Sensory functions of convolutions

Convolutions as seat of senses

54 Sight

55 Hearing

56 Smell

57 Taste

58 Muscular sense

5g Touch

8 Intellectual functions

Only for physiology of these functions

.826 Cerebral ganglions, commissures, etc.

1 Optostriate body and callosum

Or optic thalami. striatum and callosum

a Conduction in the brain

3 Crura or cerebral peduncles Epiphysis Infundi

bulum

7 Cerebellar peduncles or prepeduncles

8 Pons

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.827 Cerebellum

.828 Medulla oblongata or postoblongata

.Sag Special physiology of central nervous system of invertebrates

1 Regulating effect of ganglia Circular movements (manege)

t Chain of ganglions Network of nervs, or rete nervosum

j Reflex movement

Locomotion in respect to physiology of nervous system

31 Reflexes proper

3 » Rhythm Refractory period

33 Tonicity Tonic reflex

34 Coordination

.83 Spinal cord or myel
,831 Conduction in the cord

.832 Excitability of cord

.833 Reflex action

Subdivide like 613; e. r. 613.83317 Cardiac reflexes
613.833637 Uterin "
613.83376 Limb reflexes; knee jerk

8 Action of superior nerv centers on reflexes

9 Other phenomena of reflex action

91 Rapidity of reflexes

92 Pathology

93 Effect of anemia

94 Action of poisons on reflexes

95 Rhythm in general
051 Refractory period

96 Coordination

97 Other f enomena

e. g. reflexes according to nature of impulse: fatigue, etc.

.834 Cord as center of innervation

.835 Degeneration and regeneration of cord Atrofies

.84 Physiologic optics Sight

.841 Fibrous tunics of eye

1 Cornea Conjunctiva Anterior chamber

5 Sclera

.842 Vascular tunics , Iris Choroid Ciliary body

1 Iris accommodation Pupillary reflex

11 Pupillometers

2 Action of nervs and nerv centers on pupil

3 Effects of light

4 Action of chemic substances on iris Atropin See 615.784

5 Choroid Eye pigments

6 Ocular circulation Intraocular pressure
3i Ofthahnometers

medicin: physiology

612.843 Optic nerv Retina

1 Physiologic morfology Retinal purple

12 Ofthalmoscope

13 Retinal circulation

14 " purple

15 Physiologic morfology of retina

Blind spot, yellow spot

3 Color sense Chromatic sensibility
301 Theory

6 Miscellaneous theories of color sensation

63 3-color theory (Young-Helmholtz)

64 4-color theories

642 Color-contrast theory (Hering)

647 Zone theories

2 Duplex or duplicity theory (von Kries)

3 Theory of indirect values (Miiller)

31 Color sight

Power to distinguish colors

For color blindness see 612.845s; 617.75

32 Sensitivness to color Color preferences

For pathology of chromatic sensibility see 612.8455

34 Mixture of colors

35 Contrast " "

3501 Theory

16 Miscellaneous theories of color contrast

167 Psychologic theory

Deception of judgment (Helmholtz)
166 Physiologic theory (Hering)

352 Simultaneous contrast

353 Successiv "

4 Entoptic fenomena

Purkinje's figures or images, Sanson's images

5 Persistence of retinal impressions

52 After images or after sensations Successiv images

522 Positiv

523 Negativ or complementary

6 Field of vision Visual acu tenets and sensibility

61 Photometry

Photometric teknic

62 Field of vision

622 Direct vision

623 Indirect vision Perimetry

63 Visual acuteness and sensibility

633 Twilight vision Purkinje fenomenon Purkinje spectrum
Sensibility to contrast

7 Conduction in the brain Perception

71 Histology of fibrillae Center of sight

72 Optic perceptions Localization of image in space

721 Binocular and monocular perception

722 Stereoscopy Binocular fusion and rivalry Pseudo-
scopic vision

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

Perception of distance, size and form

Perception of differences in night of surface. For movement

see 612.8462

Theory

Miscellaneous theories of visual distance
Theory of identical points
" 1 projection

* " distance as an optic sensation

Kinesthetic eye sensations

Accommodation strains
Convergence ■

Parallax

Binocular parallax
Parallax due to hed movements
Associativ aids
Apparent size

" brightness

" rapidity of movement
Linear perspectiv
Haze and other atmosferic effects

Relations among objects in field of vision

Cooperation of other senses

Other

Impression of color suggested by sound, auditus coloratus
Optic illusions

Primary illusions

Illusions of movement
Double images
Geometric illusions

Of distance, size, direction, form etc
Theories of geometric illusions
Miscellaneous theories
Eye-movement theory
Perspectiv "
Dynamic "
Association or confusion theory
Reversible perspectiv
Illusions of extent

Muller-Lyer illusion, etc
Illusions of direction and angles; conrluxion and contrast

Poggendorf , Zollner, twisted cord, etc illusions
Illusions of form
" " area

Apparent size of planets at horizon, etc
Secondary illusions
Mixt illusions
Observations on those born blind
Degenerations of optic nerv and fibrillae

Refractory apparatus Ocular refraction Dioptrics

Crystallin lens
Aqueous humor
Vitreous "

medicin: physiology

612.845 Functional disorders or pathology of sight

point

1 Myopia

2 Hypermetropia

3 Astigmatism

4 Presbyopia

5 Daltonism Color blindness

6 Hemeralopia
.846 Movements of eye

2 Binocular vision Convergence

For perception see 611. 8437*1

3 Action of 3d cranial or oculomoto nerv

4 " ■ 4 th " ■ trochlear
6 " " 6th " " abducent
8 Strabismus Diplopia

.847 Palpebral and lacrimal apparatus

.848 Tests of visual perception

.85 Hearing

.8501 Theory

12 Clasification of sounds

122 Tones 123 Vocables 124 Noises

16 Miscellaneous theories of hearing

l6l Psychologic theories

166 Physiologic "

1 Resonance or simpathetic vibration theory (Helmholtz)

2 Telefone theory (Rutherford, Lipps)

3 Standing wave theory (Ewald, Lehmann)

5 Propeld " " (ter Kuile)

6 Displacement " (Meyer)

.851 External ear: functions

.854 Middle ear

.855 Tympanic membrane or drumhed Tympanum

.856 Eustachian tube

.857 Bones

.853 Internal ear

1 Conduction of sound in internal ear

2 Utricle Saccule

3 Semicircular canals

4 Cochlea Corti's organ or fibers Spiral organ
Basilar membrane

5 Acoustic nerv

6 Endolymf Perilymf

7 Acoustic perception Conduction of acoustic exci-
tation in the brain

71 Auditory acuteness

712 Tonal gaps and ilands

72 Auditory center in brain

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

612.85873 Subjectiv sensations

74 Musical physiology and psychology

Distinction of tones and quality or tone color (timbre)

742 T^nal caracteristics

2 Pitch

3 Loudness, strength or volume

4 Caracter, quality, timbre, tone color or brightness
Clang-tint

743 Analisis of tones

2 Simple tones

3 Compound tones or natural harmonics Clang

32 Overtones

33 Partial tones

4 Combination or Tartini's tones

41 1 st order

412 Difference or differential tone

413 Summational tone

42 Higher orders

744 Consonance and dissonance: intervals

1 Theories of consonance and dissonance

12 Theory of beats (Helmholtz)

13 « « t ona i fusion (Stumpfl

14 Genetic theory (Moore)

745 Melody and rithm

746 Sensitivness to tone Tone preferences

75 Binaural and monaural hearing

751 Localization of sound in space Estimation and effect
of distance

2 Interaural differences of sound intensity

3 Complexity of pitches

4 Movements of hed

76 Sensibility of living beings to sound and vibrations
Otocysts

77 Pathology Defness etc

78 Tests of auditory perception
8 Auditory reflexes

.86 Smel

.861 Organs of smel

.867 Perceptions Conduction in brain

1 Olfactory acuteness

2 " center in brain

3 Subjectiv odor sensations

4 Fusion of odors

7 Pathology

8 Tests of olfactory perception
.87 Taste

.875 Function of lingual nerv

.877 Function of chorda tympani

879 Function of glossopharyngeal nerv

medicin: physiology

612.88 Touch Tactil sense Equilibrium

.881 Notion of space

.882 Sense of temperature

.883 Sense of pressure

Including all related phenomena; e. g. tickling

i Esthesiometers

.884 Sensibility to pain

.885 Muscular sense Power sense

.886 Sense of equilibrium

1 Sense of direction and orientation

2 Seasickness

3 Vertigo

9 Function of special organs

Function of lateral line of fishes and other special organs of lower
animals

.887 Anesthesia, hyperesthesia, synesthesia

.89 Sympathetic nervous system

.8903 Trofic action

.8905 Reflex fenomena

.891 Cervical ganglions and plexus

.892 Thoracic

.893 Abdominal "

.896 Action on eyes; iris

.897 Action on hart

.898 Action on digestiv tract ; alimentary canal

.899 Effect on blood vessels

3<»e also 613.18

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

613 General and Personal Hygiene

Care of Health; Prophylaxis; Individual Health; Laws of Health.

.03, Compends; .03, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias: .04, Ess.iya: .os. Periodicals;

.06, .Societies; .07, Study and Teaching; .078, Sanitary Appliances; .08, Collections;
.09, History. Description, Reports, etc., divided li!:e 930-999,

.1 Air and Light.

For Air Analysis, see 543-71 Air Pollution, 614.7; Ventilation, 638.8.
.11 Climate. Acclimation. See ssi-5, Meteorology; 61S.834, Therapeutics

614.43, Geographic distribution of disease.

.u Health Resorts. Mountain. Sea-shore.

Regions exempt from special diseases.

.13 Seasons. Time of Day.

.14 Malaria. Moisture. Ground Air. See Public Health, 6:4-775. 614. 77j

and 614.773.

.15 Purification of Air.

.16 Special Influences. Ozone, Electricity, etc.

.17 Quantity of Air Necessary.

.19 Sunlight.

.2 Food. Dietetics.

For Food Analysis, see 543.1; Adulterations, 614.31; Digestion and Nutrition.
613.3.

.21 Dietaries.

Including food for special classes of people; literary men, soldiers, etc.

32 Food for Infants.

.33 Food for the Sick.

Including means for giving nutrition, baths, enemata, forced alimentation,
etc.

.24 Fasting. Famine. Starvation.

.25 Excess of Food.

.26 Vegetable Food.

.27 Fruits.

.38 Animal Food. Meats.

.29 Fish, Oysters, etc.

.3 Beverages.

For alcoholic beverages, see 613.81 and 178, Temperance Ethics; Inspection ol
beverages, 614 34.
.31 Water as a Beverage.

.32 Impurities in Water and Ice. See also 638.16 Water supply of towm.

.33 Microscopic Analysis. For Chemical Analysis, see 543-3-

.34 Biologic Analysis.

Water Supply.
.36 Cold Drinks.

tions; 615.79, Therapeutics

.35 Other Beverages.

medicin: hygiene

613.4 Cleanliness of Body. Clothing.

Se^ also 646, Clothing, Toilet, etc.; J91, Customs, Care of Person, Bathing
Toilet. For Therapeutic baths, electric, sulphur, etc., see 61s. 67.

.41 Baths.
.42 Warm.

.43 Cold. For Swimming, see 797-2.

.44 Douche or Shower.

.45 Sea. Salt.

.46 Hot Air. Turkish. Russian. Roman, etc.

.47 Public.

.48 Clothing.

1. Material, wool, cotton, etc.

2. Quantity.

3. Cleanliness.

4. Pressure. Corsets, garters, tight boots, support from hips, etc.

.49 Care of special parts of body.

.5 Human Habitation and Resort.

For Heating, see 697; Ventilation, 628.8; House drainage, 628.6; Sanitation o

towns, 628.4; Industrial sanitation, 628.3.
These subjects, partly Public and partly Private Hygiene, ar (or convenient r

groupt together here.

•Si

Homes.

•5«

Hotels.

■S3

Tenements.

54

Schools. Colleges. See School hygiene, 371-7

•55

Churches, Theaters, Halls, etc.

•56

Hospitals. Asylums.

57

Prisons. Reformatories.

58

59

House Furnishing.

1, Bed and Bedding.

a. Curtains. Tapestries.

3, Carpets. Rugs. Floors.

4, Wall Paper.

9, House Cleaning.

.6 Hygiene of Employment.

For Labor of chil Iren, see 33 1.3 ; Mining darners and Fvcidents, 622.8; see also
Laboring classes, 331.8; Industrial sanita 1 >n, 628.5; Nuisances, 614.7.

.61 Over-hours. Over-work.

.62 By Inhalation ot Vapors and Gases.

Bleachers, match-makers, lard refiners, etc.
.63 By Inhalation of Dust or by Absorption.

Grinders, stone-cutters, millers, wool operativs, hair pickers,
type founders, grocers, etc.
.64 By Elevated, Low, or Variable Temperature.

Bakers, forgemen, mariners, fishermen, farmers, laborers, etc.
65 By Over-use of certain Organs. By Constrained Attitude and

Sedentary Life.

Engravers, public speakers, copyists, printers, salesmen, clerks,
.66 By Accidents. See Public health, 614.8, Protection from accidents.

Machinists, quarrymen, caisson-workers, manufacturers of ex-
plosivs, etc.

.67 Military Hygiene. Barracks, Camp and Tent Life.

.68 Naval Hygiene. Ship Life.

.69 Hygiene of Travel and Exploration.

DECIMAL C GASIFICATION

Hygiene of Recreation and Sleep.

For Curativ gymnastics, see 615.8a, Massage.
Athletics and other Muscular Exercise.

Amusement or Play.

Parks.

Some subjects more properly placed in Public Health, ar groupt here by

attraction.

Rest and Sleep. Late Hours. See 613.86, Insomnia.
Hygiene of Nervous System.

acting on Nervous System; 615.95, Neurotic Poisons.
For Mental overwork, see 131336 Mental hygiene. Sre a1s> 17S Temperance

ages, 614.34.

Other Narcotics.

Late Hours, 613.79.
Luxury. Privation.

Celibacy. Monogamy. Polygamy.

Clergy, 25,5 ; Asceticism, 248.

Hygiene of Offspring. Heredity.

Congenital Defects of Body.

Inherited Mental Disability.

Mental hereditv

Transmitted Disease.

Stirpiculture. Eugenics,

medicin: public helth

614 Public helth

Public hygiene Public sanitation State medicin Preventiv medicin

.02 Compends .03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .04 Essays .05 Periodicals .06 So-
cieties, conventions .07 Education .078 Sanitary appliances .08 Collections .00 His-
tory, description, legislation, reports, etc. Divided like 930-999, e. g. 614.0542
Public helth in England

.1 Registration and vital statistics Sec also 312 Population
. 1 1 Births and birth rates Divided uke 930-999

. 1 2 Deths and deth rates

Divided geograficly like 930-999, e. g. Deth rate in England, 614.1242

.13 Mortality at different ages

For life insurance, life tables, biometry, etc. see Life insurance, *68.j
and Life contingencies, 5i9 S; Longevity, 613.68

.131 Stillbirths

.132 Infant mortality

.133 Mortality in childhood

.135 " " old age

.14 Mortality of sexes, races, etc.

.141 " " the sexes

.142

•i43

.144 " " races: colored, white, Indian, etc.

.145 " " city and country

.147 " from special diseases Causes of deth

.15 Morbidity

.16

. 1 7 Marriage

.2 State control of medicin

.21 Medical education and degrees See 610.7; 378.2 Acade-nic degrees

.22 Anatomy and vivisection laws See 179.4 Ethics

.23 Expert testimony and other medico-legal relations

See 340.6 Medical jurisprudence

.24 Registration of physicians, dentists, pharmacists, etc.

.25 Regulation of medical practis

See 174-2 Professional ethics, physicians

.26 Quackery and malpractis

.27 Nostrums and patent medicins See auo 614.353 Adulterations

.28 Sale of poisons See 615.9 Toxicology

.29 Medical police

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

614.3 Adulterations: inspection of articles liable to affect public
helth Pure food laws

Public analysts State laboratories For cbemic analysis see 543

.3 I Inspection of food For chemic analysis see 543-1; Hygiene 613. 1

.311 Sugars Sirups Confectionery

.312 Cereals Starches Bred

.313 Lards FatS Oils See 614.335-6 Butter, oleomargarln

.314 Spices Condiments

.3 1 5 Yeast Baking powders Cream of tartar

.316 Fresh food Vegetables, fruits

.317 Meats 'Fish (fresh)

.318 Cand or prescrvd food Vegetables, fruits

.319 Meat Fish Oysters (preservd)

.32 Milk and milk products

.322 Milk of known purity

.323 Milk sold to consumer

.324 Cream Skimd milk Condenst milk Buttermilk Kumis"

.325 Butter and its imitations

.326 Oleomargarin

.327 Cheese and its imitations

,33 Other articles of food

.34 Inspection of beverages

For chemic analysis see 543-1; hygiene, 613.3

.341 Fermented

.342 Wine

.343 Brewd

•344 Beer

.345 Distild

.346 Fruit drinks: lemonade, shrub, etc.

.348 Mineral waters Soda water

.349 Mixt drinks

.35 Inspection Of drugs For chemic analysis see 543-4

.351 Officinal or pharmacopeial drugs

.352 Nonofficinal drugs

.354 Cosmetics

.355 Poisonous cosmetics

.36 Inspection of tobacco

.37 Inspection of pigments, wall and other papers, textil

fabrics, toys, etc.

.4 Contagious and infectious diseases: general

.41 Causes and origin

See 585.95 B icteria. microbes; 6i6.or Germ theory of disease

.42 Geografic distribution Climatology

Divided like 930-999

.43 Modes of propagation and communication

medicin: public helth

.45 Isolation, lazarettos, etc.

.46 Quarantine, etc.

.461 Maritime and aeronautic quarantine

.463 Inland quarantine

.463 Control of rags, etc.

.47 Protectiv inoculation

•472 Variolation

473 Vaccination

1 Bovine vaccination

2 Humanized vaccination

3 Vaccinal syphilis

4 Revaccination

5 Vaccinisation

6 Revaccinisation

7 Retrovaccination

8 Compulsory vaccination

9 Optional vaccination
.474 Antivaccination

.477 " hydrophobia Pasteurism

.478 Against other diseases

Divided like 616

.48 Disinfection

Houses, clothing, rags, workshops, cars, ships, camps, air, soil, persons,
sewers, vaults, excreta. Ded, see 614.64 Embalming, etc.

.481 Fumigating and other apparatus

1 Stationary

2 Portable

.482 Disinfectants Antiseptics Deodorizers

6IS.777 and 615.778
.483 Heat
.484 Chemic disinfectants

.485 Carbolic
.486 Salicylic
.487 Chlorids
.488 Copperas
.49 Epidemics Plagues

Divided like 930-999

.5 Contagious and infectious diseases: special

These heds are for public helth discussions only. For treatment, etc. 1M
Pathology, 616

.51 Filth diseases

.511 Typhoid or enteric tever

512 Diftheria

.513 Diarrheal diseases

.514 Cholera

.515 Cholera-infantum

.516 Dysenter

.517 Diarrhea

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

614.52 Exanthemata

.521 Smallpox

.522 Scarlet fever

.523 Measles

.524 Rbtheln, rubella, rubeola

.525 Chickenpox

.526 Typhus

.53 Malarial fevers

.531 Intermittent fever

.532 Remittent fever

.54 Other contagious and infectious diseases

.541 Yellow fever

.542 Phthisis Tuberculosis

•543 Whooping cough

.544 Mumps

.546 Leprosy

.547 Syphilis

.548 Gonorrhea

.55 Parasitic diseases

.56 Diseases communicated from lower animals

.561 Anthrax Charbon

.562 Trichiniasis

.563 Hydrophobia

.564 Glanders

.6 Disposal of the ded

See customs, 39J Treatment of the ded

.61 Burial

.611 Earth burial

.612 Tomb burial

.613 Burials in churches Intramural

.614 Use of coffins

.62 Cremation Crematories

.63 Transportation of the ded

.64 Embalming and disinfection of the ded Use of ice

See 614.48 Disinfection; 615. 777 Disinfectants

.65 Effect of cemeteries on helth

.651 By water pollution

.652 " air •

.68 Morgues

medicin: public helth

614.7 Hygiene of the air and ground Nuisances

See 613. 1 Air (Hygiene) ; 613.6 Hygiene of employment; 628.5 Industrial sanitation

.71 Air pollution by dust and smoke [works

.72 Air pollution by noxious gases, mineral trades, chemic

.721 Carbon compounds

.722 Carbonic oxid, carbonic acid, carburctted hydrogeii

.723 Illuminating gases Gas works

.724 Mineral oil refining

.725 Sulfur compounds

.726 Chlorin "

.727 Nitrogen "

.728 Phosphorus "

.729 Other

.73 Air pollution by vegetable trades

.731 Brewing

.732 Distilling

•733 Vinegar making

.734 Sugar refining

.735 Charcoal burning

.736 Varnish making

.74 Air pollution by animal trades

.741 Slaughterhouses Abattoirs Fish

.742 Rendering works Boneboiling Tripe and gut cleaning

.743 Pork packing Lard refining

.744 Soap making

.745 Tanning

.746 Glue making

.747 Lampblack

.748 Commercial fertilizers

.75 Storage and handling of noxious and offensiv materials

.76 Ocher air pollutions See 628 Sanitary engineering

.761 Stables Stable manure

.762 Hog stys

.763 Offal Ded and diseased animals and fish

.764 Vaults Cesspools Water closets, privies, urinals, night ioil

.765 Sewers and sewer outlets Sewer gas

.77 Conditions of soil as affecting helth

Topografy Sanitary Surveys

.771 Analysis Of SOils See S43.7 Chemistry

.772 Soil moisture

Hygiene of natural water courses and of marshes. See 613.14 Hygiene

773 Ground atmosphere See 613. 14 Hygiene

.774 Solid constituents of soil

.775 Malarious Soils See 613.14 Hygiene .

.776 Recovery of soils from pollution

DECIMAL CLASII'ICATION

614.78 Air and ground in towns

.781 Laying out of towns and streets

.782 Subways and elevated ways See 628.47 sanitation of town*

.783 Parks Air spaces

.784 Hight of bildings and proportion of occupiable area

See 614.85 Bilding laws

.8 Protection of human life from accidents, casualties, etc.

Safety appliances

See 613.66 Hygiene of employment

.81 Drowning

.811 Rescue of the drowning

.812 Resuscitation of the drownd First help Pulmotors

.82 Suffocation

By gases, in vaults, mines, etc,; see also 622.8 Mining dangers. By illumlnat

ing gases

.83 Explosions Machinery inspection

.831 Manufacture, storage and transport of explosivs and
combustibles

.832 Gunpowder

.833 Dynamite, etc.

.834 Inspection of kerosene, etc.

.835 " of illuminating gas

.836 * of electric apparatus

.837 " of steam boilers

.838 " of machinery

.84 Fires

.841 Fire prevention

.842 " detection

.843 " extinction See 352.3 Fire department

.844 Automatic

.84 s Chemic extinguishers

.846 Fire engins Water towers See 621.68 Pumping engine

.847 Fire escapes and other apparatus

.848 " exits, etc from public bildings

.85 Industrial safety Bilding laws and inspection

See 614.784 Hight of bildings

.86 Protection of travelers

.861 Travel on land

.862 " " highways

.864 " " water

865 Lighthouses, buoys, etc.

.866 Pilots

.867 Boats, life preservers, etc.

.868 Rescue of shipwreckt Lifesaving servis

.87 Accidents under other special conditions

Exposure to cold. Hospice of St. Bernard, ski safety, etc.

.88 Aid to injured

.881 Ambulance

.882 Ambulance for contagious diseases s««aUo 614.44

.883 Bed wagon

medicin: therapeutics

614.9 Hygiene of animals Veterinary sanitation

.91 Infectious diseases of domestic animals

.92 Parasites Of animals See 591-69 Economic zoology

.94 Care and housing of animals

.95 Feeding of animals

.96 Transportation of animals

.97 Methods of slaughtering

.971 Painless extinction of animal life

615 Materia medica and therapeutics

.02 Compends .OS Pharmaceutic journals .06 Pharmaceutic societies
.07 Education, schools of pharmacy .09 History

.1 Materia medica Drugs Pharmacology

For examining boards, laws, etc. see 614.24 Registration of pharma i ts. See
also 614.35 Adulteration of drugs; 543-4 Chemic analysis

. 1 1 Pharmacopoeias

. 1 2 Dispensatories

.13 Formularies

.14 Prescription writing Posology

.2 Inorganic and synthetic drugs

Include here synthetic drugs clast according to most imp >rtant inorganic
elements

Divided like 546., e.g. 615.218 Phosphorus; 615.258 Mercury; 615.272 Iron.

.3 Organic drugs

.3 1 Carbon Compounds Divided chemicly like 547

.32 Vegetable products Divided botanicly like 580

.33 Organic products Divided by caracter

1 Starches 2 Sugar 3 Glucosids 4 Tannins 5 Gums 6 Drug

containing alkaloids 7 Bitters 8 Organic acids

.^4 Fixt oils and acids

.35 Ferments: diastase, pepsin, etc.

.36 Organotherapy

.37 Serotherapy Immunology

.39 Animal products Divided zoologically like 590

.4 Practical pharmacy

.5 Therapeutics Action of medicins in general

.51 Certainty of medicins

.52 Antagonism of medicins

.53 Law of similars Homeopathy

Homeopathic works ar clast with the subjects treated. This hed is for
Hahnemann's theory only

.54 Influence of age

Infant therapeutics Therapeutics of old age

.55 Influence of sex

.56 Influence of environment

.57 Influence of idiosyncrasy

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

.61 By stomach

.62 " rectum

.63 " subcutaneous tissue Hypodermic medication

.65 8 veins Transfusion of blood

.66 " serous and mucous membranes Peritoneum, vagina, etc.

.67 8 skin Baths

.7 Medicins groupt by effects

Treatises on specific drugs, digitalis, ergot, etc. ar cla^t ir> tb" iflvWn - mate :
medica, 61S.2-.3: e.g. iron, 61s. 272: digitalis, 615.32381. But discussions uf
drug in relation to a specific type of effect may be clast with that effect: e.g. Li.
talis as a circulatory stimulant 6is.7H

.71 Drugs acting on circulatory system

.711 Stimulants

Alcohol, ammonia, digitalis, coffee, ergot

.716 Depressants

Aconite, veratrum group, nitrites

.72 Drugs acting on respiratory system

.721 Expectorants

.726 Errhines Sneezing

.73 Drugs acting on digestiv system

.731 Emetics

Ipecac, mustard, metallic salts, apomorphin

.732 Cathartics

1 Laxativs 2 Salines 3 Purgativs 4 Hydragog9 5 Drastici

6 Mercurials

.733 Anthelmintics
.734 Aids to digestion

1 Bitters, tonics 2 Ferments, pepsin, pancreatin, etc. 3 Acida

antacids

.735 Demulcents, emollients, etc.

Bismuth, oxalate of cerium, etc.

.74 Drugs acting on glandular system

.741 Sialagogs (Saliva)

.742 Cholagogs (Bile)

.743 Diaphoretics (Perspiration)

Pilocarpin, heat, exercize

.75 Antipyretics Antiperiodics

Quinin, salicylates, coal-tar products, kairin, antipyrin, antifebrin, cold,

.76 Drugs acting on geni to-urinary system

.761 Diuretics

Water, citrates, acetates, digitalis, caffein, copaiba

.766 Uterins Oxytocics

Viburnum, ergot, etc.

medicin: therapeutics

615-77

External agencies

■77*

Irritating

.772

Astringents

•773

Rubefacients

•774

Epispastics Blisters

•775

Escharotics Caustic potassa

.776

Protectiv Emollient

Pats, oils, powders, 6tarch, bismuth, oxid of zinc

•777

T^/a^/l nro trf"c T11 ctn T£»r»T a v\ t-o

See 614.48 Disinfection; 614.64 Disinfection of ded

.77S

Antiseptics Germicides

.78

.781

Anesthetics Chloroform, ether

.782

Hypnotics Chloral, bromids

.783

Analgesics Opium

.784

•7°5

"p^Ypitanfc Strychnin

,0/:
.700

uepressants ionium

,00
.700

.789

utner drugs

Camfor, valerian, asafetida

•79

.8

Other remedies

.81

Mechanical remedies

.811

Bloodletting Venesection Cupping

.812

Setons and issues

.013

"RQTlH^ CPC T .1 (73 "t~11 TPC

.814

Acupuncture

.815

Pneumatic aspiration

.82

Manipulation Exercise

nastics

•83

Imponderable remedies

.831

Light Blue glass

.032

J. tlJlUll d L Lll C . llCct I , LU1U

Q ~ ~
•°33

IVlOlStUTc

•°34

l^llIIldUti ^ ee also 01 3. 1 1 Hygiene

Sir
•°35

Decrease of oxygen and increase of nitrogen with Increasing elevation

.836

Pneumatic differentiation

.837

Music

.84

See alio 537.87 and 631.3915

615.85
.851

.852

.853
.854
•855
.856

.86

•87
.88
.89

•9

.91
.92
.921
.922
•923
•924
•925
.926

•927
.928
.929

•93
•94
•95

.96
.961
.962

•963
.964

•96s
.966
.967
•97

.98
•99

DECIMAL CLAS1FICATI0N

Cures

Mind cure Influence of mind on body

Mental condition as affecting disease; occupation as remedy.

Faith cure Christian science See 2 6s.s Religion

230.9s; sects 280.5

Hydrotherapy Water cure
Food cures: grapes, milk, beef, etc.
Thomsonianism Herb doctors
Perkinism Metallic tractors

Patent medicins

Ancient and medieval remedies

Including those of modern uncivilized peoples

Toxicology Poisons

For other relations see Poisons, in Relativ index following Tables

Irritant poisons
Mineral irritants
Acid poisons
Alkalin poisons
Nonmetallic poisons

Metallic poisons

Copper Se< = also 615.256 Drugs

Vegetable irritants

Hellebore, aloes, croton oil, etc.

Animal poisons

Cantharides, diseased meat, ptomains, tyrotoxlcon, etc.

Neurotic poisons

Cerebral Or narcotic poisons Carbonic oxid and acid
Opium
Prussic acid
Cyanids
Alcohol
Ether

Chloroform
Chloral hydrate

Spinal poisons

Nux vomica, strychnia

Cerebrospinal poisons

Cerebrocardiac poisons

Digitalis, tobacco

medicin: diseases

616 Pathology Diseases Treatment

May be subdivided by o like 610, if wisht. Use 6i6.or for etiology, germ theory,
bacteriology, classification of diseases. Use 616.075 for diagnosis, study of disease,
and subdivide it as follows: 1 Pulse 2 Tung 3 Eye, s' in, etc, 4 Aus-
cultation, percussion 5 Thermometry 6 Chemistry, urin analysis 7 Mi-
croscopy, radioscopy, etc. 8 Pathologic anatomy 9 Postmortem examination

.1 Diseases of circulatory system

.11 Membranes of the hart

.12 Hart Angina pectoris

,13 Arteries

.14 Veins

.15 Blood

.2 Diseases of respiratory system

.201 Croup

.202 Hay asthma, hay fever

.203 Influenza, epidemic catarrh

.205 Coryza, catarrh

.206 Asphyxia

.21 Nose Naso-pharyngeal space

.22 Larynx

.23 Trachea Bronchi Bronchitis Asthma

.24 Lungs

.241 Pneumonia, lung fever

.242 Congestion

.243 Hemorrhage

.244 Abscess

.245 Gangrene

.247 Embolism and aneurism of pulmonary artery

.248 Emphysema

.249 Collapse

.25 Pleura Pleurisy

.3 Diseases of the digestiv system

For diseases of teeth see 617.6

.31 Mouth: tung, fauces Sore throat, quinsy, mumps

.32 Pharynx Esophagus

•33 Stomach Gastritis, dyspepsia, vomiting

.34 Intestins Hernia, diarrhea, constipation, colic

.35 Rectum Anus Piles

.37 Pancreas

.38 Peritoneum Omentum Mesentery Peritonitis

.39 Dietetic diseases

Surfit, starvation, scurvy, dyspepsia

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

616.4 Diseases of lymfatic system and ductless glands

.41 Spleen

.42 Lymf a tics : thoracic duct

.43 Thymus

.44 Thyroid body Goiter, Graves disease

.45 Suprarenal bodies

.5 Dermatology Skin diseases

.51 Inflammatory affections

Diffuse, papular, scaly, nettlerash, hives

.52 Catarrhal, vesicular, pustular Eczema, shingles

.53 Disorders of sebaceous glands

.54 Hypertrofies Atrofies

Corns, warts, white hair, baldness

.55 New formations Pigmentary changes

Albinism, freckles

.56 Disorders of swet glands

■ 57 Parasitic diseases See 616.96 Parasitic disease*

.58 Other skin diseases

Chilblain, frostbite, chaps

.6 Diseases of genito-urinary system

For diseases of women, see 618

.61 Kidneys Ducts Bright's disease

.63 Urinary disorders Diabetes

.64 Male urethra

.65 Prostate

.66 Penis

.67 Scrotum

.68 Spermatic cord Testes

.69 Functional diseases of male generativ organs Sper-
matorrhea, impotence

.7 Diseases of organs of locomotion

.71 Bones (except spine)

.72 Joints (except spine)

.73 Spine Curvature

.74 Muscles

.75 Tendons Fascias

.76 Bursae Sheaths of tendons

.77 Connectiv tissue

.8 Diseases of nervous sistem Psychiatry

.81 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal circulation Apoplexy

.82 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal meninges

.83 Structural diseases of brain and cord

medicin: diseases

616.84 Functional diseases of brain and cord

.841 Vertigo

.842 Paralysis

.843 Neurasthenia Cronic nervous exhaustion

.844 Spinal irritation

.85 Neuroses Psychoneuroses

.851 Chorea

St Vitus dance, Huntington's chorea

.852 Hysteria

Hypochondria, 132.4 Catalepsy,
135. 5 Somnambulism

2 Psychasthenia Obsessional or anxiety neurosis

Obsessions, phobias

3 Dissociation of personality

32 Depersonalization

33 Alteration or transformation of personality

34 Fragmentary personality

Dual, secondary, alternating and multiple personalities

35 Fugues

.853 Epilepsy Narcolepsy

.854 Tetanus Lockjaw

.855 Aphasia Alexia Amusia Agraphia Apraxia etc

.856 Anesthesia Hyperesthesia Hypesthesia Paresthesia

.857 Megrim Sick hedake

.86 Neuroses due to special poisons

.861 Alcoholism

616.80812 Alcoholic dementia

.862 Metallic tremor

.87 Diseases of nervs Neuralgia, cramp

.88 Diseases of simpathetic sistem

.89 Special psychoses and syndromes

.892 General paralysis of insane Dementia paralytica
Paresis

.893 Confusional insanity

Mental confusion: acute and primitiv. Delirium: acute, febri'
collapse, etc. Acute organic reaction types

1 Pathologic intoxication (mania a potu)

2 Delirium tremens

3 Abstinence delirium

4 Traumatic " : immediate, protracted

5 Exhaustion " Exhaustion psychosis

6 Acute hallucinosis

7 " pseudoparanoia

8 Korsakow's psychosis

9 Other

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

616.895 Manic-depressiv insanity

General unsistematized delusions; affectiv reaction types

1 Manic type: mania, expansiv psychosis; euphoria

12 Hypomania 14 Delirious mania

13 Acute mania 15 Cronic "

3 Alternating, periodic or circular type

Circular insanity (folic circulaire) ; insanity of double form;
cyclothymia, variability of mood

4 Depressiv type

Dcpressiv psychosis, pathologic sadness and grief, hypochondria,

42 Simple retardation

43 Acute depression

5 Stuporous type Depressiv stupor

6 Mixt type

62 Manic stupor 65 Depressiv mania

63 Agitated depression 66 Depression with flight

64 Unproductiv mania of ideas

67 Akinetic mania

7 Involution melancholia

.897 Paranoid reaction types

Partial, sistematized; unopposed, polymorfic diffused delusions;
delusional insanity

2 Paranoia

22 Original 25 Latent

23 Acquired 26 Paranoia querulans Querulous

24 Abortiv paranoia

3 Paraphrenia

32 Sistematic 34 Confabulatory

33 Expansiv 35 Fantastic

4 Paranoid states Paranoid constitution

Narcissism

.898 Dementia

Cronic organic reaction types

i Acute or furious dementia Primary dementia

12 Alcoholic dementia

122 Alcoholic deterioration

123 Cronic alcoholism

124 Alcoholic pseudoparesis

125 " epilepsy

126 Cronic hallucinosis

13 Traumatic dementia

132 Traumatic constitution

Vasomotor neurosis, explosiv diathesis

133 Post-traumatic mental enfeeblement

medicin: diseases

616.8982 Dementia precox and schizophrenic reaction types

Neuroepithelial dementia, discordant insanity, secondary or

22 Simple type Schizophrenia simplex

23 Katatonic type Katatonia Katatonic dementia

24 Hebephrenic type Hebephrenia Hebephrenic
dementia

25 Paranoid type Paranoid dementia

26 Mixt type

3 Senile dementia

31 Simple senile 36 Deprest end agitated type
deterioration 37 Senile and cronic pseudo-

32 Presenile dementia paranoid type

33 Senile delirium 38 Arteriosclerotic type

Delirious and con- 382 Post-paralytic dementia

fused types ^ Post . apoplectic «

34 Presbyophrenia 39 Qther

35 Alzheimer's disease

.9 General diseases

.91 Infectious diseases

.911 Eruptiv fevers

.913 Cowpox ,

.92 Other fevers General works on fevers

.921 Dengue, breakbone fever

.923 Plague

.924 Relapsing fever, famin fever

.925 Cerebrospinal fever

.926 Simple continued fever

.927 Enteric fever, typhoid fever Seeais0614.su

.93 Diftheria Cholera Malarial fever

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

6.94 Septic diseases

.941 Phagedena

.942 Erysipelas

.943 Pyemia

.944 Septicemia

.95 Venereal diseases Hydrophobia, etc

.955 Horsepox

.956 Splenic fever

.961 Animal parasites

See 501.69 Economic zoology; 614.92 Parasites of animals

.962 Entozoa

.963 Trematoda, flukes

.964 Cestoda, tapeworms

.965 Nematoda Round worms, thredworms, etc

.966 Acanthocephala, thornheded worms

.967 Insecta parasitica Maggots

.968 Ectozoa

1 Insecta parasitica: mosquitoes, gnats, bedbugs, fleas, nee

5 Arachnida parasitica: mites, tick?

8 Suctoria parasitica, leeches

.969 Vegetable parasites See 581.69 Economic botany

.97 Effects Of poisons See 615 9 toxicology

.98 Effects of injuries and climate

.981 Presence of foren bodies

.982 Mechanical injuries

.983 Excessiv exertion and strain

.984 Excessiv venery

.985 Privation

.986 Exhaustion

.987 Chemic agents

.988 Climate

.99 Other general diseases

.991 Rheumatism, rheumatic fever Gout

.992 Tumors

.993 Nonmalignant: cysts, wens

.994 Malignant: cancer

.995 Tubercle

.996 Scrofula Rickets

.997 Myxedema Cretinism

medicin: surgery

617 Surgery

May be subdivided by like 610, if wiiht

.1 Injuries

. 1 1 Burns and scalds

. 1 2 Lightning and electric shock

.13 Contusions and abrasions

.14 Wounds

.141 Incised

.142 Contused

.143 Lacerated

.144 Punctured

.145 Gunshot See 617.99 Military surgery

.146 With lodgment of foren bodies

.147 With complete separation of parts

.148 Poisond See 615.9 Toxicology

. 1 5 Fractures

.16 Dislocations

. 1 7 Sprains

.18 Asphyxia

.2 Results of injuries

Constitutional effects and other complications . Sea also 616.94 Septic diseases

.21 Shock

.22 Inflammation

.23 Abscess Sinus Fistula

.24 Ulcers Sores

.25 Mortification Gangrene

.26 Traumatic fever

.3 Orthopedic surgery Deformities

For convenience the whole subject of deformities is clast here, tho many 01 them
hav no surgical treatment. See also 573.8 Dwarfs and giants; 573.9 Monstrosi-
ties; 6x1. 013 Teratology; 613.91 Congenital defects

.3 1 Incomplete development or growth

Divided like 6 1 1 Anatomy

.32 Incomplete coalescence of parts: harelip

.33 Coalescence of parts

.'34 Extension of commissure (Apparent duplication)

.35 Coalescence of fetuses Siamese twins

.36 Supernumerary parts or organs: extra fingers or toes

.37 Disproportionate growth of parts

.38 Transposition or displacement of parts

.39 Congenital distortions, including talipes, club foot

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

617.4 Surgical operations

.41 Circulatory system

.42 Respiratory system

.43 Digestiv system

.44 Glandular and lymfatic system

.46 Genito-urinary system

.47 Motor and integumentary system

.48 Nervous system

.5 Regional surgery

.51 Hed Trephining

.52 Face Mouth See 617.6, Dentistry; 617.7, Eye; 617.8, Uv

.53 Neck Throat

.54 Chest

.55 Abdomen

.56 Pelvis

.57 Upper extremities Artificial arms, hands, etc.

.58 Lower extremities Artificial legs, feet, etc.

.6 Dentistry Diseases of teeth

.61 Diseases of dental pulp

.62 Diseases of dentin and cementum

.63 Diseases of dental periosteum

.64 Malposition and malformation of teeth

.65 Odontalgia, toothake

.66 Extraction of teeth

.67 Stopping teeth

.68 Transplanting teeth

.69 Artificial teeth

.7 Ophthalmic surgery Diseases of the eye

.71 Conjunctiva Cornea Sclerotic Ophthalmia

.72 Iris Choroid Ciliary body

.73 Optic nerv Retina

.74 Lens and its capsule Vitreous humor Affections of

the globe Cataract

.75 Disorders of vision

physiology, 612.845

.76 Muscular apparatus Lacrimal apparatus

Strabismus, squint

.77 Eyelids

.78 Orbit and neighboring parts

.79 Artificial eyes

medicin: surgery

617.8

.81

.82
•83
.84

•85
.86

•87
.88
.89
•9

.91
.92

•93
•94
•95
.96

■97
.98

•99

6l8

.1

.11

.12

•13
.14

•IS
.16

•17

.18
.19

Diseases of the ear

Affections of external ear
Auricle

Auditory canal
Affections of middle ear

Membrana tympani

Eustachian tubes

Mastoid cells
Affections of internal ear

Operativ surgery

See 615.781 Anesthetics

Armamentaria Surgical instruments
Orthopedic appliances Splints, trusses, etc.

See 617.3 Orthopedic surgery

Surgical dressings
Amputation Resection
Plastic surgery

Military surgery

Diseases of women and children

Gynecology Diseases of women

Ovary

Fallopian tube
Periuterin diseases
Uterus and cervix
Vagina
Vulva

Functional and symptomatic disorders

Diseases of menstruation Leucorrnea Sterility

Diseases of brest

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

618.2 Obstetrics

.21 Pregnancy Physiology

.22 Diagnosis Signs of pregnancy

.23 Duration

.24 Hygiene Management

.25 Multiple pregnancy : twins, etc.

.3 Pathology of pregnancy

Diseases of pregnancy and their treatment

.31 Ectopic gestation Extra-uterin pregnancy

.32 Pathology of ovum

.33 Deth and retention of fetus

.34 Pathology of fetal appendages

.35 Decidua

.36 Placenta

.37 Amnion

.38 Umbilic cord

.39 Abortion Miscarriage Stillbirth Molar pregnancy

See 173-4 Infanticide; 340.6 Medical jurisprudence; 343 Criminal law

.4 Parturition Labor Physiology

.41 Mechanism of labor

.42 Presentations Positions

.43 Clinic course and phenomena

.44 Conduct of normal labor Management

.5 Pathology of labor

Abnormal labor from faults

.51 of powers Anomalies of expellent forces

.52 of passages Mechanical obstacles to expulsion of fetus

.53 Of Child Abnormalities Of fetUS See 617 3 Deformities

Complications

.54 Hemorrhage

.55 Rupture or laceration of genital tract

.56 Retention of placenta

.57 Inversion of uterus

.58 Prolapsus funis

.59 Other complications

medicin: gynecology

618.6 Puerperal state Physiology

Management, including care of child

.7 Pathology of puerperal state Puerperal diseases

.71 Diseases of lactation: milk fever, mastitis, etc.

.72 Puerperal fever See 614.54s Public heith

. 7 5 Convulsions See 616.845 Eclampsia

.77 Phlebitis Venous thrombosis Phlegmasia dolens

See 616.14 Diseases of veins

.78 Other puerperal affections

.79 Sudden deth after delivery

.8 Obstetric operations

8 1 Application of lever and forceps

.82 Version

.83 Embryotomy

.84 Dilatation of os and cervix

.85 Symphyseotomy

.86 Cssarian section

.87 Removal of placenta

.88 Induction of labor Removal of ovum

.89 Intra-uterin injections Antiseptics in midwifery

.9 Diseases at special developmental periods

.92 Pediatrics Diseases of children

.97 Geriatrics " " old age

619 Comparativ medicin Veterinary

.1 Horses

.2 Cattle

.3 Sheep, goats

.4 Swine

.5 Poultry

.6 Birds

.7 Dogs

.8 Cats

.9 Other

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

620 Engineering

SUMMARY

620.1 Applied mechanics Engineering materials

621 Mechanical engineering

. 1 Steam engineering

. 2 Hydraulic engins or motors

.3 Electric engineering

. 4 Heat, air and gas engins, etc.

.5 Pneumatic machinery Refrigerating machines

.6 Blowing and pumping engins

. 7 Mills Factories Engineering works

.8 Mill work Hoisting and conveying machinery

. 9 Machine tools

622 Mining engineering

623 Military and naval engineering
.8 Naval architecture

624 Bridges and roofs

626 Canal engineering

627 River, harbor and general hydraulic engineering

625 Sanitary engineering

629 Other engineering industries

o 1 Statistics

.02 Quantities and cost

.03 Contracts and specifications

.04 Designs and drawings

.05 Executiv

.06 Working and maintenance

.07 Laws and regulations

.08 Patents

.09 Reports

.1 Applied mechanics Engineering materials

Class here general works on materials with reference to their fitness in engineer-

.11 Strength of materials General theory

General works considering various materials. For particular i.iaterials see
620. 1 2— . 1 9 Provision is made below for classing tests on 2 different bases:
1) by character of test, 2) by material tested. Class under material rather
than under test when the two conflict. See also note under 620.1:2
For theory or mechanics of structures see 624; for theories of construction of
bildings see 690. 1

.111 General

This hed is left for specialists wishing to analyze general works or collect
clippings and notes too limited for . 11 yet not specific enough to be put
with a particular test or material. Libraries are unlikely to need any
genera! hed except 620.11

ENGINEERING

•iia Tests Factors affecting strength

Kinds of tests. Directions for making various tests, laboratory manuals
See note to 620.11
I General: influence of temperature, selection of test pieces, etc.

a Corrosion Wcthcring Protection against deteriorating influences

3 Elastic limit tests: plasticity, fatigue, deformation

d Tension, compression, torsion, flexure, shearing

Class here combined tests as well as general works covering these tests
If wisht, subdivide farther as follows:

41 Tensil tests

42 Compression tests

43 Torsion "

44 Flexure (transverse) tests

45 Shearing tests

46 Repeated stress tests

5 Impact Repeated shock tests

Crystallization and formation of cleavage planes

6 Hardness tests

7 Special tests

Varying for different materials

8 Tests on special shapes and forms
8a Plates and structural shapes

Bars, rods, angles, beams: T, bulb, I, and channel beams

83 Colums, bilt colums Tubes, pipes, cylinders

84 Rollers Spheres, solid or hollow Ball bearings

85 Springs

86 Hooks Chains Hoops Rings

87 Rivets Bolts Screws Nails

Riveted joints of plates

88 Wire Wire rope Cables Hawsers

89 Other forms

9 Other tests

.12 Tests of timber See note to 620. ir

.13 Stone Cement Concrete

.132 Stone

.135 Cement

.136 Concrete

.137 Reinforced concrete

.139 Other: artificial stone

.14 Brick, tile, glass, etc.

See also 666.1 Manufacture of glass, 691.6 Glass as a bilding material

Cement, mortar, plaster of paris, etc. See also bilding materials 691. 5 LimOt
plaster, cement

.17 Iron and steel

.18 Other metals Uze as general number for metals

.19 Other materials

.195 Mineral: asbestos, mineral wool

.196 Asphalt Tar

.197 Vegetable: paper, hemp, etc.

.198 Animal: hair, hide, bone, etc.

.199

.2 Compends Handbooks Kent, Trautwinc

.3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias

.4 Essays

.5 Periodicals

.6 Societies

.7 Study and teaching Instruments

.8 Tables and calculations

.9 History of engineering

DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION

621 Mechanical engineering

May be subdivided like 630.0 and by form numbers

.1 Steam engineering

Subdivide like 620 and 620.0, but use 631. 101 as below. Other generalities ol

steam engineering are in 62 1 . 1 1 and 62 1 . 1 8
.101 Applied thermodynamics

Theory and use of steam in steam engin General energy consideration;
Steam economy
1 General

Expansion, entropy: extension of expansion approaching vacuum (con-
densers) superheating, cylinder condensation, jacketing, etc. For
condensers, superheaters, etc. see 6 2 1 . 197

.11 Mechanism of steam engin Design of engin parts
.111 General

.112 Types of engins : structural

Reciprocating engins in general. Types specified below are all recipro-
cating, except 1 Primitiv and 9 Other

1 Primitiv

21 Single acting

32 Double acting

3 According to transmission of motion

32 Direct connected

33 Indirect: beam connected

4 According to position
42 Horizontal

44 Vertical

45 Oscillating

46 Inclined

5 According to terminal pressure

52 Condensing

In early period called 'low pressure*

53 Noncondensing

In early period called 'high pressure'

6 According to expansion
61 Single expansion

63 Compound

63 Double expansion: cross compound

64 " " tandem "

65 " " angle "

66 Triple expansion

9 Other types

95 Steam turbins

Better clast 621 . 165

96 Rotary engins

Better clast 62 1 . 166

.12 Marine engins

For propulsion see 623.8 Naval architecture

121 General

.122 Types of marine engins

1 Primitiv

Inventions of Papin, Perier, Fulton, Steven*, eM.
a Beam and side lever engins

4 Horizontal, inclined, vertical engins

5 Oscillating

8 Launch engins

9 Other special engins

.J23 Marine steam turbins

STEAM ENGINEERING

621.13 Locomotivs

.131 Theory of the locomotiv

a

j Tests

.132 Types

Variations modifying tractiv force and speed, and affecting more than
1 class of mechanism. For variations in steam apparatus (oil burning
locomotivs, etc.) see 621 . 133 and 621. 134

1 Primitiv forms

t

3 Types according to distribution of wheelbase and load

Exprest by Whyte nomenclature for wheel combinations

S

A Types according to purpose

62 Freight or goods engins Hog engin

63 Yard, switch or shunting engins
65 Passenger engins

67 Mountain "

68 Mining "

69 Other special locomotivs

8 Peculiar types

Combined 'engin and coach wagon'

• Types in different countries

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. English locomotivs 631.13294a

.1^3 Locomotiv boilers Production of steam

Better clast in 621.18423, as boilers of locomotiv type serv many othes
purposes For boiler management see 621 . 194
I Combustion Fuels Petroleum Fuel consumption

• Grate and ashpit Firebox Stays

j Shell and tubes

4 Smokebox and stack Spark arresters

5 Exhaust pipe

6 Dome

9 Miscellaneous fittings

Gage cocks, safety valvs, whistles, pumps, injectors, etc.

.134 Engin of the locomotiv

X Driving mechanism Cylinders, pistons, rods

a Steam distribution Valvs and valv gears

33 Special types of valvs and valv gear
3

4 Compound principle

Distribution in compound locomotivs

5 Lubrication of locomotiv

9 Other parts of locomotiv: throttle, etc.

.135 Running gear
.136 Tenders

1 Design, weight, brakes, etc.

2 Appliances

3 Taking water without stopping; track tanks; water scoope

.139 Miscellaneous parts

Cowcatcher or pilot, hedlight, bell, sandbox

DECIMAL CLASIFI CATION

621.14

.141
.142
•143

.144
.145
.146

•*5

.154

.156

■159
.:6

.161
.162

.163

.164

Selfprope'.ling ingins for hauling over roads or ground, or doing other work
by locomotion. For railway engins see 631.13. For stationary hauling

engins see 621.163

Hauling may be accotnpusht either by engins applying their power
directly and moving with the load, i.e. locomotiv (631.13) over rails; or
traction engins (621 . 14) over ground or roads; or by engins applying their
power indirectly thru cables, etc. and standing in a fixt position either
temporarily (631.15) or permanently (631.16)

Theory General
Structural types
Boilers

Better clast in 631 . 18433 ; 631 . 143 if used is limited to discussion of
those suitable to traction engins

Types Traction engins for special uses
Compressing machines Steam rollers
Agricultural: plows, reapers, etc.

Portable engins

Engins that may be moved from place to place, but that remain in a fixt
position when working. If selfpropelling, the selfpropulsion is incidental.
For fire engins and other pumping engins see 621.64

Theory General
Types, structural, etc.
Boilers

Better claat in 631.18433. If used, limited to discussion ot those suit
able to portable engins

Portable engins for special purposes

ing machinery; 621.68 Fire engins, 627.7 Dredges

Agricultural: threshers, etc.

Semistationary engins
Stationary engins

Various types

Engins fixt in position; e.g. those running factory machinery, cables, ele-
vators, etc. For management see 621 . 193. For boilers see 621 . 18424

Theory and general

Types by use: hauling, dredging, etc.

For pumps see 621 .64. For types clast by engin mechanism see 621 . 164

Stationary boilers

Better clast in 621 . 18434 with only reference here

Types according to characteristics of engin mechanism
or steam distribution

When mechanism and steam distribution conflict, class according to
mechanism; e.g. compound releasing-gear engins 621.1644 rather than
621.1647 Each type may be subdivided like 621.11- e.g. vertical
throttling engins b2i . 1642244
General

Throttling engins

Automatic shaft governor engins

Releasing gear (Corliss) engins Drop cutoff

Single acting engins. Westinghouse or Willans type

Simple engins

Compound engins, triple expansion, etc.

STEAM ENGINEERING

621.165

1

1 1

12

•3

14

»5

2

22

33

24

3

3a

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

.166
.169
.18

.l8l
.182

22
23
24
25
3

4

.183

J.

5

Si

53

5J

SS

S7

6

62

63

64

6s

06

r

77
78

8

82
84

8s

Steam turbins

Theory

Methods of calculation
Vanes and buckets
Guide vanes and nozles
Stresses in rotor or disc
Windage
Types

Velocity turbins
Pressure turbins

Combined velocity and pressure turbins
Construction Details of design

Vanes Buckets
Guide vanes Nozles
Rotor Discs

Valvs, governors, safety devices

Thrust balancing

Mass

Casing, etc.
Bearings, etc.

Rotary engins

Steam generation and transmission

Fuels, furnaces, boilers, piping, power plants
For steam heating see 607. 5

General

Fuels Combustion

Fuels for boiler heating

For fuels in general and fuel analysis see 663.6
Solid fuels: coal, lignite, wood, sawdust, peat
Liquid fuels: tar, petroleum, alcohol

Gaseous fuels: gas from blast furnaces, coke ovens: natural gas
Composit fuels: city refuse, coal dust, trash
Fuel consumption

Practical experiments with a single fuel
Comparativ consumption

Practical experiments with various fuels

Furnace Draft

General

Heating and grate surfaces
Types of furnaces

Furnace parts and construction details

Grates

Stationary grates

Shaking, dumping and step grates
Ashpits Furnace doors
Burners for liquid fuel
Mechanical stokers
With traveling grate

" rocking "

" step grate (Roney grate)

" plunger

" screw
Other appliances

Pulverized fuel appliances

Fuel and ash conveyers Ash removers

Chimneys Stacks Draft appliances

Smoke consumers. For smoke prevention see 621 . 194 1 Firing
Natural draft Dampers Uptakes
Induced draft
Forced draft

DECIMAL CLASIM CATION

62I.184 Boilers For boiler plants see 631.19

1 General

13 Boiler economy Tests Feed water

a Types

a a Marine

33 Locomotiv, traction, portable

34 Stationary

35 Firetube boilers (tubular)
353 Internally fired

353 Externally "

36 Water tube boilers (tubulous)

37 Flash generators Instantaneous vaporizing boilers
5 Boiler construction Setting Parts

5 a Shell Heds Tubesheets Domes Drums
Riveted joints, staying and bracing

53 Tubes Ferules Rings

54 Casing

55 Inspection and cleaning parts: man and hand holes, cleanouts, covers

56 Setting and hanging

57 Foundations: masonry, flues, etc.
7 Boiler accessories

73 Water gages, floaters, gage glasses, warning whistles

73 • Pressure gages, manometers, safety valvs

79 Other: air cocks and blowout valvs, zincs, steam collectors

.185 Steam transmission and distribution Piping

1 General; laws of flow, condensation, friction

3 Connections; mains, auxiliary piping

4 Valvs Stop, safety, reducing Pressure regulators

5 Drains and traps Receivers and distributing valvs

6 Covering Insulators

Nonconductors for high, low and medium temperatures

7 Joints and cements Expansion joints

.19 Steam boiler and power plants Central stations

See also bilding, 697.5 Steam heating; and Boiler, Boik-rs in Relativ index

.191 General

.192 Arrangement and housing of apparatus

5 Provision for enlargement

.193 Care and management of steam apparatus

.194 Boilers

1 Firing

a Feeding

Put here general discussion of feeding and feedwater appliances

For separate description of appliances see 621.197

3 Treatment of feed water: purification, softening

4 Scale prevention Incrustation
7 Inspection Tests Rating

.196 Duration Wear

5 Corrosion

.197 Steam plant accessories Economic appurtenances

a Feedwater appliances

Tanks, heaters, economizers, filters, purifiers, regulators

3 Pumps Injectors Return traps

4 Separators

5 Superheaters

6 Condensers and cooling towerr
63 Surface condensers

63 Jet condensers

64 Cooling towers

*7 Condenser accessories

7 Instruments

Indicators, tachometers, gages, dynamometers, thermomttarm,
pyrometers, lubricators, etc.

ENGINEERING

621.2 Hydraulic engins or motors

Industrial use of water as motiv power, including machines run by watei
under pressure produced by accumulators and also constructions and
appliances for distributing and regulating supply of water to motors
For hydraulic engineering (dam, breakwater, etc.) see 627; for pumps see
631.6; for reservoirs, aqueducts, etc. see 628.1; for theory of mechanics of
liquids see S3 2

.31 Water wheels

Theory, classification, parts (e.g. paddles, vanes, buckets) water gates, cul-
verts

.22 Overshot or bucket wheels Brest wheels

.221 Overshot wheels of low velocity

.223 Overshot wheels of high velocity

.223 Brest wheels Fairbairn wheels

.224 Sluice gate or Sagebien wheels

.23 Undershot or impulse wheels and floating wheels

.231 Ordinary undershot wheels

.232 Wheels with curvd vanes or buckets Pelton wheel

.233 Vertical impulse wheels

.234 Current suspension wheels

.235 Floating wheels

.24 Turbins

.241 General: parts (e.g. distributors, buckets, guide vanes)
regulators

.342 Reaction or pressure turbins

.343 Outward flow

Early forms: Barker's mill

.344 Inward flow

.243 Downward flow

.347 Impulse or Girard turbins

.25 Water pressure engins Accumulators

.252 Hydraulic pumps •

.253 Piping for high pressure

.254 Accumulators

.26 Hydraulic machinery and appliances

For theory see S3 2 . 81

.262 Funicular engins Hydraulic tackle
.263 Hoists Elevators Cranes

Class preferably in 621 .86; i.e. purpose outweighs motiv power
.264 Special handling and lifting machinery for steel works, etc.

.266 Presses Forging and stamping machines
.267 Accessories: injection pumps

.269 Mining, tunneling and other hydraulic appliances

Hydraulic giant, Brandt's hydraulic gun

.27 Hydraulic rams

For theory see physics 532.83

.272 Lifting rams Montgolfier ram. Bolle ram, etc.
.273 Pumping rams Leblanc ram

.274 Compressing rams Sommelier ram

.29 Flood gates Dams Mill sluices Hed and tail races

Adaptation to hydraulic motors. For methods and orinciples of construc-
tion see 627.8 Hydraulic engineering

DECIMAL CLASIFICATION

621.3 Electric engineering

001 Statistics; 002 Quantities and cost; 003 Contracts and specifications;
004 Designs and drawings; 00s Executiv; 006 Working and maintenance;
007 Laws and regulations; 008 Patents; 009 Reports
May also be subdivided for form with o like 620.1-.9

SUMMARY
611.31-7 Hevy current engineering

.31 Generation of electricity

.311 General

.312 Central stations

.313 Dynamoelectric machinery

.314 Stationary induction apparatus

.3 IS Electrostatic apparatus

.316 Accessories and parts

.317 Control and central station wiring

•3 J 9 Transmission

.32 Electric lighting

•33 Electric traction

.35 Voltaic cells and batteries

36

.37 Electric measurements and testing
.38 Weak current engineering

.382 Telegrafy

.384 Wireless communication

.385 Telefony .388 Transmission of images

■39 Other applications of electricity

621.31-.37 Hevy current engineering

.31 Generation of electricity Dynamoelectric machinery

Transformers Transmission
.311 General

.312 Central stations: metropolitan, rural

Divided by 001-009 like 621.3 with the following additions to 006
006 Working and maintenance

4 Operation and running

5 Regulation and control

7 Repairs and renewal

Administrativ point of view; a specific repair belongs with
the part repaird

8 Testing

13 General central stations

Combined power, traction, light, etc. stations

132 Steam driven

133 Gas

134 Hydraulic

135 Composit

a Stations for lighting only

Divided by source of power like 621.31213

3 Stations for tractiononly

Divided like 621.31 213

5 Storage battery pressure regulating equipment

6 Substations

63 Transformer substations

64 Converter *
6s Accumulator *

ENGINEERING

621.313 Dynamoelectric machinery

1 General; construction, installation

2 Direct or continuous current machinery

2 1 Theory

22 General types

23 Continuous-current gen```